Chapter 23

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1

1.)Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.
2.) Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs into simpler units.
3.) Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.
4.) Process by which simpler chemical units pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.

1.) C

2.) A

3.) B

4.) D

2

1.)Increases output of enzymatic-rich pancreatic juice.
2.) Increases output of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions.
3.) Increases HCl secretion and stimulates contraction of intestinal muscle.
4.) Stimulates insulin release and mildly inhibits HCl production.

1.) B

2.) A

3.) C

4.) D

3

true or false:
The relatively unchanging pressure in a filling stomach is due to the contraction of the stomach oblique muscle layer.

False

4

True or False:

The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine.

True

5

True or false:

Gastric accommodation is an example of smooth muscle plasticity.

True

6

True or false:

All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels

True

7

True or false:

The only essential function of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.

False

8

True or False:

The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body

True

9

True or False:

Peyer's patches are found in the submucosa of the distal end of the small intestine

True

10

True or False:

The major means of propulsion through the alimentary canal is peristalsis

True

11

True or false:

The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile

True

12

True or False:

The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function

True

13

True or False:

The intrinsic ability of visceral smooth muscle to exhibit the stress-relaxation response is termed plasticity.

True

14

True or False:

Most nutrients are absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villi by active transport

True

15

True or False:

Ionic iron is actively transported into the mucosal cells, where it binds to the protein ferritin, a phenomenon called the mucosal iron barrier

True

16

True or false:

Most gastric ulcers are due to excessive production of hydrochloric acid

False

17

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
A) in the oral cavity
B) in the walls of the tract organs
C) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen
D) in the pons and medulla

B

18

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
A) absorption

B) mechanical digestion

C) chemical digestion

D) secretion

C

19

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
A) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa

B) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

C) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa

D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

D

20

What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?

A) pulp B) cementum C) enamel D) crown

C

21

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

A) lamina propria

B) adventitia

C) serosa

D) submucosa

A

22

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.

A) Bile functions to emulsify fats.

B) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

C) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs. D) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.

B

23

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
A) the rugae and haustra

B) the vast array of digestive enzymes

C) plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli D) Brunner's glands and Peyer Patches

C

24

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.

B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.

C) There are 32 primary teeth, and by 36 months of age, most children have all 32.

D) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20

D

25

Which of the following is not true of saliva?

A) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

B) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

C) cleanses the mouth

D) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus

A

26

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?

A) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells

B) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells

C) parietal cells and glial cells

D) serous cells and mucous cells

D

27

Chyme is created in the ________.

A) mouth B) small intestine C) esophagus D) stomach

D

28

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
A) mucous neck cells

B) enteroendocrine cells

C) zymogenic cells

D) parietal cells

B

29

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________. A) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients

B) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

C) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

D) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time

C

30

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
A) A

B) M

C) E

D) D

A

31

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?

A) Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.

B) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

C) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive upset.

D) The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food. Answer: B

B

32

Select the correct statement about absorption.

A) Amino acid transport is linked to chloride transport.

B) Eighty percent of ingested materials have been absorbed by the end of the large intestine.

C) Carbohydrates diffuse across the villus epithelium and are then actively transported into blood capillaries.

D) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

D

33

Select the correct statement about digestive processes.

A) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

B) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.

C) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.
D) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.

A

34

Paneth cells ________.

A) secrete digestive enzymes

B) secrete bicarbonate ions

C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

D) secrete hormones

C

35

Which of the following isnot characteristic of the large intestine? It ________. A) does not contain villi

B) is longer than the small intestine

C) has pocket-like sacs called haustra

D) exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli

B

36

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

A) trypsin

B) dextrinase

C) lipase

D) amylase

A

37

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?

A) circumvallate and filiform

B) palatine and circumvallate

C) fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform

D) fungiform and circumvallate

D

38

The function of goblet cells is to ________.

A) provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food

B) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use

C) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral

D) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

D

39

The lamina propria is composed of ________.

A) loose connective tissue

B) dense regular connective tissue

C) reticular connective tissue

D) dense irregular connective tissue

A

40

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

A) starches

B) carbohydrates

C) proteins

D) lipids

D

41

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
94)
A) muscularis externa

B) submucosa

C) serosa

D) mucosa

C

42

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

A) C

B) B12

C) K

D) A

B

43

Hepatocytes do not ________.

A) detoxify toxic chemicals

B) process nutrients

C) produce digestive enzymes

D) store fat-soluble vitamins

C

44

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

A) lipase B) pepsin C) rennin D) cholecystokinin

A

45

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.
A) bile canaliculus

B) pancreatic acini

C) portal vein

D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

D