nutrition fat quiz Flashcards


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1

A meal contains the following amounts of long-chain fatty acids: 3 g EPA, 1 g DHA, 5 g stearic acid, 4 g linolenic acid, 10 g linoleic acid, and 3 g arachidonic acid. What is the approximate ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids?

1.6 : 1.0

2

Approximately how many carbons are contained in a medium-chain fatty acid?
a. 2-4
b. 6-10
c. 12-22
d. 24-26

6-10

3

Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
a. Synthesized by the body
b. No relation to heart disease
c. Recommended intake is zero
d. No function in the human body

Synthesized by the body

4

What is the major sterol in an omnivorous diet?

A) Palm oil

B) Lecithin

C) Cholesterol

D) Arachidonic acid

Cholesterol

5

What is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?
a. Hydrolyzes hormones involved in fat breakdown
b. Synthesizes new adipose cells from simple fatty acids
c. Hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
d. Synthesizes long-chain fatty acids to provide precursors for other cells

Hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells

6

To achieve a dietary balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, what is the recommended intake (g) of omega-3 fats for a person who consumes 30 g of omega-6 fats?
a. 5
b. 10
c. 20
d. There is no specific recommendation based on omega-6 intake

There is no specific recommendation based on omega-6 intake

7

Which of the following is considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat?
a. Corn oil
b. Palm oil
c. Peanut oil
d. Chicken fat

Corn oil

8

All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
a. palm oil.
b. fish oils.
c. soybean oil.
d. safflower oil

palm oil.

9

Which of the following cannot be found in plants?
a. Cholesterol
b. Triglycerides
c. Essential fatty acids
d. Nonessential fatty acids

Cholesterol

10

What is the highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
a. 50
b. 101
c. 199
d. 299

199

11

Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
a. Its Daily Value is 300 mg
b. Its structure is similar to that of lecithin
c. Most of the body's cholesterol is found circulating in the bloodstream
d. The amount consumed in the diet usually exceeds the amount synthesized in the body

Its Daily Value is 300 mg

12

A triglyceride always contains 3
a. carbons.
b. glycerols.
c. fatty acids.
d. double bonds.

fatty acids.

13

Which of the following is a characteristic of lipids?
a. A quick way to spoil fats is by exposure to carbon dioxide
b. Typically, the shorter the carbon chain, the firmer the fat at 75°
c. Corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil
d. Palm oil and coconut oil are very liquid due to their longer carbon chains

Corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil

14

Which of the following is a factor that determines the hardness of a fat at a given temperature?
a. Origin of the fat
b. Degree of saturation
c. Number of acid groups
d. Number of oxygen atoms

Degree of saturation

15

Which of the following lipids contain(s) saturated fat?
a. Butter only
b. Soybean oil only
c. Cottonseed oil only
d. Butter, cottonseed oil, and soybean oil

Butter, cottonseed oil, and soybean oil

16

What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and glycerol?
a. Steroid
b. Lecithin
c. Triglyceride
d. Monoglyceride

Triglyceride

17

The results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a
a. lipid profile.
b. circulating fat count.
c. personal lipids count.
d. degenerative disease assessment.

lipid profile.

18

Which of the following is not a feature of the bile acids?
a. Stored in the gallbladder
b. Synthesized from cholesterol
c. Manufactured by the gallbladder
d. Released into the small intestine whenever fat is present

Manufactured by the gallbladder

19

Which of the following sources of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol levels?
a. Butter
b. Canola oil
c. Coconut oil
d. Stick margarine

Canola oil

20

The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed
a. eicosanoids.
b. linolenic acid.
c. docosahexaenoic acid.
d. eicosapentaenoic acid.

linolenic acid.

21

A lacto-ovo vegetarian wishing to ensure a liberal intake of linolenic acid should consume
a. eggs and milk.
b. canola oil and walnuts.
c. safflower oil margarine.
d. corn oil and sunflower oil

canola oil and walnuts.

22

A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a
a. diglyceride.
b. triglyceride.
c. phospholipid.
d. monoglyceride.

triglyceride.

23

How many double bonds are present in stearic acid?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3

0

24

What percentage of the DV for saturated fats in the U.S. diet is provided by one egg?
a. 5
b. 20
c. 45
d. 75

5

25

Which of the following is an example of enterohepatic circulation?
a. Chylomicron conversion to LDLs and HDLs
b. Recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver
c. Hormonal control of pancreatic digestive secretions
d. Liver secretion of eicosanoids that promote absorption of eicosanoid precursors

Recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver

26

Which of the following is appropriate dietary advice for reducing fat intake?

Limit intake of all fried foods because they contain abundant fat.

