chapter 26

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Microbiology
Chapter 26
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1

Normal microbiota of the adult vagina consist primarily of

A) Lactobacillus.

B) Streptococcus.

C) Mycobacterium.

D) Neisseria.

E) Candida.

a

2

Cystitis is most often caused by

A) Escherichia coli.

B) Leptospira interrogans.

C) Candida albicans.

D) Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

E) Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

a

3

Pyelonephritis may result from

A) urethritis.

B) cystitis.

C) ureteritis.

D) systemic infections.

E) All of the answers are correct.

e

4

All of the following result from N. gonorrhoeaeinfection. Which one leads to the others?

A) Antibody production is stopped.

B) CD4+ T lymphocytes do not activate.

C) There is an increased risk of other STIs.

D) Opa protein attaches to CD4+ T lymphocytes.

E) CD4+ T lymphocytes do not proliferate.

d

5

Pyelonephritis usually is caused by

A) Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

B) Proteus spp.

C) Escherichia coli.

D) Enterobacter aerogenes.

E) Streptococcus pyogenes.

c

6

The most common reservoir for leptospirosis within the United States is

A) humans.

B) water.

C) domestic dogs.

D) domestic cats.

E) rats.

c

7

Which of the following is NOT primarily a sexually transmitted infection (STI)?

A) lymphogranuloma venereum

B) genital herpes

C) gonorrhea

D) chancroid

E) trichomoniasis

e

8

Which of the following is treated with penicillin?

A) genital herpes

B) genital warts

C) candidiasis

D) syphilis

E) trichomoniasis

d

9

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) trichomoniasis fungus

B) gonorrhea gram-negative cocci

C) chancroid gram-negative rod

D) Gardnerella clue cells

E) syphilis gram-negative spirochete

a

10

One form of NGU is lymphogranuloma venereum caused by

A) Leptospira interrogans.

B) Chlamydia trachomatis.

C) Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

D) Treponema pallidum.

E) Candida albicans.

b

11

All of the following can cause congenital infection or infections of the newborn EXCEPT

A) syphilis.

B) gonorrhea.

C) nongonococcal urethritis.

D) genital herpes.

E) lymphogranuloma venereum.

e

12

Which of the following recurs at the initial site of infection?

A) gonorrhea

B) syphilis

C) genital herpes

D) chancroid

E) LGV

c

13

Which of the following is diagnosed by detection of antibodies against the causative agent?

A) nongonococcal urethritis

B) gonorrhea

C) syphilis

D) lymphogranuloma venereum

E) candidiasis

e

14

Nongonococcal urethritis can be caused by all of the following EXCEPT

A) Mycoplasma homini.

B) Candida albicans.

C) Trichomonas vaginalis.

D) streptococci.

E) Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

e

15

Which of the following is caused by an opportunistic pathogen?

A) trichomoniasis

B) genital herpes

C) candidiasis

D) gonorrhea

E) chancroid

c

16

The pH of the adult vagina is acidic due to the conversion of ________ to ________ by bacteria.

A) glucose; ethanol

B) protein; acetic acid

C) glycogen; lactic acid

D) mucosal cells; lactic acid

E) urine; lactic acid

c

17

A urine sample collected directly from the urinary bladder

A) is sterile.

B) contains fewer than 100 pathogens/ml.

C) contains fewer than 10,000 pathogens/ml.

D) contains more than 100,000 pathogens/ml.

E) has leukocyte esterase.

a

18

Most nosocomial infections of the urinary tract are caused by

A) Escherichia coli.

B) Enterococcus.

C) Proteus.

D) Klebsiella.

E) Pseudomonas.

a

19

Which of the following is NOT an antimicrobial feature of the urinary system?

A) physiological valves found in the ureter

B) pH of the urine

C) flushing action of urine

D) the use of the urethra for seminal fluid in women

E) None of the answers is correct; all of these are antimicrobial features of the urinary system.

d

20

Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factors to cystitis in females?

A) the proximity of the anus to the urethra

B) the length of the urethra

C) sexual intercourse

D) poor personal hygiene

E) None of the answers is correct; all of these are predisposing factors.

e

21

The most common reportable disease in the United States is

A) cystitis.

B) lymphogranuloma venereum.

C) gonorrhea.

D) syphilis.

E) candidiasis.

c

22

Which of the following is NOT a complication of gonorrhea?

A) arthritis

B) pelvic inflammatory disease

C) endocarditis

D) meningitis

E) None of the answers are correct; all of these are potential complications of gonorrhea.

e

23

Which of the following is the most difficult to treat with chemotherapeutic agents?

A) genital herpes

B) gonorrhea

C) syphilis

D) trichomoniasis

E) leptospirosis

a

24

Vaginal itching and cheesy discharge are symptoms of

A) Gardnerella vaginosis.

B) genital herpes.

C) candidiasis.

D) trichomoniasis.

E) lymphogranuloma venereum.

c

25

Recurring vesicles on the surface of human skin are symptoms of

A) Gardnerella vaginosis.

