psychology final Flashcards


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final
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1

reality therapy, client-centered therapy, psychoanalysis and behavioral therapies are all forms of

psychotherapy

2

psychotherapy includes all of the following except

reality therapy, client cent therapy, psychoanalysis, behavioral therapies

3

leading clients to a deeper understanding of the origins of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors is the goal of ......... therapy, while bringing about changes in troublesome thoughts and behaviors is seeking an understanding of their origins is the goal of ..........therapy

insight, action

4

which of the following is an element of positive mental health?

table 13.1

5

a sense of identity, a purpose in life, and adaptive coping strategies are cited in your textbook as the

elements of positive mental health

6

in 1792, a french doctor changed the Bicetre Asylum in Paris from a squualid "madhouse" into a mental hospital by unchaining the patients and treating them humanely and compassionately. This French doctor was

Philippe Pinel

7

Sigmund Freud became convinced that the "hysteria" his patients were suffering from was caused by

deeply hidden unconscious conflict

8

many of freud's first patients had physical symptoms such as paralysis or numbness, for which no physical cause could be found. Freud called this condition

Hysteria

9

aaron is asked by his therapist to relax and talk about any thoughts that come into his head, letting his thoughts move freely from one idea to the next. aaron's therapist is using which psychoanalytic technique?

free association

10

in psychoanalysis, resistance was thought by Freud to be important because it

revealed particularly important unconscious conflicts

11

through transference, the patient re-experiences .................. which the therapist can then help the patient to recognize and understand

repressed emotions

12

client-centured therapy is based on the work of

insights from conscious thoughts and feelings

13

who is most often associated with the development of Gestalt therapy?

Fritz Peris

14

which of the following is a key feature of successful face-toface therapy that is not a part of media counseling?

the establishment of a continuing relationship between two people

15

which of the following allows the client and therapist to see one another on computer monitors and to talk via speakerphones, although it still lacks the close personal contact of face-to-face interaction?

skype

16

behavior therapy involves applying

action therapy that uses learning principles to make constructive changes in behavior

17

of the following, which is usually treated by desensitization?

phobias, fears, anxiety

18

jan has a fear of riding across bridges. in order to get over her phobia, she is asked to imagine a series of increasingly distressing images involving her riding in a car across increasingly longer bridges. The most distressing being imagining herself driving across the lake pontchartrain bridge to her cousin's house. this procedure is referred to as

desensitization, hierarchy

19

which of the following is a technique for reducing fear or anxiety that is based on holding upsetting thoughts in mind while rapidly moving the eyes from side to side?

eyemovement desensitization and repressing

20

which of the following is NOT an operant conditioning procedure used in behavior modification?

positive reinforcement/extinction/ punishment/shaping/stim control/ time out

21

if a response is not followed by a reward, it will occur less frequently, according to which principle of operant conditioning?

non reinforcement

22

if a response is followed by an unpleasant effect or discomfort, the response behavior will be suppressed. this is an example of

punishment

23

which of the following are symbolic rewards, such as plastic chips, that can be exchanges for real rewards and are used to encourage positive changes in behavior?

token economy

24

since tokens gain their reinforcing values because they can be exchanged for candy, food, watching TV, or other privileges, tokens are considered ............ reinforcers.

positive

25

social rewards, such as recognition and approval, are used in conjunction with tokens economies to

to be most efficient, because you get these when you return to friends and family/switch from tokens

26

carla believes that everyone who belongs to "her" political party are "good, trustworthy" people, while anyone who belongs to the other party is "bad and untrustworthy" and should be ostracized by "her" group. According to Aaron Beck, Carla is exhibiting

all or nothing

27

the goal of encounter groups is to

intensely honest interchanges among particular regarding feels to one another (tearing down defenses)

28

lifespring, the garden company, the forum, and other commercial programs that claim to increase self-awareness and facitate constructive personal change are examples of

large-group awareness training

29

in terms of its approach, which of the following types of psychotherapy is considered a non-directive therapy?

client-centured therapy/ existential therapy

30

the strength of rational-emotive behavior therapy involves

clarity of thinking and goals

31

which of the following is a caring relationship that unites a therapist and a client in working to solve the client's problems?

therapeutic alliance

32

which of the following is NOT an effective counseling skill?

(is)=restale, listen, feedback, encourage to talk

33

In counseling a friend, which of the following would NOT be one of your goals?

do not give advice, do listen, feedback, encourage to talk

34

a therapist who has the awareness, knowledge, and skills necessary to treat clients from diverse cultural backgrounds is referred to as a(n) ....... therapist

culturally skilled

35

pharmacotherapy can best be described as the use of

drugs to treat psychopathology

36

when it comes to treating chronic schizophrenia,

tranquilizers (clozoril) have side effects

37

to apply covert reinforcement procedures to increase desirable behavior, you would use

positive imagery

38

the most effective technique you can use to overcome common fears is

self-directed desensitization

39

the first step in desensitization is

learning to relax voluntarily

40

which of the following would be the most valid reason for seeking a psychotherapist?

psychological discomfort=dentist or doctor

41

Tabitha is a college student who is receiving supportive therapy by attending a group made up of other women suffering from anorexia and bulimia. Tabitha finds that by helping others in the group, she is helping herself. Tabitha is participating in a(n) ............. group.

self help group

42

a physician, who describes an infant as slow to respond and develop because of congenital problems, is attributing the cause of the abnormality to the

genetic disorders inherited from parents

43

fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by

drinking during pregnancy/affected infants have low;birth weight, a small head, bodily defects, and facial malformations