27

Lipids that are liquid at room temperature are known as
a. oils.
b. fats.
c. omegas.
d. glycerols.

oils.

28

Oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
a. cis to trans.
b. solid to liquid.
c. covalent to ionic.
d. saturated to unsaturated.

cis to trans.

29

Aspirin works to reduce the symptoms of infection or pain by retarding the synthesis of
a. arachidonic acid.
b. certain eicosanoids.
c. certain saturated fatty acids.
d. certain unsaturated fatty acids.

certain eicosanoids.

30

Which of the following is known as a tropical oil?
a. Flaxseed oil
b. Safflower oil
c. Coconut oil
d. Conjugated linoleic acid

Coconut oil

31

In which form are most dietary lipids found?
a. Sterols
b. Glycerols
c. Triglycerides
d. Monoglycerides

Triglycerides

32

Although eating fish supports heart health and fish provides many vitamins and minerals, it is notably poor in
A) iron.
B) protein.
C) unsaturated fats.
D) omega-3 fatty acids.

iron

33

Which of the following is an omega-3 fat?
a. Acetic acid
b. Palmitic acid
c. Linoleic acid
d. Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid

34

A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
a. triglycerides.
b. free fatty acids.
c. high-density lipoproteins.
d. very-low-density lipoproteins.

high-density lipoproteins

35

Approximately what percentage of the body's energy needs at rest is supplied by fat?
a. 5
b. 25
c. 40
d. 60

60

36

Which of the following does NOT act as an emulsifier in the intestinal tract?
A) Lecithin
B) Bile acids
C) Pancreatic lipase
D) Bile phospholipids

Pancreatic lipase

37

the average daily cholesterol intake (mg) of U.S. women is about

a. 110
b. 230
c. 360
d. 925

230

38

Bile is known to assist in the absorption of
a. fat only.
b. all nutrients.
c. carbohydrate and fat only.
d. carbohydrate, fat, and protein only.

fat only.

39

Which of the following is a characteristic of the blood cholesterol level?
a. The desirable upper range is 250 mg per 100 mL
b. It can be reduced by increasing dietary intake of insoluble fiber
c. It can be lowered by increasing dietary intake of trans-fat
d. It can be lowered more effectively by reducing dietary intake of saturated fat than of cholesterol

It can be lowered more effectively by reducing dietary intake of saturated fat than of cholesterol

40

What lipoprotein is largest in size?
a. Chylomicron
b. High-density lipoprotein
c. Low-density lipoprotein
d. Very-low-density lipoprotein

Chylomicron

41

Which of the following sources would yield the softest lipids at room temperature?
a. Lard
b. Beef
c. Pork
d. Safflower

Safflower

42

A major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to
a. heat and oxygen.
b. fluorescent lighting.
c. freezer temperatures.
d. enrichment additives

heat and oxygen.

43

Which of the following foods provide(s) essential fatty acids?
a. Fish only
b. Beef only
c. Plants only
d. Fish, beef, and plants

Fish, beef, and plants

44

which of the following is NOT a component of lecithin?

a. magnesium
b. fatty acids
c. phosphate
d. choline

magnesium

45

What tissue contains special receptors for removing low-density lipoproteins from the circulation?
a. Liver
b. Adipose
c. Arterial walls
d. Skeletal muscle

Liver

46

Which one of the following compounds is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?
a. Monounsaturated fatty acid
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acid
c. Long-chain saturated fatty acid
d. Short-chain saturated fatty acid

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

47

What is the immediate precursor for the eicosanoids?

a. Glucose
b. Hormones
c. Fatty acids
d. Cholesterol

Fatty acids

48

which of the following does NOT describe a function of fat?

a. is an essential constituent of body tissues
b. supplies up to 25% of the body's energy needs during rest
c. serves as a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins
d. adds flavor to food

supplies up to 25% of the body's energy needs during rest

49

Which of the following characteristics is shared by olive oil and canola oil?
a. Neither is liquid at room temperature
b. Neither contains saturated fatty acids
c. Both contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids
d. Both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids

Both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids

50

What is the chemical composition of fats?
a. Hexose polymers
b. Glycogen granules
c. Fatty acids and glycerol
d. Combinations of long chain fatty acids

Fatty acids and glycerol

51

Which of the following is a feature of the lipid content of foods?
a. Omega-3 fats are found in fish
b. Cholesterol is found in peanuts
c. Essential fatty acids are found in olestra
d. Low-density lipoproteins are found in coconut oil

Omega-3 fats are found in fish

52

What is the storage site of bile?
a. Liver
b. Pancreas
c. Gallbladder
d. Intestinal epithelial cells

