AP Biology

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Campbell Biology
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1) A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a A) biosystem. B) community. C) population. D) ecosystem. E) family.

C

2

2) Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight into A) the energy of motion. B) carbon dioxide and water. C) the potential energy of chemical bonds. D) oxygen. E) kinetic energy.

C

3

3) The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is A) light energy. B) kinetic energy. C) thermal energy. D) chemical energy. E) ATP.

A

4

4) Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope? A) animal B) plant C) archaea D) fungi E) protists

C

5

5) To understand the chemical basis of inheritance, we must understand the molecular structure of DNA. This is an example of the application of which concept to the study of biology? A) evolution B) emergent properties C) reductionism D) the cell theory E) feedback regulation

C

6

9) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common? A) a membrane-bounded nucleus B) a cell wall made of cellulose C) ribosomes D) flagella or cilia that contain microtubules E) linear chromosomes made of DNA and protein

C

7

10) Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains? A) Bacteria and Eukarya B) Archaea and Monera C) Eukarya and Monera D) Bacteria and Protista E) Bacteria and Archaea

E

8

12) A water sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single-celled organism that had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is its most likely classification? A) Eukarya B) Archaea C) Animalia D) Protista E) Fungi

B

9

13) A filamentous organism has been isolated from decomposing organic matter. This organism has a cell wall but no chloroplasts. How would you classify this organism? A) domain Bacteria, kingdom Prokaryota B) domain Archaea, kingdom Bacteria C) domain Eukarya, kingdom Plantae D) domain Eukarya, kingdom Protista E) domain Eukarya, kingdom Fungi

E

10

15) Which of the following is (are) true of natural selection? A) It requires genetic variation. B) It results in descent with modification. C) It involves differential reproductive success. D) It results in descent with modification and involves differential reproductive success. E) It requires genetic variation, results in descent with modification, and involves differential reproductive success.

E

11

16) Charles Darwin proposed a mechanism for descent with modification that stated that organisms of a particular species are adapted to their environment when they possess A) non-inheritable traits that enhance their survival in the local environment. B) non-inheritable traits that enhance their reproductive success in the local environment. C) non-inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment. D) inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment. E) inheritable traits that decrease their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.

D

12

17) Which of these individuals is likely to be most successful in an evolutionary sense? A) a reproductively sterile individual who never falls ill B) an organism that dies after five days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce C) a male who mates with 20 females and fathers one offspring D) an organism that lives 100 years and leaves two offspring, both of whom survive to reproduce E) a female who mates with 20 males and produces one offspring that lives to reproduce

B

13

19) Through time, the lineage that led to modern whales shows a change from four-limbed land animals to aquatic animals with two limbs that function as flippers. This change is best explained by A) natural philosophy. B) creationism. C) the hierarchy of the biological organization of life. D) natural selection. E) feedback inhibition.

D

14

20) What is the major difference between a kingdom and a domain? A) A kingdom can include several subgroups known as domains. B) All eukarya belong to one domain. C) All prokaryotes belong to one domain. D) The importance of fungi has led scientists to make them the whole of one domain. E) Only organisms that produce their own food belong to one of the domains.

B

15

25) What is the major distinguishing characteristic of fungi? A) gaining nutrition through ingestion B) being sedentary C) being prokaryotic D) absorbing dissolved nutrients E) being decomposers of dead organisms

D

16

26) What are archaea? A) Prokaryotes characterized as extremophiles that share some bacterial and some eukaryotic traits. B) Organisms that are adapted to high temperature environments, such as in volcanic springs. C) Single-celled organisms that are killed by the application of antibiotics at certain concentrations. D) Bacteria-like organisms that can live only in extreme salt environments. E) Primitive protist-like creatures possessing fewer than two chromosomes per cell.

A

17

27) According to Darwinian theory, which of the following exhibits the greatest fitness for evolutionary success? A) the species with the longest life B) the individuals within a population that have the greatest reproductive success C) the phylum with members that occupy the greatest number of habitats D) the community of organisms that is capable of living in the most nutrient-poor biome E) the organism that produces its own nutrients most efficiently

B

18

29) Why is the theme of evolution considered to be the core theme of biology by biologists? A) It provides a framework within which all biological investigation makes sense. B) It is recognized as the core theme of biology by organizations such as the National Science Foundation. C) Controversy about this theory provides a basis for a great deal of experimental research. D) Since it cannot be proven, biologists will be able to study evolutionary possibilities for many years. E) Biologists do not subscribe to alternative models.

A

19

30) The method of scientific inquiry that describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and the analysis of data is known as A) hypothesis-based science. B) discovery science. C) experimental science. D) quantitative science. E) qualitative science.

B

20

31) Collecting data based on observation is an example of ________; analyzing this data to reach a conclusion is an example of ________ reasoning. A) hypothesis-based science; inductive B) the process of science; deductive C) discovery science; inductive D) descriptive science; deductive E) hypothesis-based science; deductive

C

21

36) Which of the following are qualities of any good scientific hypothesis? I. It is testable. II. It is falsifiable. III. It produces quantitative data. IV. It produces results that can be replicated. A) I only B) II only C) III only D) I and II E) III and IV

D

22

37) When a hypothesis cannot be written in an "If...then" format, what does this mean? A) It does not represent deductive reasoning. B) It cannot be a scientific hypothesis. C) The subject cannot be explored scientifically. D) The hypothesizer does not have sufficient information. E) It cannot be testable.

A

23

39) Which of the following is the best description of a control for an experiment? A) The control group is kept in an unchanging environment. B) The control is left alone by the experimenters. C) The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable. D) The control group is exposed to only one variable rather than several. E) Only the experimental group is tested or measured.

C

24

41) Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning? A) Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic. B) These organisms live in sunny parts of this area so they are able to photosynthesize. C) If horses are always found grazing on grass, they can be only herbivores and not omnivores. D) If protists are all single-celled, then they are incapable of aggregating. E) If two species are members of the same genus, they are more alike than each of them could be to a different genus.

A

25

42) In a high school laboratory, which of the following constitutes an experiment? I. learning to use a microscope by examining fixed specimens on slides II. being able to examine swimming protists under a microscope III. extracting pigments from plant leaves and separating the types of pigments for identification IV. preparing root tips for examination by staining them A) I only B) II only C) III only D) II and III only E) II, III, and IV

C

26

44) Why is a scientific topic best discussed by people of varying points of view, a variety of subdisciplines, and diverse cultures? A) They can rectify each other's approach to make it truly scientific. B) Robust and critical discussion between diverse groups improves scientific thinking. C) Scientists can explain to others that they need to work in isolation to utilize the scientific method more productively. D) This is another way of making science more reproducible. E) Scientists need to exchange their ideas with other disciplines and cultures so that all groups are in consensus with the course of future research.

B

27

61) A controlled experiment is one that A) proceeds slowly enough that a scientist can make careful records of the results. B) tests experimental and control groups in parallel. C) is repeated many times to make sure the results are accurate. D) keeps all variables constant. E) is supervised by an experienced scientist.

B

28

62) Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science? A) Theories are hypotheses that have been proved. B) Hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers. C) Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power. D) Hypotheses and theories are essentially the same thing. E) Theories are proved true; hypotheses are often falsified.

C

29

64) Which of the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry? A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it. B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis. C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis. D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results. E) If my experiments are set up right, they will lead to a testable hypothesis.

D