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1

1) Which of the following could occur only after plants moved from the oceans to land?

  1. A) Animals could also move onto land because there were opportunities for new food sources.
  2. B) Animals could also move onto land because they had easier access to nitrogen.
  3. C) Cyanobacteria could also move onto land because their host plants occurred there.

D) Plants in the oceans were able to evolve forms that lived in much deeper parts of the oceans.

A

2

According to the fossil record, plants colonized terrestrial habitats ________.

  1. A) in conjunction with insects that pollinated them
  2. B) in conjunction with fungi that helped provide them with nutrients from the soil
  3. C) to escape abundant herbivores in the oceans

D) only about 150 million years ago

b

3

The most direct ancestors of land plants were probably ________.

  1. A) kelp (brown alga) that formed large beds near the shorelines
  2. B) green algae
  3. C) photosynthesizing prokaryotes (cyanobacteria)
  4. D) liverworts and mosses

b

4

About 450 million years ago, the terrestrial landscape on Earth would have ________.

  1. A) looked very similar to that of today, with flowers, grasses, shrubs, and trees
  2. B) been completely bare rock, with little pools that contained cyanobacteria and protists
  3. C) been covered with tall forests in swamps that would become today's coal
  4. D) had non-vascular, green plants similar to liverworts forming green mats on rock

d

5

What evidence do paleobotanists look for that indicates the movement of plants from water to land?

  1. A) waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves
  2. B) loss of structures that produce spores
  3. C) sporopollenin to inhibit evaporation from leaves
  4. D) remnants of chloroplasts from photosynthesizing cells

a

6

Which of these events, based on plant fossils, came last (most recently)?

  1. A) extensive growth of gymnosperm forests
  2. B) colonization of land by early liverworts and mosses
  3. C) rise and diversification of angiosperms
  4. D) carboniferous swamps with giant horsetails and lycophytes

c

7

Why have biologists hypothesized that the first land plants had a low, sprawling growth habit?

  1. A) They were tied to the water for reproduction, thus needing to remain in close contact with the moist soil.
  2. B) The ancestors of land plants, green algae, lacked the structural support to stand erect in air.
  3. C) Land animals of that period were small and could not pollinate tall plants.

D) There was less competition for space, so they simply spread out flat.

b

8

Spores and seeds have basically the same function—dispersal—but are vastly different because spores ________.

  1. A) have a protective outer covering; seeds do not
  2. B) have an embryo; seeds do not
  3. C) have stored nutrition; seeds do not

D) are unicellular; seeds are not

d

9

You find a green organism in a pond near your house and believe it is a plant, not an alga. The mystery organism is most likely a plant and not an alga if it ________.

  1. A) contains chloroplasts
  2. B) is surrounded by a cuticle
  3. C) does not contain vascular tissue
  4. D) has cell walls that are comprised largely of cellulose

b

10

10) Retaining the zygote on the living gametophyte of land plants ________.

  1. A) protects the zygote from herbivores
  2. B) evolved concurrently with pollen
  3. C) helps in dispersal of the zygote
  4. D) allows it to be nourished by the parent plant

d

11

The structural integrity of bacteria is to peptidoglycan as the structural integrity of plant spores is to ________.

  1. A) lignin
  2. B) cellulose
  3. C) secondary compounds
  4. D) sporopollenin

d

12

12) According to our current knowledge of plant evolution, which group of organisms should feature cell division most similar to that of land plants?

  1. A) some unicellular green algae
  2. B) some cyanobacteria
  3. C) some charophytes

D) some red algae

c

13

Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?

  1. A) Plantae
  2. B) Pterophyta
  3. C) Bryophyta
  4. D) Charophycea

a

14

14) If the kingdom Plantae is someday expanded to include the charophytes (stoneworts), then the shared derived characteristics of the kingdom will include ________.

  1. A) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes and ability to synthesize sporopollenin
  2. B) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, chlorophylls a and b, and alternation of generations
  3. C) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, alternation of generations, and ability to synthesize sporopollenin
  4. D) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, chlorophylls a and b, cell walls of cellulose, and ability to synthesize sporopollenin

a

15

Which of the following environmental factors probably helped early plants to successfully colonize land?

c

16

16) A student encounters a pondweed that appears to be a charophyte. Which of the following features would help the student determine whether the sample comes from a charophyte or from some other type of green alga?

