Campbell Biology: Chapter 43 AP Biology Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
Chapter 43
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1

Innate immunity __________. A) is activated immediately upon infection upon infection B) depends on an infected animal's previous exposure to the same pathogen C) is based on recognition of antigens that are specific to different pathogens D) if found only in vertebrate animals

A) is activated immediately upon infection upon infection

2

A fruit fly, internally infected by a potentially pathogenic fungus, is protected by its __________. A) immunoglobulins B) antibodies C) antimicrobial peptides D) B cells

C) antimicrobial peptides

3

Engulfing-phagocytic cells of innate immunity of vertebrates include __________. I) Neutrophils II) Macrophages III) Dendritic cells IV) Natural killer cells A) I and III B) II and IV C) I and IV D) I, II, and III

D) I, II, and III

4

The cells and signaling molecules involved in the initial stages of inflammatory response are __________. A) phagocytes and chemokines B) dendritic cells and interferons C) mast cells and histamines D) lymphocytes and interferons

C) mast cells and histamines

5

Inflammatory responses typically include __________. A) increased activity of phagocytes in an inflamed area B) reduced permeability of blood vessels to conserve plasma C) release of substances to decrease the blood supply to an inflamed area D) inhibiting the release of white blood cells from bone marrow

A) increased activity of phagocytes in an inflamed area

6

Mammals have Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) that can recognize a king o macromolecule that is absent from vertebrates but present in or on certain groups of pathogens, such as viral __________. A) Double-stranded DNA B) double-stranded RNA C) glycoproteins D) Phospholipids

B) double-stranded RNA

7

Septic Shock, a systemic response including high fever and low blood pressure, is a response to __________. A) certain bacterial infections B) specific forms of viruses C) the presence of natural killer cells D) increased production of neutrophils

A) certain bacterial infections

8

The cells involved with innate immunity, whose absence increases the chances of developing malignant tumors, are __________. A) cytotoxic T cells B) natural killer cells C) B cells D) B cells

B) natural killer cells

9

Mutant fruit flies that make only one antimicrobial peptide were tested for survival after infection with "Neurospora crassa" fungi or with "Micrococcus luteus" bacteria. The results shown in the graphs support the hypothesis that __________. A)adding the defense gene to such mutants protects them from death by final infection B)adding the drosomycin gene to such mutants protects them from death by final infection C)wild-type flies with the full set of genes for antimicrobial peptides are highly susceptible to these infective agents D)the presence of any single antimicrobial peptide against both infective agents

B) adding the drosomycin gene to such mutants protects them from death by final infection

10

You and a friend were in line for a movie when you noticed the woman in front of you sneezing and coughing. Both you were equally exposed to the woman's virus, but over the next few days, only your friend acquired flu-like symptoms and was ill for almost a week before recovering. which one of the following is a logical explanation for this? A) your friend had antibodies to that virus B) you had an adaptive immunity to that virus C) your friend had an autoimmune disorder D) your friend had allergies

B) You had an adaptive immunity to that virus

11

a boy falls while riding his bike. A scrape on his hand almost immediately begins to bleed and becomes red, warm, and swollen. What response is occurring? A) inflammatory response B) lytic response C) adaptive immune response D) autoimmune response

A) inflammatory response

12

Acidity in human sweat is an example of __________. A) cell-mediated immune response B) acquired immunity C) adaptive immunity D) innate immunity

D) innate immunity

13

The eyes and the respiratory tract are both protected against infections by __________. A) interferons produced by immune cells B) the secretion of complement proteins C) the release of slightly alkaline secretions D) the secretion of lysozyme onto their surfaces

D) the secretion of lysozyme onto their surfaces

14

The complement system is __________. A) a set of proteins involved in innate but not acquired immunity B) a group of proteins that includes interferons and interleukins C) a group of antimicrobial proteins that act together in a cascade fashion D) a set of proteins that act individually to attack and lyse microbes

