Chapter 19: Aldehydes & Ketones Flashcards
The suffix “__________” indicates an aldehydic group, and the suffix “__________” is used for ketones.
-al ; -one
The electrophilicity of a carbonyl group derives from __________________________ effects, as well as ____________________ effects.
resonence ; inductive
A general mechanism for nucleophilic addition under basic conditions involves two steps
1) nucleophilic attack
The position of equilibrium is dependent on the ability of the nucleophile to function as a ______________________________.
In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or ketone will react with two molecules of alcohol to form an ____________________.
The reversibility of acetal formation enables acetals to function as ______________________________ groups for ketones or aldehydes. Acetals are stable under strongly ______________ conditions.
protecting ; basic
In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or ketone will react with a primary amine to form an __________________.
In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or ketone will react with a secondary amine to form an ____________________.
In the Wolff-Kishner reduction, a hydrazone is reduced to an __________________ under strongly basic conditions.
__________________________________ of acetals, imines, and enamines under acidic conditions produces ketones or aldehydes.
In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or ketone will react with two equivalents of a thiol to form a ____________________________.
When treated with Raney nickel, thioacetals undergo desulfurization to yield a ____________________________ group.
When treated with a hydride reducing agent, such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) or sodium borohydride (NaBH4), aldehydes and ketones are reduced to ______________________________.
The reduction of a carbonyl group with LiAlH4 or NaBH4 is not a reversible process, because hydride does not function as a ________________________________________.
When treated with a Grignard reagent, aldehydes and ketones are converted into alcohols, accompanied by the formation of a new ______________________ bond.
Grignard reactions are not reversible, because carbanions do not function as ____________________________________.
When treated with hydrogen cyanide (HCN), aldehydes and ketones are converted into ____________________________. For most aldehydes and unhindered ketones, the equilibrium favors formation of the ____________________________________.
cyanohydrins ; cyanohydrin
The Wittig reaction can be used to convert a ketone to an __________________.
A Baeyer-Villiger oxidation converts a ketone to an ____________________ by inserting __________________________________________ next to the carbonyl group. Cyclic ketones produce cyclic esters called ______________________________.
ester ; an Oxygen atom ; lactones