  1. A) molecular structure of enzymes inside the chloroplasts and presence of phragmoplasts
  2. B) molecular structure of enzymes inside the chloroplasts and rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes
  3. C) structure of sperm cells and presence of phragmoplasts
  4. D) structure of sperm cells, presence of phragmoplasts, and rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes

d

17

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure, which number represents the mature gametophyte?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 11

c

18

18) The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure, which number represents an embryo?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 11

d

19

19) The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure, meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s)?

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 2 and 8
  4. D) 10 and 12

b

20

20) The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

Which number represents a megaspore mother cell in the figure?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 5
  4. D) 7

b

21

21) The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure, the process labeled "6" involves ________.

  1. A) mitosis
  2. B) meiosis
  3. C) fertilization
  4. D) binary fission

a

22

The fact that both charophytes and green plants contain chlorophylls a and b demonstrates which of the following?

  1. A) These derived traits show that green plants evolved from ancient charophytes.
  2. B) These shared traits show that green plants evolved from present-day charophytes.
  3. C) The common ancestor of these two groups contained chlorophylls a and b.
  4. D) These two groups are not closely related.

c

23

Which of the following statements about the transition from ocean to land by plants is most likely to be accurate?

  1. A) The transition to land occurred within a few generations.
  2. B) The transition to land was likely gradual, with plants evolving traits that let them survive ever-drier conditions.
  3. C) Rising sea levels favored individuals that were able to survive ever-drier conditions.
  4. D) The high light levels of terrestrial systems favored individuals that contained flexible photosynthetic enzyme systems.

b

24

24) Which of the following statements about the zygotes of plants is most likely to be accurate?

  1. A) Protection of the zygote from the drying effects of air was important.
  2. B) Protection of the zygote from competitors for light was more important in air than in water.
  3. C) Zygotes in plants are more independent of parental tissue than are algal zygotes.
  4. D) Zygotes in plants are more likely to germinate quickly after release from the parent plant than are zygotes released from algal organisms.

a

25

25) If animals had alternation of generations like plants, ________.

  1. A) they would have twice as rapid a population growth rate as compared to their current rates
  2. B) the products of mitosis would undergo meiosis
  3. C) the products of meiosis would immediately fuse to form a zygote and then undergo mitosis
  4. D) the products of meiosis would undergo mitosis and become multicellular

d

26

26) Apical meristems ________.

  1. A) occur only in shoots of plants
  2. B) occur only in roots of plants
  3. C) occur in both roots and shoots of plants
  4. D) allow plants to move from one place to another

c

27

27) Which of the following statements about stomata is accurate?

  1. A) Stomata are not important in algae because they do not need CO2.
  2. B) Stomata, when closed, allow CO2to diffuse into plants.
  3. C) Stomata are important in terrestrial plants because they allow the roots to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
  4. D) Stomata are important in terrestrial plants because they allow CO2to diffuse into the plant.

Answer: D

d

28

28) The presence of vascular tissue allowed plants to ________.

  1. A) absorb nutrients from the soil and form a symbiosis with fungi
  2. B) transport nutrients and water from below-ground tissues to above-ground tissues and grow taller
  3. C) transport nutrients and water from below-ground tissues and use them to protect developing embryos
  4. D) release toxins into the soil that reduced competition with other plants by poisoning nearby plants

b

29

29) Bryophytes (non-vascular plants) ________.

  1. A) are more similar to ancestral green algae than are vascular plants
  2. B) are more similar to ancestral red algae than are vascular plants
  3. C) can be included in the grade monilophyte because they do not have a complex vascular system
  4. D) are evolutionarily more advanced than seed plants

a

30

30) Grades, as opposed to clades, ________.

  1. A) indicate degrees of evolutionary relatedness
  2. B) show relatedness among living organisms
  3. C) are almost always monophyletic

D) represent groups with similar traits

d

31

) Stomata ________.

  1. A) occur in all land plants and define them as a monophyletic group
  2. B) open to allow gas exchange and close to decrease water loss
  3. C) occur in all land plants and are the same as pores
  4. D) open to increase both water absorption and gas exchange

b

32

32) Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are grouped together as bryophytes. Besides not having vascular tissue, what do they all have in common?

