Biology Chapter 23

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 23
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1

What is an example of genetic drift? A bottleneck effect B directional selection C mutations D migration

A

2

Genetic variation is caused by? A mutations B recombination C intersexual selection D fitness E a & b

E

3

Which of the following is needed for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? A a small population B multiple mutations C no natural selection D gene flow

C

4

What kind of distribution does directional selection have? a. normal b. favors one distribution c. favors intermediate d. favors both extremes

B

5

Which is not an evolution pattern? a. convergent b. divergent c. coevolution d. mutations

D

6

Which example causes genetic variation? a. mutations b. intrasexual selection c. intersexual selection d. natural selection

A

7

Genetic drift a. does not affect the population b. widens phenotypes in a population c. expands genotypes in a population d. limits genotypes in a population

D

8

In the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium equation, p2 + 2pq + q2=1, "p2" represents which a. heterozygous frequency of a population b. homozygous dominant frequency of a population c. homozygous recessive frequency of a population d. a, b, and c e. only a and b

B

9

When looking at two generations, using relative fitness, the generation that created a larger number of offspring is said to have ___________ fitness and the generation that produced less offspring is said to have ____________ fitness. a. poor, better b. no, much c. better, poor d. much, no

C

10

Which of these is not a way populations change? a. natural selection b. gene flow c. Darwin factor d. genetic drift

C

11

Which is not a type of natural selection? a. directional selection b. stabilizing selection c. survival selection d. disruptive selection

C

12

In Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, what does "p" represent? a. dominant allele b. recessive allele c. heterozygous genotype d. phenotype

A

13

Only ___________ consistently results in adaptive evolution. a. Genetic drift b. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium c. natural selection d. bottleneck effect

C

14

The founder effect is a. the transfer of alleles between populations b. when few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that of the original population c. Natural selection that maintains two or more phenotypic forms in a population d. A decline in the reproductive success of individuals that have a phenotype that has become too common in a population

B

15

Disruptive selection a. favors variants at both ends of the distribution b. favors individuals at one end of the spectrum c. favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes d. none of the above

A

16

What does q^2 represent? a. the recessive allele b. homozygous recessive genotype c. heterozygous genotype d. the dominant allele

B

17

Which of the following is not an evolution pattern? a. convergent b. divergent c. coevolution d. submergent

D

18

According to "Darwinian fitness," If there are more offspring in a genetic population then there will be better _______. a. chance of depletion b. fitness c. chance of eradication d. behavior among male and female species

B

19

What is intrasexual selection? a) female choice of mate b) male choice of mate c) females fighting females for breeding rights d) males fighting males for breeding rights

D

20

What is intersexual selection? a) female choice of mate b) male choice of mate c) females fighting females for breeding rights d) males fighting males for breeding rights

A

21

What does the stabilizing selection favor? a) both extremes b) nothing c) intermediate d) one extreme

C

22

What is the founder effect? A. A process in which chance events cause unpredictable fluctuations in allele f frequencies from one generation to the next. B. Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that of the original population. C. Genetic drift that occurs when the size of a population is reduced, as by a natural disaster or human actions. D. Genetic drift that occurs when the population size is increased, as by a natural disaster or human means.

B

23

What is intrasexual selection? A. Selection whereby individuals of one sex are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex; also called mate choice. B. Selection in which intermediate phenotypes survive or reproduce more successfully than do extreme phenotypes. C. Selection in which there is direct competition among individuals of one sex for mates of the opposite sex. D. Selection in which individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do individuals with intermediate phenotypes.

C

24

Which of the following is not an assumption that must be made for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? A. small population B. no gene flow C. no sexual selection D. no mutations

A

25

What is the bottleneck effect? a. event that drastically reduces population size b. exchange between populations tends to reduce over time c.when all alleles are united in a gene pool

A

26

What is intersexual selection? a. Selection in which individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do individuals with intermediate phenotypes. b. Selection in which there is direct competition among individuals of one sex for mates of the opposite sex. c. Selection whereby individuals of one sex are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex; also called mate choice. d. Relationship between two individuals that have a relationship in their community

C

27

Which is NOT a type of speciation? a. behavioral b. geographic c. temporal d. divergent

D

28

Which of these is not a way in which the population changes? a. gene flow b. sexual selection c. aging d. natural selection e. mutation

C

29

A convergent evolutionary pattern is... a. a change towards similar traits in unrelated species b. evolution towards different traits in closely related species c. when two or more species change together in response to each other d. the elimination of species

A

30

What does q^2 represent on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? a. heterozygous dominant genotype b. homozygous dominant genotype c. homozygous recessive genotype d. heterozygous recessive genotype

C

31

What does 2pq represent on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? a. homozygous dominant genotype b. heterozygous dominant genotype c. recessive genotype d. dominant genotype