C) a group of antimicrobial proteins that act together in a cascade fashion

15

Bacteria entering the body through a small cut in the skin __________. A) inactivate the erythrocytes B) stimulate apoptosis of nearby body cells C) stimulate release of interferons D) activate a group of proteins called complement

D) activate a group of proteins called complement

16

Mucus occurs in both the respiratory and digestive tracts. What is its main immunological function? A) sweeping away debris B) physically trapping pathogens C) destruction of pathogens because it is acidic D) increasing oxygen absorption

B) physically trapping pathogens

17

Within a differentiated B cell, the rearrangement of DNA sequences between variable regions and joining regions is accomplished by a(n) __________. A) RNA polymerase B) reverse transcriptase C) epitopase D) recombinase

D) recombinase

18

Clonal selection and differentiation of B cells activated by antigen exposure leads to the production of __________. A) large quantities of the antigen initially recognized B) vast numbers of B cells with random antigen-recognition receptors C) long-lived erythrocytes that can later secrete antibodies for the antigen D) short-lived plasma cells that secrete antibodies for the antigen

D) short -lived plasma cells that secrete antibodies for the antigen

19

A newborn who is accidentally given a drug that destroys the thymus would most likely __________. A) lack innate immunity B) be unable to genetically rearrange antigen receptors C) be unable to differentiate and mature T cells D) have a reduced number of B cells and be unable to form antibodies

C) be unable to differentiate and mature T cells

20

Clonal selection is an explanation for how __________. A) V, J, and C gene segments are rearranged B) an antigen can provoke production of high levels of specific antibodies C) HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) can disrupt the immune system D) macrophages can recognize specific T cells and B cells

B) an antigen can provoke production of high levels of specific antibodies

21

An immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule, or whatever class, with regions symbolized as C or V, H or L, has a light chain made up of __________. A) one C region and one V region B) one H region and one L region C) threes H regions and one L region D) two C regions and two V regions

A) one C region and one V region

22

Immunological memory accounts for __________. A) the human body's ability to distinguish self from non-self B) the observation that come strains of the pathogen that causes dengue fever cause moreover disease than others C) the ability of a helper T cell to signal B cells via cytokines D) the ancient observation that someone who had recovered from the plague could safely care for those newly diseased

D) the ancient observation that someone who had recovered from the plague could safely care for those newly diseased

23

An otherwise healthy studentt in your class is infected with EBV, the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis. the same student had already been infected when she was a child, at which time she had merely experienced a mild sore throat and swollen lymph nodes in her neck. This time, those infected, she does not get sick. The EBV antigen fragments will be presented by the virus-infected cells along with __________. A) a complement B) antibodies C) class I MHC molecules D) class II MHC molecules

C) case I MHC molecules

24

Vaccination increases the number of __________. A) lymphocytes with receptors that can bind to the pathogen B) epitopes that the immune system can recognize C) macrophages specific for a pathogen D) amor histocompatability (MHC) molecules that can present an antigen

A) lymphocytes with receptors that can bind to the pathogen

25

If a patient is missing B and T cells, what would be absent for the immune response? A) memory B) lysozymes C) cytokines D) defense against bacteria

A) memory

26

Lymphocytes mature in the __________. I. spleen II. thymus III. bone marrow A) only I and III B) only I and II C) only II and III D) I, II, and III

C) only II and III

27

Which of the following statements are fundamental to the clonal-selection theory of how the adaptive immune system functions? I. Each lmohocyte has a unique membrane receptor that recognizes one antigen II. when the lymphocyte binds an antigen, it is activate and begins dividing to form many identical copies of itself III. cloned lymphocytes have slight differences and are selected by the spleen for removal if they do not bind an antigen IV. cloned cells descend from an activated lymphocyte and persist even after the pathogen is eliminated. A) only I and III B) only II and IV C) only I, II, and III D) only II, III, and IV

C) only I, II, and III

28

What major advantage is conveyed by having a system of adaptive immunity? A) it enables a rapid defense against and antigen that has been previously encountered B) it enables an animal to counter most pathogens almost instantly the first time they are encountered C) It results in effector cells with specificity for a large number of antigens D) it allows for the destruction of antibodies

