Campbell Biology: Chapter 11 AP Biology Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
Chapter 11
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1

1) In the yeast signal transduction pathway, after both types of mating cells have released the mating factors and the factors have bound to specific receptors on the correct cells, A) binding induces changes in the cells that lead to cell fusion. B) the cells then produce the a factor and the α factor. C) one cell nucleus binds the mating factors and produces a new nucleus in the opposite cell. D) the cell membranes fall apart, releasing the mating factors that lead to new yeast cells. E) a growth factor is secreted that stimulates mitosis in both cells.

A

2

2) Which of the following is true of the mating signal transduction pathway in yeast? A) The pathway carries an electrical signal between mating cell types. B) Mating type a secretes a signal called a factor. C) The molecular details of the pathway in yeast and in animals are very different. D) Scientists think the pathway evolved long after multicellular creatures appeared on Earth. E) The signal reception, transduction, and response occur in the nucleus.

B

3

3) What could happen to the target cells in an animal that lack receptors for local regulators? A) They could compensate by receiving nutrients via an a factor. B) They could develop normally in response to neurotransmitters instead. C) They could divide but never reach full size. D) They would not be able to multiply in response to growth factors from nearby cells. E) Hormones would not be able to interact with target cells.

D

4

4) Paracrine signaling A) involves secreting cells acting on nearby target cells by discharging a local regulator into the extracellular fluid. B) requires nerve cells to release a neurotransmitter into the synapse. C) occurs only in paracrine yeast cells. D) has been found in plants but not animals. E) involves mating factors attaching to target cells and causing production of new paracrine cells.

A

5

5) From the perspective of the cell receiving the message, the three stages of cell signaling are A) the paracrine, local, and synaptic stages. B) signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response. C) signal reception, nucleus disintegration, and new cell generation. D) the alpha, beta, and gamma stages. E) signal reception, cellular response, and cell division.

B

6

6) The process of transduction usually begins A) when the chemical signal is released from the alpha cell. B) when the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way. C) after the target cell divides. D) after the third stage of cell signaling is completed. E) when the hormone is released from the gland into the blood.

B

7

7) When a cell releases a signal molecule into the environment and a number of cells in the immediate vicinity respond, this type of signaling is A) typical of hormones. B) autocrine signaling. C) paracrine signaling. D) endocrine signaling. E) synaptic signaling.

C

8

8) Synaptic signaling between adjacent neurons is like hormone signaling in which of the following ways? A) It sends its signal molecules through the blood. B) It sends its signal molecules quite a distance. C) It requires calcium ions. D) It requires binding of a signaling molecule to a receptor. E) It persists over a long period.

D

9

9) A small molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, usually a larger one A) is called a signal transducer. B) is called a ligand. C) is called a polymer. D) seldom is involved in hormonal signaling. E) usually terminates a signal reception.

B

10

10) Which of the following is (are) true of ligand-gated ion channels? A) They are important in the nervous system. B) They lead to changes in sodium and calcium concentrations in cells. C) They open or close in response to a chemical signal. D) Only A and B are true. E) A, B, and C are true.

E

11

11) Of the following, a receptor protein in a membrane that recognizes a chemical signal is most similar to A) the active site of an allosteric enzyme in the cytoplasm that binds to a specific substrate. B) RNA specifying the amino acids in a polypeptide. C) a particular metabolic pathway operating within a specific organelle. D) an enzyme with an optimum pH and temperature for activity. E) genes making up a chromosome.

A

12

12) What would be true for the signaling system in an animal cell that lacks the ability to produce GTP? A) It would not be able to activate and inactivate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. B) It could activate only the epinephrine system. C) It would be able to carry out reception and transduction, but would not be able to respond to a signal. D) Only A and C are true. E) A, B, and C are true.

A

13

13) G proteins and G-protein-linked receptors A) are found only in animal cells, and only embedded in or located just beneath the cellʹs membrane. B) are found only in bacterial cells, embedded in the cellʹs plasma membrane only. C) are thought to have evolved very early, because of their similar structure and function in a wide variety of modern organisms. D) probably evolved from an adaptation of the citric acid cycle. E) are not widespread in nature and were unimportant in the evolution of eukaryotes.

C

14

14) Membrane receptors that attach phosphates to specific animo acids in proteins are A) not found in humans. B) called receptor tyrosine-kinases. C) a class of GTP G-protein signal receptors. D) associated with several bacterial diseases in humans. E) important in yeast mating factors that contain amino acids.

