Exam ll Flashcards
Vasoconstriction vs Vasodilation
Vasoconstriction is when blood vessels constrict causing blood pressure to rise & Vasodilation is when blood vessels dilate (bigger)& there is less pressure.
What is a Hemocytoblast?
Stem cells / The base for every formed element (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes)
Which hormones will decrease blood pressure?
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)Signals kidneys to remove sodium. When sodium leaves the kidneys, water will follow so there will be more urine output. Decreasing pressure.
Which hormones will increase blood pressure?
Anti-diuretic Hormone (ADH) Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water which increases BV which increases BP.
Aldosterone causes the tubules in kidneys to increase reabsorption of sodium & water into the blood. This increases volume of fluid in the body which increases blood pressure.
Where is the tricuspid valve located?
(basic heart anatomy questions)
Located in the right atrium
Where is the bicuspid/mitral valve located?
Located in the left atrium
Where is the SA node found?
Located in the upper right atrium
Name the layers of the heart wall.
Epicardium (outside layer)
Myocardium ( middle layer) M=muscle
Endocardium (innermost layer)
If a person with blood type A+ donates their blood, it could be tranfused safely to someone with type _ blood.
If a person with blood type O+ donates their blood, it could be tranfused safely to someone with type _ blood.
O+ A+ B+ AB+
If a person with blood type B+ donates their blood, it could be tranfused safely to someone with type _ blood.
If a person with blood type AB+ donates their blood, it could be tranfused safely to someone with type _ blood.
Which hormones control blood pressure and where are they released from?
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine (Adrenal Medulla)
Atrial Natriuretic peptide ANP (lowers)
Antidiuretic Hormone / ADH
Name at least three differences between skeletal and cardiac muscle.
Skeletal muscle is multi-nucleated / Cardiac has one nucleus
Cardiac muscle is branched and interconnected.
Cardiac muscle has intercalated discs.
Name 2 things that would increase cardiac output and why?
Sex (hopefully good enough to get that heart rate up)
Emotions (excitement, fear, anxiety)
Name 2 things that would decrease cardiac input and why?
Illness, drop in blood volume, low blood pressure
Hypovolemia is blood loss, blood loss so severe that the body cannot make up for what it is losing.
Hypervolemia is an abnormal increase in blood volume particularly in blood plasma
How does vasodilation effect blood pressure?
During vasodilation the vessels "dilates" the lumen. With larger space to move through, there is less pressure through the vessels which lowers blood pressure.
Name the Intrinsic Conduction Pathway of the heart & the correct order that it goes in.
(Starting with the SA node)
SA node (pacemaker) generates impulse that goes across/through entire atria, The impulse then pauses/stimulates AV node, The AV bundle (which connects the atria to ventricles) sends impulse to AV bundle branches which sends signal down through interventricular septum to the Purkinje fibers which depolarize the contractile cells of both ventricles.
What is pulse pressure and how do you calculate it?
Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic & diastolic pressure.
( PP = S-D )
What is an autosomal recessive gene?
An autosomal RECESSIVE gene is a gene that causes a trait, disorder, or disease to be passed along.
Describe the difference between a heterozygous and a homozygous gene?
Heterozygous is when two different different genes are "matched" up (Bb)
Homozygous is a match of two genes that are the same (BB / bb)
Describe systolic vs diastolic and what they mean.
Systolic is when the heart is contracting
Diastole is when the heart is Relaxing
Name the phases of hemostasis.
Hemostasis (blood clotting) 1) Vascular Phase 2) Platelet Phase 3) Coagulation Phase**
Name the Layers of the vessel walls.
Which blood vessel holds the largest volume of blood?
Veins hold the largest amount of blood in the body
What is found in blood plasma?
Plasma is 90% + it contains 6 different compounds
Protein (including: 60% Albumin, 36% Globulin, 4% fibrinogen)**
Name the processes that provide long term response to changes in blood pressure.
Direct and Indirect Renal Mechanism
Describe direct renal mechanism & how it effects increased BP.
Increased BP causes kidneys to alter blood volume independently of hormones by eliminating more urine which reduces BP.
Describe direct renal mechanism & how it effects decreased BP.
Decreased BP causes the kidneys to alter blood volume independently of hormones by conserving water which causes BP to rise.
Describe Tachycardia vs Brachycardia
Tachycardia is an abnormally fast heart rate >100 bpm (may lead to fibrillation)
Bradycardia is a heart rate that is <60 bpm
(may lead to grossly inadequate blood circulation)
Blood clotting disorder.