A) it enables a rapid defense against an antigen that has been previously encountered

29

Which of the following is a difference between B cells and T cells? A) one has a major role in antibody production, while the other has a major role in cytotoxicity B) one binds a receptor called BCR (B-cell receptor), while the recognizes a receptor called TCR (T-cell receptor) C) B cella are activated by free-floating antigens in the blood or mph. T cells are activated by membrane-bound antigens D) T cells are produced in the thymus and B cells are produced in the bone marrow

A) one has a major antibody production while the other has a major role in cytotoxicity

30

A certain cell type has existed in the blood and tissue of its vertebrate host's immune system for over twenty years. On day, it recognizes a newly arrived antigen and binds to it, subsequently triggering a secondary immune response in the body. which of the following cell type most accurately describes this cell? A) plasma cell B) thyroid cell C) memory cell D) macrophage

C) memory cell

31

which of the following statements about epitopes are correct? I. B-cell receptors bind to epitopes II. T-cell receptors bind to epitopes III. There can be 10 or more different epitopes on each antigen IV. There is a one-to-one correspondence between antigen and epitope A) only I and III B) only II and IV C) only I, II, III D) only II, III, IV

C) only I, II, III

32

Which of the following pairs of proteins shares the most overall similarity in structure? A) B- cell receptors and T-cell receptors B) B-cell receptors and antibodies C) T-cell receptors and antibodies D) antibodies and antigens

B) B-cell receptors and antibodies

33

What type of immunity is associated with breast feeding? A) innate immunity B) active immunity C) passive immunity D) cell-mediated immunity

C) passive immunity

34

Select the pathway that would lead to the activation of cytotoxic T cells. A) B cell contact antigen --> helper T cell is activated --> clonal selection occurs B) body cell becomes infected with a virus --> new viral proteins appear --> class I MHC molecule-antigen complex displayed on cell surface C) complement is secreted --> B cell contacts antigen --> helper T cell activated --> cytokines released D) cytotoxic T cells --> class II MHC molecule-antigen complex displayed --> cytokines released --> cell lysis

B) body cell becomes infected with a virus --> new viral proteins appear --> class I MHC molecule-antigen complex displayed on cell surface

35

Arrange in the correct sequence these components of the mammalian immune system as it first responds to a pathogen. I. pathogen is destroyed II. lymphocytes secrete antibodies III. antigenic determinants from the pathogen bind to antigen receptors on lymphocytes IV. lymphocytes specific to antigenic determinants from pathogen become numerous V. only memory cells remain A) I --> III --> II --> IV --> V B) II --> I --> IV --> III --> V C) IV --> II --> III --> I --> V D) III --> IV --> II --> I --> V

D) III --> IV --> II --> I --> V

36

a nonfunctional CD4 protein on a helper T cell would result in the helper T cell being unable to __________. A) respond to T- independent antigens B) lyse tumor cells C) stimulate a cytotoxic T cell D) interact with a class II MHC-antigen complex

D) interact with a class II MHC-antigen complex

37

CD4 and CD8 are __________. A) proteins secreted by antigen-presenting cells B) receptors present on the surface of natural killer cells C) molecules present on the surface of T cells where they interact with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules D) molecules on the surface of the antigen-presenting cells where they enhance B cell activity

C) molecule present on the surface of T cells where they interact with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules

38

T cells of the immune system include __________. A) CD4, CD8, and plasma cells B) cytotoxic and helper cells C) plasma, antigen-presenting, and memory cells D) lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells

B) cytotoxic and helper cells

39

B cells interacting with helper T cells are stimulated to differentiate when _____. A) B cells produce IgE antibodies B) B cells release cytokines C) cytotoxic T cells present the class II MHC molecule-antigen complex on their surface D) helper T cells release cytokines