B

15

15) Up to 60% of all medicines used today exert their effects by influencing what structures in the cell membrane? A) tyrosine-kinases receptors B) ligand-gated ion channel receptors C) growth factors D) G proteins E) cholesterol

D

16

16) Which of the following are chemical messengers that pass through the plasma membrane of cells and have receptor molecules in the cytoplasm? A) insulin B) testosterone C) cAMP D) epinephrine

C

17

17) Testosterone functions inside a cell by A) acting as a signal receptor that activates ion-channel proteins. B) binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes. C) acting as a steroid signal receptor that activates ion-channel proteins. D) becoming a second messenger that inhibits adenylyl cyclase. E) coordinating a phosphorylation cascade that increases glycogen metabolism.

B

18

18) Which is true of transcription factors? A) They regulate the synthesis of DNA in response to a signal. B) Some transcribe ATP into cAMP. C) They initiate the epinephrine response in animal cells. D) They control which genes are expressed. E) They are needed to regulate the synthesis of lipids in the cytoplasm.

D

19

19) Chemical signal pathways A) operate in animals, but not in plants. B) are absent in bacteria, but are plentiful in yeast. C) involve the release of hormones into the blood. D) often involve the binding of signal molecules to a protein on the surface of a target cell. E) use hydrophilic molecules to activate enzymes.

D

20

A major group of G protein-linked receptors contain seven transmembrane alpha helices. The amino end of the protein lies at the exterior of the plasma membrane. Loops of amino acids connect the helices either at the exterior face or on the cytosol face of the membrane. The loop on the cytosol side between helices 5 and 6 is usually substantially longer than the others. 20) Where would you expect to find the carboxyl end? A) at the exterior surface B) at the cytosol surface C) connected with the loop at H5 and H6 D) between the membrane layers

B

21

A major group of G protein-linked receptors contain seven transmembrane alpha helices. The amino end of the protein lies at the exterior of the plasma membrane. Loops of amino acids connect the helices either at the exterior face or on the cytosol face of the membrane. The loop on the cytosol side between helices 5 and 6 is usually substantially longer than the others. 21) The coupled G protein most likely interacts with this receptor A) at the NH3 end B) at the COO- end C) along the exterior margin D) along the interior margin E) at the loop between H5 and H6

E

22

Affinity chromatography is a method that can be used to purify cell-surface receptors, while they retain their hormone-binding ability. A ligand (hormone) for a receptor of interest is chemically linked to polystyrene beads. A solubilized preparation of membrane proteins is passed over a column containing these beads. Only the receptor binds to the beads. 22) When an excess of the ligand (hormone) is poured through the column after the receptor binding step, what do you expect will occur? A) The ligand will attach to those beads that have the receptor and remain on the column. B) The ligand will cause the receptor to be displaced from the beads and eluted out. C) The ligand will attach to the bead instead of the receptor. D) The ligand will cause the bead to lose its affinity by changing shape. E) The reaction will cause a pH change due to electron transfer.

B

23

Affinity chromatography is a method that can be used to purify cell-surface receptors, while they retain their hormone-binding ability. A ligand (hormone) for a receptor of interest is chemically linked to polystyrene beads. A solubilized preparation of membrane proteins is passed over a column containing these beads. Only the receptor binds to the beads. 23) This method of affinity chromatography would be expected to collect which of the following? A) molecules of the hormone B) molecules of purified receptor C) G proteins D) assorted membrane proteins E) hormone-receptor complexes

B

24

24) One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane reacts by forming dimmers, adding phosphate groups, then activating relay proteins. Which type does this? A) G protein-linked receptor B) ligand-gated ion channels C) steroid receptors D) receptor tyrosine kinases

D

25

25) The receptors for a group of signaling molecules known as growth factors are often A) ligand-gated ion channels. B) G-protein-linked receptors. C) cyclic AMP. D) receptor tyrosine kinases. E) neurotransmitters.

D

26

26) In general, a signal transmitted via phosphorylation of a series of proteins A) brings a conformational change to each protein. B) requires binding of a hormone to a cytosol receptor. C) cannot occur in yeasts because they lack protein phosphatases. D) requires phosphorylase activity. E) allows target cells to change their shape and therefore their activity

A

27

27) Sutherland discovered that epinephrine A) signals bypass the plasma membrane of cells. B) lowers blood glucose by binding to liver cells. C) interacts with insulin inside muscle cells. D) interacts directly with glycogen phosphorylase. E) elevates the cytosolic concentration of cyclic AMP.