  1. A) They are all wind pollinated.
  2. B) They are heterosporous.
  3. C) They can reproduce asexually by producing gemmae.
  4. D) They require water for reproduction.

d

33

33) Most moss gametophytes do not have a cuticle and are 1-2 cells thick. What does this imply about moss gametophytes and their structure?

  1. A) They use stomata for gas exchange regulation.
  2. B) They can easily lose water to, and absorb water from, the atmosphere.
  3. C) Photosynthesis occurs throughout the entire gametophyte surface.

D) They have branching veins in their leaves.

b

34

34) As you stroll through a moist forest, you are most likely to see a ________.

  1. A) zygote of a green alga
  2. B) gametophyte of a moss
  3. C) sporophyte of a liverwort
  4. D) gametophyte of a fern

b

35

35) Which of these are spore-producing structures?

  1. A) sporophyte (capsule) of a moss
  2. B) antheridium of a moss or fern
  3. C) archegonium of a moss or fern
  4. D) gametophyte of a moss

a

36

36) What is an accurate statement about the genus Sphagnum?

  1. A) It is an economically important liverwort.
  2. B) It grows in extensive mats in grassland areas.
  3. C) It accumulates to form coal and is burned as a fuel.
  4. D) It represents a large repository of CO2that is likely to be released with global warming.

d

37

37) How are bryophytes and seedless vascular plants alike?

  1. A) Plants in both groups have vascular tissue.
  2. B) In both groups, sperm swim from antheridia to archegonia.
  3. C) The dominant generation in both groups is the sporophyte.
  4. D) Plants in both groups have true roots, stems, and leaves.

b

38

38) In general, liverworts have a cuticle and pores. However, some species do not have pores. What would you predict concerning the cuticle of these species and why?

  1. A) The cuticle would be the same thickness as in those species with pores.
  2. B) The cuticle would be thicker than in those species with pores.
  3. C) The cuticle would be thinner than in those species with pores.
  4. D) The cuticle would be thick in some places and thin in other places.

c

39

39) Archegonia ________.

  1. A) are the sites where male gametes are produced
  2. B) may contain sporophyte embryos
  3. C) have the same function as sporangia

D) make asexual reproductive structures

b

40

40) Which of the following is an accurate statement about plant reproduction?

  1. A) Embryophytes are small plants in an early developmental stage.
  2. B) Male and female bryophytes each produce a type of gametangia.
  3. C) Eggs and sperm of most land plants swim toward one another.
  4. D) Bryophytes are limited to asexual reproduction.

b

41

41) Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, which of the following sequences describes structures from largest to smallest?

  1. A) gametes, gametophytes, antheridia
  2. B) gametes, antheridia, gametophytes
  3. C) gametophytes, gametes, antheridia

D) gametophytes, antheridia, gametes

d

42

42) Which of the following statements is accurate with regard to the life cycle of mosses?

  1. A) The haploid generation grows on the sporophyte generation.
  2. B) Spores are primarily distributed by water currents.
  3. C) Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.

D) The sporophyte generation is dominant

c

43

43) At some time during their life cycles, bryophytes make ________.

  1. A) microphylls
  2. B) true roots
  3. C) true leaves
  4. D) sporangia

d

44

44) Two small, poorly drained lakes lie close to each other in a northern forest. The basins of both lakes are composed of the same geologic substratum. One lake is surrounded by a dense Sphagnum mat; the other is not. Compared to the pond with Sphagnum, the pond lacking the moss mat should have ________.

  1. A) lower numbers of bacteria
  2. B) reduced rates of decomposition
  3. C) reduced oxygen content

D) water with a higher pH

d

45

45) The 1-meter height attainable by Dawsonia moss is at the upper end of the size range reached by mosses. What accounts for the relative tallness of Dawsonia?

  1. A) the cuticle that is found along the ridges of "leaves"
  2. B) "leaves" that are more than one cell layer thick
  3. C) reduced size, mass, and persistence of the sporophytes, which allows gametophores to grow taller
  4. D) the presence of conducting tissues in the "stem"

d

46

46) The haploid gametophytes of bryophytes are ________.

  1. A) multicellular, just like the haploid stages of animal species
  2. B) multicellular and produce zygotes
  3. C) usually composed of single cells, just like the gametes of mammals
  4. D) usually multicellular, but one cell thick

d

47

47) If bryophytes do not have vascular tissue, how can some mosses reach 60 centimeters tall?