D) helper T cells release cytokines

40

When antibodies bind antigens, the clumping of antigens results from _____. A) the antibody having at least two binding regions B) disulfide bridges between the antigens C) bonds between class I and class II MHC molecules D) denaturation of the antibodies

A) the antibody having at least two binding regions

41

Phagocytosis of microbes by macrophages is enhanced by _____. I) the binding of antibodies to the surface of microbes II) antibody-mediated agglutination of microbes III) the release of cytokines by activated B cells A) only I and II B) only II and III C) only I and III D) I, II, and, III

A) only I and II

42

Naturally acquired passive immunity can result from the _____. A) injection of vaccine B) ingestion of interferon C) placental transfer of antibodies D) absorption of pathogens through mucous membranes

C) placental transfer of antibodies

43

Jenner's successful use of cowpox virus as a vaccine against the smallpox virus was due to the fact that _____. A) the immune system responds nonspecifically to antigens B) the cowpox virus made antibodies in response to the presence of smallpox C) there are some epitopes (antigenic determinants) common to both pox viruses D) cowpox and smallpox are caused by the same virus

C) there are some epitopes (antigenic determinants) common to both pox viruses

44

An individual who has been bitten by a poisonous snake that has a fast-acting toxin would likely benefit from _____. A) vaccination with a weakened form of the toxin B) injection of antibodies to the toxin C) injection of interleukin-1 D) injection of interferon

B) injection of antibodies to the toxin

45

For the successful development of a vaccine to be used against a pathogen, it is necessary that _____. A) the surface antigens of the pathogen stay the same B) all of the surface antigens on the pathogen be identified C) the pathogen has only one epitope D) the major histocompatability (MHC) molecules are heterozygous

A) the surface antigens of the pathogen stay the same

46

The switch of one B cell from producing one class of antibody to another class of antibody that is responsive to the same antigen is due to _____. A) the rearrangement of V region genes in that clone of responsive B cells B) a switch in the kind of antigen-presenting cell that is involved in the immune response C) a patient's reaction to the first kind of antibody made by the plasma cells D) the rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain C region DNA

D) the rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain C region DNA

47

The number of major histocompatability (MHC) protein combinations possible in a given population is enormous. However, an individual in that diverse population has a far more limited array of MHC molecules because _____. A) the MHC proteins are made from several different gene regions that are capable of rearranging in a number of ways B) MHC proteins from one individual can only be of class I or class II C) each of the MHC genes has a large number of alleles, but each individual only inherits two for each gene D) once a B cell has matured in the bone marrow, it is limited to two MHC response categories

C) each of the MHC genes has a large number of alleles, but etc individual only inherits two

48

A bone marrow transplant may not be appropriate from a given donor (Jane) to a given recipient (Jane's cousin Bob), even though Jane has previously given blood for one of Bob's needed transfusions, because _____. A) even though Jane's blood type is a match to Bob's, her major histocompatability (MHC) proteins may not be a match B) a blood type match is less stringent than a match required for transplant because blood is more tolerant of change C) for each gene, there is only one blood allele but many tissue alleles D) Jane's MHC class II genes are not expressed in bone marrow

A) even though Jane's blood type is a match to bob's her major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins may not be a match

49

An immune response to a tissue graft will differ from an immune response to a bacterium because _____. A) MHC molecules of the donor may stimulate rejection of the graft tissue, but bacteria lack MHC molecules B) the tissue graft, unlike the bacterium, is isolated from the circulation and will not enter into an immune response C) a bacterium cannot escape the immune system by replicating inside normal body cells D) the graft will stimulate an autoimmune response in the recipient

A) MHC molecules of the donor may stimulate rejection of the graft tissue, but bacteria lack MHC molecules

50

An otherwise healthy student in your class is infected with EBV, the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis. The same student had already been infected when she was a child, at which time she had merely experienced a mild sore throat and swollen lymph nodes in her neck. This time, though infected, she does not get sick. Her immune system's recognition of the second infection involves memory _____. A) helper T cells B) natural killer cells C) plasma cells D) cytotoxic T cells