E

28

28) Which of the following is the best explanation for the inability of an animal cell to reduce the Ca2+ concentration in its cytosol compared with the extracellular fluid? A) blockage of the synaptic signal B) loss of transcription factors C) insufficient ATP levels in the cytoplasm D) low oxygen concentration around the cell E) low levels of protein kinase in the cell

C

29

29) The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is A) phosphorylase. B) phosphatase. C) protein kinase. D) ATPase. E) protease.

C

30

30) Which of the following describes cell communication systems? A) Cell signaling evolved more recently than systems such as the immune system of vertebrates. B) Communicating cells are usually close together. C) Most signal receptors are bound to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. D) Lipid phosphorylation is a major mechanism of signal transduction. E) In response to a signal, the cell may alter activities by changes in cytosol activity or in transcription of RNA.

E

31

31) The toxin of Vibrio cholerae causes profuse diarrhea because it A) modifies a G protein involved in regulating salt and water secretion. B) decreases the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions, making the cells hypotonic to the intestinal cells. C) binds with adenylyl cyclase and triggers the formation of cAMP. D) signals inositol trisphosphate to become a second messenger for the release of calcium. E) modifies calmodulin and activates a cascade of protein kinases.

A

32

32) Which of the following would be inhibited by a drug that specifically blocks the addition of phosphate groups to proteins? A) G-protein-linked receptor signaling B) ligand-gated ion channel signaling C) adenylyl cyclase activity D) phosphatase activity E) receptor tyrosine kinase activity

E

33

33) Which of the following most likely would be an immediate result of growth factor binding to its receptor? A) protein kinase activity B) adenylyl cyclase activity C) GTPase activity D) protein phosphatase activity E) phosphorylase activity

A

34

34) An inhibitor of phosphodiesterase activity would have which of the following effects? A) block the response of epinephrine B) decrease the amount of cAMP in the cytoplasm C) block the activation of G proteins in response to epinephrine binding to its receptor D) prolong the effect of epinephrine by maintaining elevated cAMP levels in the cytoplasm E) block the activation of protein kinase A

D

35

35) Adenylyl cyclase has the opposite effect of which of the following? A) protein kinase B) protein phosphatase C) phosphodiesterase D) phosphorylase E) GTPase

C

36

36) Caffeine is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Therefore, the cells of a person who has recently consumed coffee would have increased levels of A) phosphorylated proteins. B) GTP. C) cAMP. D) adenylyl cyclase. E) activated G proteins.

C

37

37) If a pharmaceutical company wished to design a drug to maintain low blood sugar levels, one approach might be to A) design a compound that blocks epinephrine receptor activation. B) design a compound that inhibits cAMP production in liver cells. C) design a compound to block G-protein activity in liver cells. D) design a compound that inhibits phosphorylase activity. E) All of the above are possible approaches.

E

38

38) If a pharmaceutical company wished to design a drug to maintain low blood sugar levels, one approach might be to A) design a compound that mimics epinephrine and can bind to the epinephrine receptor. B) design a compound that stimulates cAMP production in liver cells. C) design a compound to stimulate G protein activity in liver cells. D) design a compound that increases phosphodiesterase activity. E) All of the above are possible approaches.

D

39

39) An inhibitor of which of the following could be used to block the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum? A) tyrosine kinases B) serine/threonine kinases C) phosphodiesterase D) phospholipase C E) adenylyl cyclase

D

40

40) Which of the following statements is true? A) When signal molecules first bind to receptor tyrosine kinases, the receptors phosphorylate a number of nearby molecules. B) In response to some G-protein-mediated signals, a special type of lipid molecule associated with the plasma membrane is cleaved to form IP3 and calcium. C) In most cases, signal molecules interact with the cell at the plasma membrane and then enter the cell and eventually the nucleus. D) Toxins such as those that cause botulism and cholera interfere with the ability of activated G proteins to hydrolyze GTP to GDP, resulting in phosphodiesterase activity in the absence of an appropriate signal molecule. E) Protein kinase A activation is one possible result of signal molecules binding to G protein-linked receptors.