  1. A) The term nonvascular plant is actually a misnomer.
  2. B) These tall mosses are more closely related to seed plants than to other mosses.
  3. C) Some mosses independently evolved conducting tissues.

D) The rhizoids contain the conducting tissues.

c

48

48) If you were asked to design a bryophyte that could be successful in a bare, moist area, which of the following possible adaptations would you include?

  1. A) a symbiosis with phosphorus-absorbing mycorrhizae fungi
  2. B) a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria
  3. C) a symbiosis with iron-absorbing algae
  4. D) a symbiosis with toxin-producing dinoflagellates

b

49

49) Moss sporophytes are typically green when young, but turn brown when ready to release their spores. This observation would lead you to think that the ________.

  1. A) sporophyte photosynthesizes when young and contributes energy for spore production
  2. B) sporophyte photosynthesizes at all ages—it just uses different wavelengths for photosynthesis at different ages
  3. C) gametophyte cannot photosynthesize

D) cuticle rubs off of older sporophytes and exposes the color that is underneath

a

50

50) Assuming equal spore production rates, what is the likely consequence in a bryophyte with both asexual and sexual reproduction versus one with only sexual reproduction?

  1. A) Species with both types of reproduction have higher rates of genetic diversity than species with only sexual reproduction.
  2. B) Species with both types of reproduction have higher population growth rates than species with only sexual reproduction.
  3. C) Species with both types of reproduction are less evolutionarily advanced than species with only sexual reproduction.
  4. D) Species with both types of reproduction occur primarily in dry environments.

Answer: B

b

51

51) Use the figure to answer the following question.

Bowden showed that the presence of moss reduced nitrogen loss from soil. Which of the following questions would be the best follow-up study?

  1. A) Do new species colonize areas with a pH of 3 more rapidly or more slowly than areas with a pH of 7?
  2. B) Do new species colonize areas with added iron more rapidly or more slowly than areas without added iron?
  3. C) Do new species colonize areas with moss more rapidly or more slowly than areas without moss?
  4. D) Do new species colonize areas with added phosphorus more rapidly or more slowly than areas without added phosphorus?

c

52

52) Breeuwer et al. (2008) measured the effect of different temperature regimes on the growth of different Sphagnum species. The growth of S. fuscum at four temperatures is shown. Use the information in the graph to answer the following question.

Which of the following statements accurately reflects the effect of temperature on the growth of S. fuscum?

  1. A) fuscum grows higher at warmer temperatures.
  2. B) fuscum grows less at cooler and warmer temperatures than at moderate temperatures.
  3. C) fuscum grows less at warmer temperatures.
  4. D) fuscum would grow higher at 29°C.

a

53

53) Breeuwer et al. (2008) measured the effect of different temperature regimes on the growth of different Sphagnum species. The growth of S. fuscum at four temperatures is shown. Use the information in the graph to answer the following question.

What would you expect to happen to the geographic range of S. fuscum as the temperature of Earth warms?

  1. A) The geographic range of fuscum will extend southward.
  2. B) The geographic range of fuscum will extend northward.
  3. C) The geographic range of fuscum will not change.
  4. D) The geographic range of fuscum will contract at both the northern and southern ends.

b

54

54) Breeuwer et al. (2008) measured the effect of different temperature regimes on the growth of different Sphagnum species. The growth of S. fuscum at four temperatures is shown. Use the information in the graph to answer the following question.

Based on the data shown, what additional conclusions can you draw?

  1. A) With warmer temperatures, fuscum will be a better competitor.
  2. B) With warmer temperatures, decomposition rates will be higher.
  3. C) With warmer temperatures, decomposition rates will be lower.
  4. D) No additional conclusions can be drawn from these data.

Answer: D

d

55

55) Which set contains the most closely related terms?

  1. A) megasporangium, megaspore, pollen, ovule
  2. B) microsporangium, microspore, egg, ovary
  3. C) megasporangium, megaspore, egg, ovule
  4. D) microsporangium, microspore, carpel, ovary

c

56

56) How could you determine if a plant is heterosporous?

  1. A) Male and female reproductive structures are located on separate plants.
  2. B) It has vascular tissue.
  3. C) It has multiple sporangia.
  4. D) Its diploid sporophyte produces spores via meiosis.

a

57

57) A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. Investigation of its anatomy and life cycle shows the following characteristics: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte, and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely related to ________.