Gallbladder

53

sucrose polyester is another name for

a. DHA
b. BHA
c. olestra
d. trans fat

olestra

54

which of the following is a characteristic of the lipid content of livestock?

a. grain-fed animals contain lower concentrations of fat in the meat compared with grass fed animals
b. grass fed animals contain more omega 3 fats in the meat than grain fed animals
c. the meat from grade fed animals is similar in composition to soy protein
d. grain fed animals contain more polyunsaturated fatty acids in the meat compared with grade fed animals

grass fed animals contain more omega 3 fats in the meat than grain fed animals

55

Which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol?
a. It is absorbed directly into the blood
b. It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
c. It is not formed in the body when provided by the diet
d. It is found in abundance in tropical fats such as palm oil

It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis

56

Among the following dietary fatty acids, which has been found to raise blood cholesterol level by the least amount?
a. Lauric
b. Stearic
c. Myristic
d. Palmitic

Stearic

57

Spherical complexes of emulsified fats are known as
a. micelles.
b. chylomicrons.
c. monolipomicrons.
d. endogenous bilayer aggregates.

micelles

58

Which of the following is a feature of essential fatty acid deficiency?

Most diets in the United States and Canada are deficient in one or both essential fatty acids

It is seen chiefly in Native Americans

The most common symptoms include insulin resistance and pancreatitis

It is very rare

It is very rare

59

High intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to increase the risk for all of the following except
a. poor wound healing.
b. higher LDL cholesterol.
c. suppressed immune function.
d. inflammation of the pancreas

inflammation of the pancreas

60

Which of the following is a characteristic of egg nutrition?
a. Eggs are high in both cholesterol and saturated fat
b. High omega-3 fat eggs are now available by prescription only
c. Although it is high in cholesterol, the egg is low in saturated fat
d. Even in people with a healthy lipid profile, consumption of one egg/day is detrimental

Although it is high in cholesterol, the egg is low in saturated fat

61

About how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day?
a. None
b. A few mg
c. Less than 300 mg
d. At least 800 mg

Less than 300 mg

62

Your roommate Jeff wishes to switch from using corn oil to using one that is a good source of omega-3 fats. Which of the following should be recommended?
a. Corn oil
b. Canola oil
c. Safflower oil
d. Liquefied lard

Canola oil

63

What is a triacylglycerol?

A phospholipid

A lipid found only in cold-water fish

A partially hydrolyzed lipid

A triglyceride

A triglyceride

64

According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500-kcalorie diet?

300 mg

1,000 mg

50 mg

150 mg

300 mg

65

All of the following compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol EXCEPT

sex hormones.

vitamin D.

glucose.

bile.

glucose.

66

Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?
a. Saturated
b. Hydrogenated
c. Monounsaturated
d. Polyunsaturated

Monounsaturated

67

Which of the following structural features of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?
a. Chain length
b. Number of double bonds
c. Position of first saturated bond
d. Size of adjacent fatty acids on the triglyceride molecule

Number of double bonds

68

Which of the following is characteristic of the lipase enzymes?
a. Gastric lipase plays a significant role in fat digestion in adults
b. Intestinal mucosal lipase is responsible for most dietary fat digestion
c. Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
d. Pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes most dietary triglycerides completely to glycerol and free fatty acids

Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants

69

Which of the following characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?
a. Both are sterols
b. Both are phospholipids
c. Both are essential nutrients
d. Both are synthesized in the body

Both are synthesized in the body

70

A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of
a. free fatty acids.
b. high-density lipoproteins.
c. low-density lipoproteins.
d. very low-density lipoproteins.

low-density lipoproteins.

71

Which of the following is a feature of phospholipids?
a. Resistant to digestion
b. Soluble in both water and fat
c. Highly susceptible to oxidation
d. Found naturally only in animal foods

Soluble in both water and fat

72

Which of the following substances cannot be absorbed directly into the blood?
a. Glycerol
b. Long-chain fatty acids
c. Short-chain fatty acids
d. Medium-chain fatty acids

Long-chain fatty acids

73

Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
a. Only about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular
b. "Bad" cholesterol is a form of cholesterol found in plant foods
c. "Good" cholesterol is a form of cholesterol found in plant foods
d. Exogenous cholesterol absorption is reduced by lecithin supplements

Only about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular

74

Which of the following organs is NOT known to secrete a lipase?

liver

75

Which of the following is a likely explanation for the imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 lipids in the U.S. diet?
a. High intakes of meat and low intakes of fish
b. Low intakes of vegetable oils and high intakes of fish
c. High intakes of beef fat and low intakes of vegetable oils
d. Low intakes of beef fat and high intakes of vegetable oils

High intakes of meat and low intakes of fish