Blood does not clot normally
What is the difference between heterozygous and homozygous ALLELES.
The difference is whether the genotype is the same or not. Whether the allele is dominant or recessive or the same.
Describe Erythroblastosis fetalis and what happens.
Commonly happens when a woman with Rh-negative blood becomes pregnant by a man with Rh-positive blood and conceives a baby with Rh-positive blood.
What is the pH of blood
Describe an EKG and what it is measuring.
EKG measures the electrical activity of the heart.
(elect activity can happen in the absence of muscle contraction)
What is the heart doing during a P wave on an EKG?
Electrical Event is Atrial DEpolarization
Mechanical Event is Atria Contracts
What is the heart doing during the "QRS" complex of an EKG?
Electrical Event is Ventricular DEpolarization
Mechanical Event is Ventricular Contraction
What is monitored during a T wave on an EKG?
Electrical Event is Ventricular REpolarization
Mechanical Event is Ventricals R Completely Relaxed
What happens to the blood and the heart during vigorous exercise?
The heart pumps faster so the blood will be able to acquire more oxygen as needed.
What is stroke volume (SV)
The amount of blood ejected from the heart per beat.
SV = EDV - ESV
Describe Cardiac Output (CO)
The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
CO = SV X HR (bpm)
Define End Diastolic volume (EDV)
The volume of blood remaining in each ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole
Define End Systolic Volume (ESV)
The volume of blood remaining in each ventricle at the end of ventricular systole.
What is Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)?
Pressure that propels the blood into the tissues
MAP = DP + 1/3 PP
**diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure**
Where is the cardiovascular center located in the brain?
Describe a Megakaryocyte and what is does.
The cell from which platelets are derived from
What is a hemocytoblast & what does it do?
Hemocytoblasts gives rise to all the formed elements in blood
What is venous return?
(know it, understand it pg 684 text)
The flow of blood back to the heart.
Ex: Increased venous return would stretch ventricles & increase contraction force.
What is Ateriosclerosis?
The thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries
What is Hypovolemic Shock? Describe it
A loss of large amounts of blood from sudden injury or internal hemorrhage
What is Hematocrit?
The ratio of red blood cells to the total volume of blood
Where do coronary arteries carry blood to?
What is hemoglobin?
A red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates.
What is the velocity of blood flow?
The "thickness" of the blood
*depends on the amt of RBC's present, more RBC's the thicker the blood.
Where is the velosity of blood flow the slowest?
Where is the velosity of blood flow the greatest?
Describe baroreceptors and name some of their locations.
Baroreceptors are pressure sensors and are located in the Aortic Arch and certain blood vessels
What is preload and what does it determine?
Frank-Starling law. Degree of stretch of cardiac muscle cells b4 they contract.
What causes lub-dub?
The lub sound is the AV valve closure
The Dub sound is the Semilunar valve closure
What is the most common plasma protein?
Describe Stroke Volume.
The amount of blood ejected from the heart per beat.
What type of tissue is blood?
What structure of the heart does the great cardiac vein empty into?
Empties into coronary sinus and THAT empties into right atrium
Lab book pg 448
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine is release from?
How does ADH help to control blood pressure?
ADH will stimulate tubules to reabsorb water which will build blood pressure
Define Cardiac Output
Cardiac Output is the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute.
What is the pathway of blood through the heart?
*Right atrium > tricuspid valve > right ventricle
*R Ventricle > pulmonary semilunar valve > pulmonary trunk > pulmonary arteries > lungs
*Lungs > pulmonary veins > left atrium
*Left atrium > bicuspid valve > left ventricle
*Left ventricle > aortic semilunar valve > aorta
* Aorta > systemic circulation
Why is blood considered a connective tissue?
It is considered a nonliving fluid matrix (the plasma) in which living cells (formed elements) are suspended
Blood carries ________ from endocrine glands to target organs.
Blood carries metabolic waste to _______ & ______ for elimination from the body.
Lungs (to be breathed out) & Kidneys (excreted as urine)
Oxygen is carried by blood & circulated through the lungs & distributed to tissues. Once the body uses the oxygen it produces waste in the form of _________?
Blood distributes oxygen & nutrients to every part of the body except?
What is the average volume of blood for males & females
Males 5-6 L
Females 4-5 L
Blood is ____% of total body weight
What is the normal pH of blood?
pH of blood 7.35-7.45 slightly alkaline
Name the 3 formed elements that blood is composed of.