D) cytotoxic T cells

51

Which of the following should be the same in identical twins? A) the set of antibodies produced B) the set of major histocompatability (MHC) molecules produced C) the set of T cell antigen receptors produced D) the susceptibility to a particular virus

B) the set of major histocompatability (MHC) molecules produced

52

Which of the following is crucial to activation of the adaptive immune response? A) memory cells B) presentation of MHC (major histocompatibility complex)-antigen complex on a cell surface C) somatic hypermutation D) phagocytosis of antibody-antigen complex by macrophages in the blood (the humoral response)

B) presentation of MHC (major histocompatibility complex)-antigen complex on a cell surface

53

Which of the following components of the immune system destroys bacteria in a way similar to an antitank weapon destroying armored military tanks by punching holes in the wall of the bacteria? A) complement protein B) macrophages C) plasma cells D) major histocompatibility complex proteins

A) complement protein

54

Yearly vaccination of humans for influenza viruses is necessary because _____. A) of an increase in immunodeficiency diseases B) the flu can generate anaphylactic shock C) surviving the flu one year exhausts the immune system to nonresponsiveness the second year D) rapid mutation in flu viruses alters the surface proteins in infected host cells

D) rapid mutation in flu viruses alters the surface proteins in infected host cells

55

A patient who has a high level of mast cell activity, dilation of blood vessels, and acute drop in blood pressure is likely suffering from _____. A) an autoimmune disease B) a typical skin allergy (contact dermatitis) that can be treated by antihistamines C) an organ transplant, such as a skin graft D) anaphylactic shock immediately following exposure to an allergen

D) anaphylactic shock immediately following exposure to an allergen

56

The ability of some viruses to remain inactive (latent) for a period of time is exemplified by _____. A) influenza, a particular strain of which returns every 10-20 years B) herpes simplex viruses (oral or genital) whose reproduction is triggered by physiological or emotional stress in the host C) Kaposi's sarcoma, which causes a skin cancer in people with AIDS but rarely in those not infected by HIV D) the virus that causes a form of the common cold, which recurs in patients many times in their lives

B) herpes simplex viruses (oral or genital) whose reproduction is triggered by physiological or emotional stress in the host

57

A patient complaining of watery, itchy eyes and sneezing after being given a flower bouquet as a birthday gift should first be treated with _____. A) a vaccine B) sterile pollen C) antihistamines D) monoclonal antibodies

C) antihistamines

58

Which of the following would help a virus avoid triggering an effective adaptive immune response? I. having frequent mutations in genes for surface proteins II. building the viral shell from host proteins III. producing proteins very similar to those of other viruses IV. infecting and killing helper T cells A) only I and III B) only I, II, and IV C) only I, II, and III D) only II, III, and IV

B) only I, II, and IV

59

Which of the following is the best definition of autoimmune disease? A) a condition in which B cells and T cells respond independently to antigens and do not interact correctly B) a condition in which the adaptive immune system fails to recognize the second infection by the same antigen C) a condition in which self molecules are treated as non-self D) a condition in which the immune system creates random antibodies without being triggered by an antigen

C) a condition in which self molecules are treated as non-self

60

Which of the following would prevent allergic attacks? A) blocking the attachment of the IgE antibodies to the mast cells B) blocking the antigenic determinants of the IgM antibodies C) reducing the number of helper T cells in the body D) reducing the number of cytotoxic cells

A) blocking that attachment of the IgE antibodies to the mast cells

61

In a humoral or antibody-mediated immune response, specific B cells are stimulated by Helper T cells to transform into plasma cells that secrete antibodies. What would be an important feature added to B cells In this transition process? A) Duplication of specific gene sequences for the appropriate antibody. B) Increased rough endoplasmic reticulum in order to have the surface area needed for antibody production. C) Duplication of lysosomes in order to store the antibodies before transport.

B) increased rough endoplasmic reticulum in order to have the surface area needed for antibody production