44

if a mother smokes heavily during pregnancy, it is more likely that the infant will be born

premature/underweight

45

which of the following teratogens tends to greatly reduce oxygen to the fetus, increase the risk of tests?miscarriage, prematurity, and low birth weight with surviving children showing lower scored on language and mental abilities

tabacco/marijuana/smoking during pregnancy

46

with regards to temperament, "difficult children"

they are moody, intense, and easily angered

47

from an early age, justin tended to be a very moody child, who reacted intensely, often angrily, to most situations. Thomas and Chess would describe Justice as a(n) .................. child

difficult

48

the concept of dynamic relationship between parents parents and children is best illustrated by the fact that babies

rapidly becomes active participants in their own development

49

a persons development level refers to that person's current state of

physical, emotion, and intellectual development

50

which of the following devices was invented by Robert Fantz and allows researchers to observe the movements of an infants' eyes in order to determine what infants can see and what holds their attention?

looking chamber

51

amy lifts her head, then learns to crawl, then to walk with the development progressing from her head to her feet. This progression illustrates

motor development

52

since even the basic human emotions of anger, fear, and joy, which appear unlearned, take time to develop, early emotional development must follow a pattern closely tied to

excitement

53

bridges found that emotions appear in a consistent order, and he believed that the first basic split is between

pleasant and unpleasant emotions

54

the fact that Maria, who is nine months old, smiles when her daddy enters the room

is social smile

55

a researcher videotapes a young child and then lets the child see the video on television in order to test for

self-recognition

56

according to research in social development, most infants have to be at least what age before they are able to recognize their images being shown on a television?

18 months old

57

baby rafael cries when his mother leaves him with a new babysitter. This is indicative of

separation anxiety

58

Parents who view their children as having few rights but adult-like responsibilities are referred to ............... parents

authoritarian

59

resilient children who are also characterized by being independent, competent, self-controlled, assertive, and inquiring are often a consequence of which parental style?

authoritative parents

60

San is a young adult who is good at bouncing back after bad experiences and has the strength, self-control, and positive coping skills to thrive even in difficult circumstances. Sam's parents were most likely ........... parents

authoritative

61

Zach is a competent, independent decision-maker who exerts self-control and acts responsibly. According to Baumrind, Zack probably has ............. parents.

authoritative

62

When interacting with their infants, mothers tend to ........... than fathers.

caregiving

63

Consonants first enter a child's language when the child begins

it's babbling stage/7 months

64

Piaget believed that one's intellect grew through a process of

assimilation and accomodation

65

A child is largely nonverbal, is learning to coordinate purposeful movements with sense information, and is developing the concept of object permanence. The child is in Piaget's ............... stage.

sensorimotor

66

Objects cease to appear and disappear magically with the child's conceptions becoming more orderly, stable, and predictable by the end of the ................ stage.

sensorimotor

67

The mental ability to change the shape or form of a substance and realize that its volume remains the same is termed

transformation

68

the concepts of reversibility and conservation develop during during the .......................... stage.

concrete operational

69

Active play, explorations involving the senses, and playing "peekaboo" are effective ways of guiding intellectual development during the .......... stage of cognitive development.

sensorimotor

70

You are okaying the game Monopoly with your sister. Although she understands the basic instructions and will play by the rules, she is not capable of understanding transactions dealing with mortgages, loans, and special pacts with other players. Your sister is most likely in the .............. stage of cognitive development.

concrete operational stage

71

Which of the following methods was used by Baillargeon to test for the mental capacities of infants?

magic shows and theaters

72

The culturally-defined period of life between childhood and adulthood is known as

adolescence

73

Emily is a late maturing girl. Compared to the early maturing girls, we can expect Emily to

be more popular, better self image

74

In which level of moral development are moral choices guided by the direct consequences of one's actions, such as punishment, reward, or an exchange of favors?

pre conventional level

75

Regarding the psychosocial dilemma of intimacy versus isolation, which of the following statements is FALSE?

conflict between personal impulses

76

Elaine and Jeffery have been married for five years. Elaine spends her time taking care of their two-year-old son, while Jeffery spends his time watching television or going out "with the guys." She and Jeffery do not share any common interests, and they seldom talk to each other except about their son. Erikson would say that Elaine is experiencing

stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation

77

After the late 50's, personal development is usually complicated by

physical aging

78

The top scorers on intellectual tests who were over the age of 65 were people who

continued to work and remain intellectual active

79

Anursing home administrator gives the residents little choice in activities they participate in or in the food that is served. Friendships between opposite sex residents are also discourages. She tells the staff that "the elderly are like little children that don't know what's best for them." This statement of the administrator reflects

ageism

80

Spanking or taking away toys or privileges are examples of

power assertions

81

Maggie Mamen believes that parents, in an attempt to empower their children, have created children who have artificially high levels of self-esteem and a sense of entitlement. This style of parenting would be considered .............. parenting.

management technique/self-esteem

82

when natural consequences for a behavior do not exist

logical consequences

83

which of the following would be described as a non-directive therapy based on insights gained from conscious thoughts and feelings and that emphasizes accepting one's true self?

client centered therapy

84

learning principles are used to make constructive changes in behavior in .......... therapy, while people are led to a deeper understanding of the origins and meanings of their behaviors in ............ therapy.

behavior, aversion

85

the principal assumption of behavior therapy is that

people have learned to the way they are

86

when experiments are used to determine whether therapy is effective,

its hard to tell because of placebo's

87

which of the following is NOT an advantage of Internet therapy?

Lack interpersonal cues/ no face to face