Erythrocytes / red blood cells or RBC's
Leukocytes / white blood cells or WBC's
What determines the the color of blood, which can run from a scarlet to dark red?
The amount of Oxygen in the blood
Leukocytes & platelets contribute to how much of the blood volume?
Less than 1%
What is the Hematocrit for males & females?
Males 47% +/- 5% (range 42-52%)
Females 42% +/- 5% (range 37-47%)
What information does a Hemotocrit tell you?
The % of Erythrocytes that occupy the blood.
What is Hematocrit?
% of blood volume that is RBC's
Name 3 things things that blood distributes
Distributes oxygen & nutrients to body cells, metabolic wastes to lungs & kidneys for elimination & hormones from endocrine organs to target organs
How does blood keep body in homeostatic range?
By absorbing & distributing heat, using buffers to regulate pH (primary buffer = bicarbonate HCO-3) & regulating adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system
Plasma contains proteins (produced by the liver) that are divided into 3 major classes. Name the 3 and their function.
60% Albumin / main contributor of osmotic pressure.
36% Globulins / antibodies, transports proteins
4% Fibrinogen / blood clotting proteins
Name the 3 Nitrogenous by products of metabolism that are found in plasma.
lactic acid (released by muscles), urea & creatinine (can bind w/Phosphate which can be released to bind with ADP to form ATP)
What is the major difference between WBC's & RBC's?
RBC's have no nuclei or organelles / WBC's are complete cells
What exactly is a platelet?
Where do most blood cells originate?
In bone marrow and they do not divide.
What is the average life span of a formed element?
Just a few days
What is the life span of a RBC?
Define (formed element) Erythrocyte
Sacs of hemoglobin molecules that transports the bulk of O2 carried in the blood. (small % of CO2)
Define (formed element) Leukocytes
Part of the body's defense & immune system
Define (formed element) Thrombocyte
Contributor to blood clot formation, factor in homeostasis.
Blood Type A has which antigens and which antibodies?
Blood group A
If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
Blood Type B has which antigens and which antibodies?
Blood group B
If you belong to the blood group B, you have B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and A antibodies in your blood plasma.
Blood Type O has which antigens & which antibodies?
Blood group 0
If you belong to the blood group 0 (null), you have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells but you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
Blood Type AB has which antigens & which antibodies?
Blood group AB
If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both A and B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma.
A floating thrombus is called ___________
When bleeding stops it is part of ________
Pre-formed antibodies are called:
These are insoluble and form a "net" to stop bleeding
Common well known blood thinner
Platelets are derived from _________
Blood type is determined by _________
Which antigens are on the red blood cells surface
List the leukocytes in order from most abundant to least abundant.
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
What do Neutrophils do?
"Neutralize" the area by cleaning
What do the lymphocytes do?
Mount an immune response
(direct cell attack or via anitbodies)
What do monocytes do?
(develop into macrophages in tissues)
Eosinophils do what?
Kill parasitic worms.
(play a complex role in allergy & asthma)
What to basophils do?
Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation.
(they contain a natural heparin)
If a person with blood type A- donates their blood, it could be tranfused safely to someone with type _ blood.
A- A+ AB+ AB-
If a person with blood type O- donates their blood, it could be tranfused safely to someone with type _ blood.
If a person with blood type B- donates their blood, it could be tranfused safely to someone with type _ blood.
B+ B- AB+ AB-
If a person with blood type AB- donates their blood, it could be tranfused safely to someone with type _ blood.
A person who has A+ blood type may safely receive what type of blood?
A+ A- O+ O-
A person who has O+ blood type may safely receive what type of blood?
A person who has B+ blood type may safely receive what type of blood?
B+ B- O+ O-
A person who has AB+ blood type may safely receive what type of blood?
A person who has A- blood type may safely receive what type of blood?
A person who has O- blood type may safely receive what type of blood?
A person who has B- blood type may safely receive what type of blood?
A person who has AB- blood type may safely receive what type of blood?
AB- O- A- B-
Define colloid osmotic pressure
Pulls/sucks water/fluid through capillary walls (osmosis) due to most fluid being pushed out of the area due to hydrostatic pressure.
What structure in the brain controls blood pressure?
Vasomotor & Cardiovascular centers which are in the Medulla
Macrophages engulf dying RBC's where?
Billrubin is the remnants of what?
Where is billrubin secreted from?
If liver cannot remove billrubin and there is a buildup it is called what?