Chapter 19: Aldehydes & Ketones Flashcards


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1

The suffix “__________” indicates an aldehydic group, and the suffix “__________” is used for ketones.

-al ; -one

2

The electrophilicity of a carbonyl group derives from __________________________ effects, as well as ____________________ effects.

resonence ; inductive

3

A general mechanism for nucleophilic addition under basic conditions involves two steps

1) nucleophilic attack

2) ________________________________

proton transfer

4

The position of equilibrium is dependent on the ability of the nucleophile to function as a ______________________________.

leaving group

5

In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or ketone will react with two molecules of alcohol to form an ____________________.

acetal

6

The reversibility of acetal formation enables acetals to function as ______________________________ groups for ketones or aldehydes. Acetals are stable under strongly ______________ conditions.

protecting ; basic

7

In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or ketone will react with a primary amine to form an __________________.

imine

8

In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or ketone will react with a secondary amine to form an ____________________.

enamine

9

In the Wolff-Kishner reduction, a hydrazone is reduced to an __________________ under strongly basic conditions.

alkene

10

__________________________________ of acetals, imines, and enamines under acidic conditions produces ketones or aldehydes.

hydrolisis

11

In acidic conditions, an aldehyde or ketone will react with two equivalents of a thiol to form a ____________________________.

thioacetal

12

When treated with Raney nickel, thioacetals undergo desulfurization to yield a ____________________________ group.

methylene

13

When treated with a hydride reducing agent, such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) or sodium borohydride (NaBH4), aldehydes and ketones are reduced to ______________________________.

alcohols

14

The reduction of a carbonyl group with LiAlH4 or NaBH4 is not a reversible process, because hydride does not function as a ________________________________________.

leaving groups

15

When treated with a Grignard reagent, aldehydes and ketones are converted into alcohols, accompanied by the formation of a new ______________________ bond.

C-C

16

Grignard reactions are not reversible, because carbanions do not function as ____________________________________.

leaving groups

17

When treated with hydrogen cyanide (HCN), aldehydes and ketones are converted into ____________________________. For most aldehydes and unhindered ketones, the equilibrium favors formation of the ____________________________________.

cyanohydrins ; cyanohydrin

18

The Wittig reaction can be used to convert a ketone to an __________________.

alkene

19

A Baeyer-Villiger oxidation converts a ketone to an ____________________ by inserting __________________________________________ next to the carbonyl group. Cyclic ketones produce cyclic esters called ______________________________.

ester ; an Oxygen atom ; lactones