E

41

41) Which of the following is a correct association? A) kinase activity and the addition of a tyrosine B) phosphodiesterase activity and the removal of phosphate groups C) GTPase activity and hydrolysis of GTP to GDP D) phosphorylase activity and the catabolism of glucose E) adenylyl cyclase activity and the conversion of cAMP to AMP

C

42

42) One inhibitor of cGMP is Viagra. It provides a signal that leads to dilation of blood vessels and increase of blood in the penis, facilitating erection. cGMP is inhibited, therefore the signal is prolonged. The original signal that is now inhibited would have A) hydrolyzed cGMP to GMP. B) hydrolyzed GTP to GDP. C) phosphorylated GDP. D) dephosphorylated cGMP. E) removed GMP from the cell.

A

43

43) A drug designed to inhibit the response of cells to testosterone would almost certainly result in which of the following? A) lower cytoplasmic levels of cAMP B) an increase in receptor tyrosine kinase activity C) a decrease in transcriptional activity of certain genes D) an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration E) a decrease in G-protein activity

C

44

44) Which of the substances below is a protein that can hold several other relay proteins as it binds to an activated membrane receptor? A) active transcription factor B) third messenger C) ligand D) scaffolding protein E) protein kinase

D

45

45) The description above illustrates which of the following? A) Just because a drug acts on one type of receptor does not mean that it will act on another type. B) Beta blockers can be used effectively on any type of muscle. C) Beta adrenergic receptors must be in the cytosol if they are going to influence contraction and relaxation. D) The chemical structures of the beta 1 and beta 2 receptors must have the same active sites

A

46

46) The use of beta 2 antagonist drugs may be useful in asthma because A) they may increase constriction of the skeletal muscle of the chest wall. B) they may increase heart rate and therefore allow the patient to get more oxygen circulated. C) they may dilate the bronchioles by relaxing their smooth muscle. D) they may override the beta blockers that the patient is already taking. E) they may obstruct all G protein-mediated receptors.

C

47

47) At puberty, an adolescent female body changes in both structure and function of several organ systems, primarily under the influence of changing concentrations of estrogens and other steroid hormones. How can one hormone, such as estrogen, mediate so many effects? A) Estrogen is produced in very large concentration and therefore diffuses widely. B) Estrogen has specific receptors inside several cell types, but each cell responds in the same way to its binding. C) Estrogen is kept away from the surface of any cells not able to bind it at the surface. D) Estrogen binds to specific receptors inside many kinds of cells, each of which have different responses to its binding. E) Estrogen has different shaped receptors for each of several cell types.

D

48

48) What are scaffolding proteins? A) ladder-like proteins that allow receptor-ligand complexes to climb through cells from one position to another B) microtubular protein arrays that allow lipid-soluble hormones to get from the cell membrane to the nuclear pores C) large molecules to which several relay proteins attach to facilitate cascade effects D) relay proteins that orient receptors and their ligands in appropriate directions to facilitate their complexing E) proteins that can reach into the nucleus of a cell to affect transcription

C

49

49) The termination phase of cell signaling requires which of the following? A) removal of the receptor B) activation of a different set of relay molecules C) converting ATP to camp D) reversing the binding of signal molecule to the receptor E) apoptosis

D

50

50) Why has C. elegans proven to be a useful model for understanding apoptosis? A) The animal has very few genes, so that finding those responsible is easier than in a more complex organism. B) The nematode undergoes a fixed and easy-to-visualize number of apoptotic events during its normal development. C) This plant has a long-studied aging mechanism that has made understanding its death just a last stage. D) While the organism ages, its cells die progressively until the whole organism is dead. E) All of its genes are constantly being expressed so all of its proteins are available from each cell.

B

51

51) Which of the following describes the events of apoptosis? A) The cell dies, it is lysed, its organelles are phagocytized, its contents are recycled. B) Its DNA and organelles become fragmented, it dies, and it is phagocytized. C) The cell dies and the presence of its fragmented contents stimulates nearby cells to divide. D) Its DNA and organelles are fragmented, the cell shrinks and forms blebs, and the cell self-digests. E) Its nucleus and organelles are lysed, the cell enlarges and bursts.

D

52

52) The main proteases involved in apoptosis are A) ced-3 and ced-4. B) inactive. C) cytochromes. D) caspases. E) G proteins.

D

53

53) Human caspases can be activated by A) irreparable DNA damage or protein misfolding. B) infrequency of cell division. C) high concentrations of vitamin C. D) a death-signaling ligand being removed from its receptor. E) electron transport.

A

54

54) If an adult person has a faulty version of the human-analog to ced-4 of the nematode, which of the following might more likely result? A) neurodegeneration B) activation of a developmental pathway found in the worm but not in humans C) a form of cancer in which there is insufficient apoptosis D) webbing of fingers or toes E) excess skin exfoliation

C