The splitting of molecules into smaller components is referred to as:
Which of the following statements concerning anabolic reactions is FALSE?
they may split complex molecules into their components
Aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation:
release free energy.
Cellular respiration is most accurately described as a(n) __________ process.
Select the anaerobic pathway.
The overall reaction for the aerobic respiration of glucose is summarized as:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Energy.
In aerobic respiration, glucose is completely
oxidized to carbon dioxide
Aerobic respiration is classified as:
a redox process
The transfer of electrons from glucose to oxygen during aerobic respiration takes place in a stepwise fashion through a number of intermediates rather than by direct transfer. This is because:
the energy of the electrons can be used to make ATP
In aerobic respiration, the electrons associated with the hydrogen atoms in glucose are ultimately transferred to:
oxygen in a series of steps.
Which of the following is not one of the four stages of the aerobic respiration of glucose?
If conditions are aerobic, pyruvate flows directly into the __________ where some of its atoms are converted next to __________.
mitochondia; acetyl coenzyme A
Which of the following is an end product of glycolysis?
Which process does not match the location in a typical eukaryotic cell?
In eukaryotes, glycolysis occurs in the:
During chemiosmosis, __________ are transferred from NADH and FADH2to electron acceptor molecules, and the energy released is used to create a(n) __________ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Which of the following statements concerning decarboxylation reactions is FALSE?
they involve the removal of two protons and two electrons
In glycolysis, a six-carbon glucose molecule is converted to two three-carbon molecules of:
Glycolysis yields a net energy profit of __________ ATP molecules per molecule of glucose.
The chemical reaction illustrated in the figure is:
the first step in the citric acid cycle.
Considering only glycolysis and the conversion of pyruvate molecules to acetyl CoA molecules, how many NADH molecules will be produced from one glucose molecule?
One product of the initial (first) reaction of the citric acid cycle is:
During the citric acid cycle, each acetyl group entering the cycle yields:
1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2.
In the citric acid cycle, two acetyl CoA molecules are metabolized to:
4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP.
A glucose molecule that is metabolized via aerobic respiration has been completely broken down and released as CO2 by the end of:
the citric acid cycle.
In the electron transport chain, exergonic redox processes drive the endergonic reaction in which:
ATP is produced by phosphorylation of ADP
The role of the oxygen molecules required for aerobic respiration is:
to accept the low energy electrons at the end of the electron transport chain.
During aerobic respiration, oxygen is:
A drowning death would be most directly due to:
The lack of oxygen to accept hydrogen.
Organismal body heat is a:
by product of exergonic reactions
Peter Mitchell demonstrated ATP production by aerobic bacteria by placing the bacteria in:
an acidic environment.
Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain is true?
the proton gradient established during electron transport is a form of potential energy
When hydrogen ions (protons) are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane, they form a proton gradient. ATP is then formed by a process known as:
In chemiosmosis, ATP is produced as hydrogen ions (protons) pass through:
Select the processes that are matched with the incorrect amount of ATP produced by that process per glucose molecule.
citric acid cycle-4 ATP
When one molecule of glucose is completely oxidized in aerobic respiration, the net amount of ATP produced is:
36 to 38.
In the skeletal muscle cells of vertebrates, as many as __________ molecules of ATP are produced from one molecule of glucose. This is less than might be expected, because electrons from NADH produced during glycolysis must be shuttled through the ____________ membrane at a cost.
One important regulation point in the aerobic respiration of mammals occurs in glycolysis at the site of the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which is:
inhibited by high levels of ATP
Deamination of amino acids in mammals yields amino groups that are converted to __________, which is(are) excreted, and __________, which is(are) converted to one of the reactants of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.
urea; carbon chains
One gram of __________ contains more than twice the amount of energy of a gram of glucose.
Which of the following molecules can provide energy through cellular respiration?
glucose, lipids and proteins
Saturated fatty acids store more energy than unsaturated fatty acids. Based on your knowledge of aerobic respiration, you draw this conclusion because saturated fatty acids:
are more highly reduced.
Anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiration in that anaerobic respiration:
can utilize NO3 - as the terminal electron acceptor.
The production of alcohol or lactate from pyruvate during __________ occurs as a means of regenerating __________ from __________.
fermentation, NAD, from NADH
During fermentation, the immediate fate of the electrons in NADH is that they:
are transferred to an organic molecule.
Select the molecule that contains the most stored chemical energy:
Select the molecule that contains the least stored chemical energy:
The ability of some bacteria to produce lactate is exploited by humans to make:
yogurt and sauerkraut.
Which of the following statements is not correct about lactic acid fermentation?
oxygen is the final electron acceptor of this pathway