B) genital herpes.

C) candidiasis.

D) trichomoniasis.

E) lymphogranuloma venereum.

b

26

Leukocytes at the infected site are a symptom of

A) Gardnerella vaginosis.

B) genital herpes.

C) candidiasis.

D) trichomoniasis.

E) lymphogranuloma venereum.

d

27

Which of the following is caused by Chlamydia?

A) Gardnerella vaginosis

B) genital herpes

C) candidiasis

D) trichomoniasis

E) lymphogranuloma venereum

e

28

A positive LE test and 10,000 CFU/ml in urine indicates

A) cystitis.

B) gonorrhea.

C) urethritis.

D) pyelonephritis.

E) genital herpes.

d

29

Which of the following diseases causes a skin rash, hair loss, malaise, and fever?

A) gonorrhea

B) syphilis

C) NGU

D) trichomoniasis

E) genital herpes

b

30

Staphylococcus saprophyticus causes

A) cystitis.

B) pyelonephritis.

C) vaginitis.

D) gonorrhea.

E) syphilis.

a

31

Which one of the following statements about genital warts is FALSE?

A) It is transmitted by direct contact.

B) It is caused by papillomaviruses.

C) It is always precancerous.

D) It is treated by removing them.

E) It can lead to cervical cancer in women.

c

32

The most common NGU in the United States is treated with

A) penicillin.

B) cephalosporins.

C) acyclovir.

D) AZT.

E) doxycycline.

b

33

Which of the following statements about pelvic inflammatory disease is FALSE?

A) It can cause sterility and chronic pain.

B) It can be caused by N. gonorrhoeae.

C) It can be transmitted sexually.

D) It can be caused by C. trachomatis.

E) It can be caused by T. pallidum.

e

34

Which one of the following does NOT cause nongonococcal urethritis?

A) Chlamydia

B) Mycoplasma

C) Neisseria

D) Ureaplasma

E) None of the answers is correct; all of these cause NGU.

c

35

Infants born to asymptomatic mothers with recurrent genital herpes are less likely to acquire herpesvirus at birth than infants born to newly infected mothers because

A) maternal antibodies offer protection.

B) the disease cannot be transmitted to newborns.

C) the disease is not communicable.

D) prophylactic antibiotics are administered to the newborn.

E) the virus is not growing.

a

36

Which of the following is greater?

A) the number of reported cases of gonorrhea last year

B) the number of reported cases of AIDS last year

C) The number of reported cases of gonorrhea and AIDS are likely equal.

a

37

A patient presents with fever and extensive lesions of the labia minora. Her VDRL test was negative. What is the most likely treatment?

A) metronidazole

B) cephalosporins

C) acyclovir

D) miconazole

E) No treatment is available.

c

38

A patient is experiencing profuse greenish-yellow, foul-smelling discharge from her vagina. She is complaining of itching and irritation. What is the most likely treatment?

A) metronidazole

B) cephalosporins

C) acyclovir

D) miconazole

E) No treatment is available.

a

39

A 25-year-old man presented with fever, malaise, and a rash on his chest, arms, and feet. Which of the following causative agents is most likely to cause these symptoms?

A) Nesseria

B) HPV

C) HSV-2

D) Candida

E) Treponema

e

40

A 25-year-old man presented with fever, malaise, and a rash on his chest, arms, and feet. Which of the following will be most useful for a rapid diagnosis?

A) bacterial culture

B) microscopic examination of blood

C) serological test for antibodies

D) serological test for antigen

E) viral culture

c

41

A 25-year-old man presented with fever, malaise, and a rash on his chest, arms, and feet. Diagnosis was based on serological testing. The patient then reported that he had an ulcer on his penis two months earlier. What stage of disease is the patient in?

A) NGU

B) primary

C) secondary

D) tertiary

d

42

A 25-year-old male presented with fever, malaise, and a rash on his chest, arms, and feet. Diagnosis was based on serological testing. The patient then reported that he had an ulcer on his penis two months earlier. This disease can be treated with

A) acyclovir.

B) metronidazole.

C) miconazole.

D) penicillin.

E) surgery.

d

43

A pelvic examination of a 23-year-old woman showed vesicles and ulcerated lesions on her labia. Cultures were negative for Neisseria and Chlamydia; the VDRL test was negative. Which treatment is appropriate?

A) acyclovir

B) metronidazole

C) miconazole

D) penicillin

E) surgery

a

44

A pelvic examination of a 23-year-old woman showed vesicles and ulcerated lesions on her labia. Cultures were negative for Neisseria and Chlamydia; the VDRL test was negative. Which of the following is probable?

A) candidiasis

B) genital herpes

C) gonorrhea

D) NGU

E) syphilis

b

45

Which of the following is treated with cephalosporins because the organism is resistant to penicillin and fluoroquinolones?

A) Mycoplasma hominis

B) Haemophilus ducreyi

C) Neisseria gonorrhoeae

D) Treponema pallidum

E) Gardnerella vaginalis

c