B

32

What type of sexual selection do males compete for females? a. Intrasexual selection b. Intersexual selection c. Natural selection d. Sexual selection

A

33

What is the ultimate source of new alleles? a. natural selection b. evolution c. mutation d. gene flow

C

34

Which of the following is not one of the assumptions needed to apply the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? a. no gene flow b. no mutations c. no natural selection d. changing population

D

35

Which of the following represents the dominant allele in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equations? (p+q=1 and p^2+2pq+q^2=1) a. p b. q c. p^2 d. q^2

A

36

Which of the following represents the heterozygous genotype in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equations? (p+q=1 and p^2+2pq+q^2=1) a. p^2 b. 2pq c. q^2 d. p

B

37

1. _______selection occurs when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of a phenotypic range. a. Directional b. Stabilizing c. Intrasexual d. Disruptive

D

38

______ selection occurs when conditions favor individuals with exhibiting one extreme of a phenotypic range, thus changing a population's frequency curve. a. Intersexual b. Disruptive c. Directional d. Stabilizing

C

39

_______ selection favors intermediate variants of a phenotypic range. a. Stabilizing b. Disruptive c. Directional d. Natural

A

40

Which is not part of Natural Selection a.Directional b.Stabilizing c.Disruptive d.Bottleneck effect

D

41

A graded change in a character along a geographic axis is a.cline b.intersexual selection c.gene pool d.population

A

42

Evolutionary change below the species level is a.bottleneck effect b. intrasexual selection c.microevolution d. gene flow

C

43

Which of the following is not an example of recombination? A. Crossing over B. Speciation C. Random fertilization D. Independent assortment

B

44

What is coevolution? A. Evolution toward different traits in closely related species B. Evolution toward similar traits in unrelated species C. Two or more species that change together in response to each other D. Elimination of species

C

45

Intrasexual is which of the following A. male vs male B. Female vs female C. Male choice D. Female choice

A

46

. Which of the following is not an assumption for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium to be used? A. No gene flow B. No sexual selection C. No speciation D. No mutations

C

47

Which of the following stands for the homozygous dominant genotype in the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium? A. p B. p^2 C. q D.q^2

B

48

Convergent Evolution is: A. evolution toward different traits in closely related species B. elimination of species C. two or more species changing together in response to each other D. evolution toward similar traits in unrelated species

D

49

What is the difference between two sexes in secondary sexual characteristics (ex. diferrence in size, color) called? A. intrasexual selection B. sexual dimorphism C. intersexual selection D. balancing selection

B

50

If a population size is severely reduced by a flood, the genotypes of the next generation will be affected by: A. the bottleneck effect B. the founder effect C. directional selection D. stabilizing selection

A

51

Which is not a way that sexual reproduction shuffles alleles? A. crossing over B. random fertilization C. independent assortment of chromosomes D. directional selection

D

52

When using the Hardy-Weinberg principle, p+q=_____. A. 4 B. 7 C.80 D.1

D

53

Mutations on ____ cells cause genetic variation because they are passed on the the next generation. A. Brain cells B. Gamete cells C. Any somatic cell D. Skin cells

B

54

_____ consist of all copies of every type of allele at every locus in all members of the population. A. Gene pool B. Population C. Genetic Drift D. Founder effect

A

55

What is genetic variation caused by? a. Mutation b. recombination c. both

C

56

What has to do with natural selection? a. bottleneck effect b. directional selection c. disruptive selection d. both b and c

D

57

If something is in equilibrium, population does not change. a. true b. false

A

58

Mating with relatives is called A. inbreeding B. random mating C. clines D. none of the above

A

59

Sickle-cell trait in humans is a classic example of ____________________. A. how mutations can lead only to tragic outcomes B. why outbreeding important C. the superior fitness seen in heterozygotes D. none of the above

C

60

Which of the following factors is most likely to contribute to gene flow between populations? A. genetic drift B. inbreeding C. migration D. none of the above

C

61

What way do peacocks normally attract their mate? a. bottleneck effect b. intrasexual c.intersexual d. founder effect

C

62

What are three of the five rules of Hardy-Weinburg? 1. Large populations 2. No gene flow 3. No mutations 4. No sexual selection 5. No natural selection

ALL TRUE

63

What does P2 mean? a. heterozygous b.recessive c. homozygous dominant d.overall genotypes

C

64

During an individual organism's lifetime, which of these is most likely to help the organism respond properly to changes in its environment? A) microevolution B) change in allele or gene frequency C) change in gene expression D) change in average heterozygosity

C

65

which one most consistently requires a small population as a precondition for its occurrence? A) mutation B) nonrandom mating C) genetic drift D) natural selection E) gene flow

C

66

A trend toward the decrease in the size of plants on the slopes of mountains as altitudes increase is an example of A) a cline. B) a bottleneck. C) relative fitness. D) genetic drift. E) geographic variation.

A