  1. A) mosses
  2. B) ferns
  3. C) gymnosperms
  4. D) flowering plants

b

58

58) You are hiking in a forest and come upon a mysterious plant, which you determine is either a lycophyte sporophyte or a monilophyte sporophyte. Which of the following would be most helpful in determining the correct classification of the plant?

  1. A) whether or not it has true leaves
  2. B) whether it has microphylls or megaphylls
  3. C) whether or not it has seeds
  4. D) its height

b

59

Assuming that they all belong to the same plant, which of the following lists structures from largest to smallest (or from most inclusive to least inclusive)?

  1. A) sporophylls, sporangia, sporophytes, spores
  2. B) sporophylls, sporophytes, sporangia, spores
  3. C) sporophytes, spores, sporangia, sporophylls
  4. D) sporophytes, sporophylls, sporangia, spores

d

60

60) If humans had been present to build log structures during the Carboniferous period (they were not), which plant types would have been suitable sources of logs?

  1. A) horsetails and bryophytes
  2. B) lycophytes and bryophytes
  3. C) ferns, horsetails, and lycophytes
  4. D) charophytes (stoneworts), bryophytes, and gymnosperms

c

61

61) Arrange the following terms from most inclusive to least inclusive.

  1. A) embryophytes, green plants, tracheophytes, seedless vascular plants, ferns
  2. B) green plants, embryophytes, tracheophytes, seedless vascular plants, ferns
  3. C) green plants, tracheophytes, embryophytes, seedless vascular plants, ferns
  4. D) embryophytes, ferns, green plants, tracheophytes, seedless vascular plants

b

62

Use the following description to answer the question.

A biology student hiking in a forest happens upon an erect, 15-centimeter-tall plant that bears microphylls and a strobilus at its tallest point. When disturbed, the cone emits a dense cloud of brownish dust. A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content.

This student has probably found a ________.

  1. A) bryophyte sporophyte
  2. B) fern sporophyte
  3. C) horsetail gametophyte

D) lycophyte sporophyte

d

63

63) Use the following description to answer the question.

A biology student hiking in a forest happens upon an erect, 15-centimeter-tall plant that bears microphylls and a strobilus at its tallest point. When disturbed, the cone emits a dense cloud of brownish dust. A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content.

Besides oil, what other chemical should be detected in substantial amounts upon chemical analysis of these small spheres?

  1. A) sporopollenins
  2. B) phenolics
  3. C) waxes
  4. D) terpenes

a

64

64) Use the following information to answer the question.

Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 25 centimeters per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this extremely arid zone to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

What feature of both true mosses and ferns makes it most surprising that they can survive for many generations in dry deserts?

  1. A) flagellated sperm
  2. B) lack of vascular tissues
  3. C) lack of true roots
  4. D) lack of cuticle

a

65

65) Use the following information to answer the question.

Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 25 centimeters per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this extremely arid zone to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

Which of the following features is most important for true mosses and ferns to reproduce in the desert?

  1. A) that the sporophytes occupy only permanently shady, north-facing habitats
  2. B) that the sporophytes hug the ground, growing no taller than a couple of inches
  3. C) either that their gametophytes grow close together, or that they be homosporous

D) that the sporophytes have highly lignified vascular tissues

c

66

66) Use the following information to answer the question.

Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 25 centimeters per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this extremely arid zone to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

Which of the following characteristics is (are) possessed in common by true mosses, ferns, and spike mosses, and therefore becomes useless at helping to determine to which of these groups "flower of stone" belongs?

  1. A) alternation of generations
  2. B) a sporophyte generation that is dominant and alternation of generations
  3. C) flagellated sperm and true leaves and roots
  4. D) flagellated sperm and alternation of generations

d

67

67) Use the following information to answer the question.

Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 25 centimeters per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this extremely arid zone to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

Upon closer inspection of the leaves of "flower of stone," one can observe tiny, cone-like structures. Each cone-like structure emits spores of two different sizes. Further investigation also reveals that the roots of "flower of stone" branch only at the growing tip of the root, forming a Y-shaped structure. Based on these additional observations, which of the following can be properly inferred about "flower of stone"?

  1. A) It is heterosporous and has separate male and female gametophytes.
  2. B) It is a fern and the cone-like structures are sori.
  3. C) It is heterosporous, it is a fern, and the cone-like structures are sori.
  4. D) It is heterosporous, it is a lycophyte, and it has separate male and female gametophytes.

d

68

68) Use the following information to answer the question.

Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 25 centimeters per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this extremely arid zone to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

Upon closer inspection of the leaves of "flower of stone," one can observe tiny, cone-like structures. Each cone-like structure emits spores of two different sizes. Further investigation also reveals that the roots of "flower of stone" branch only at the growing tip of the root, forming a Y-shaped structure. Consequently, which of the following is the closest living relative of "flower of stone"?

  1. A) true moss
  2. B) club moss
  3. C) liverwort
  4. D) fern

b

69

69) Use the following information to answer the question.

Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 25 centimeters per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this extremely arid zone to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

Upon closer inspection of the leaves of "flower of stone," one can observe tiny, cone-like structures. Each cone-like structure emits spores of two different sizes. Further investigation also reveals that the roots of "flower of stone" branch only at the growing tip of the root, forming a Y-shaped structure. Consequently, "flower of stone" should be expected to possess which other characteristics?

  1. A) a gametophyte generation that is dominant and lignified vascular tissues
  2. B) a gametophyte generation that is dominant and spores that are diploid when mature
  3. C) lignified vascular tissues and microphylls
  4. D) microphylls, filamentous rhizoids, but not true roots, and spores that are diploid when mature

c

70

70) Use the following information to answer the question.

Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 25 centimeters per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this extremely arid zone to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

In which combination of locations would one who is searching for the gametophytes of "flower of stone" have the best chance of finding them?

  1. A) in moist soil
  2. B) in moist soil and underground, nourished there by symbiotic fungi
  3. C) in shady, moist places and underground, nourished there by symbiotic fungi
  4. D) in shady, moist places, far from any "flower of stone" sporophytes

Answer: C

c

71

71) Suppose an efficient conducting system evolved in a moss that could transport water and other materials as high as a tall tree. Which of the following statements about "trees" of such a species would be accurate?

  1. A) Fertilization would probably be easier.
  2. B) Spore dispersal distances would probably decrease.
  3. C) Females could produce only one archegonium.
  4. D) Individuals would probably compete more effectively for access to light.

d

72

72) Which of the following features of how seedless land plants get sperm to egg are the same as for some of their algal ancestors?

  1. A) Conjugation tubes are formed between sperm and egg cells.
  2. B) Packets of sperm are delivered by wind to the eggs.
  3. C) Aquatic invertebrates carry sperm to eggs.
  4. D) Flagellated sperm swim to the eggs in a water drop.

d

73

73) Increasing the number of stomata per unit surface area of a leaf when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels decline is most analogous to a human ________.

  1. A) breathing faster as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase
  2. B) putting more red blood cells into circulation when oxygen availability declines at high elevations
  3. C) breathing more slowly as atmospheric oxygen levels increase
  4. D) increasing the volume of its lungs when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase

b

74

74) Compared to nonvascular plants, the ancient relatives of vascular plants ________.

  1. A) produced sporophyte generations independent of, not dependent on, gametophyte generations
  2. B) produced much smaller sporophyte generations
  3. C) produced sporophyte generations that provided more nutrition to gametophyte generations
  4. D) probably experienced less competition for light

a

75

75) The evolution of a vascular system in plants allowed which of the following to occur?

  1. A) increased height, improved competition for water, and increased spore dispersal distances
  2. B) increased height, improved competition for light, and increased spore dispersal distances
  3. C) decreased height, improved competition for light, and decreased spore dispersal distances
  4. D) decreased height, improved competition for water, and decreased spore dispersal distances

b

76

76) If you walk through an area with mosses and ferns, you are seeing ________.

  1. A) both sporophyte and gametophyte generations
  2. B) only vascular plants
  3. C) both nonvascular and seed-bearing plants
  4. D) both seedless and seed-bearing plants

a

77

77) The coal and oil that we currently use as fuel sources ________.

  1. A) are remnants of Sphagnum moss bogs
  2. B) are releasing carbon that was trapped by photosynthesis in ancient vascular and seedless plants
  3. C) come from calcium and magnesium carbonates that Carboniferous roots released from rocks
  4. D) come from ancient, seed-bearing plants that grew during the Carboniferous period

Answer: A

a