Chapter 13 & 14 Quiz Prep

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 13, 14
Anatomy & Physiology
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1

Rootlets arise on the spinal cord, enter the skull through the foramen magnum and exit the skull through the jugular foramen.

A) Olfactory

B) Accessory

C) Abducens

D) Vagus

E) Vestibulocochlear

B

2

Receptors located in epithelium of the nasal cavity.

A) Olfactory

B) Accessory

C) Abducens

D) Vagus

E) Vestibulocochlear

A

3

Serves the senses of hearing and equilibrium.

A) Olfactory

B) Accessory

C) Abducens

D) Vagus

E) Vestibulocochlear

E

4

Helps to regulate blood pressure and digestion.

A) Olfactory

B) Accessory

C) Abducens

D) Vagus

E) Vestibulocochlear

D

5

Turns the eyeball laterally.

A) Olfactory

B) Accessory

C) Abducens

D) Vagus

E) Vestibulocochlear

C

6

Tests both upper and lower motor pathways. The sole of the foot is stimulated with a dull instrument.

A) Plantar

B) Flexor

C) Crossed-extensor

D) Tendon

E) Stretch

A

7

Consists of an ipsilateral withdrawal reflex and a contralateral extensor reflex; important in maintaining balance.

A) Plantar

B) Flexor

C) Crossed-extensor

D) Tendon

E) Stretch

C

8

Produces a rapid withdrawal of the body part from a painful stimulus; ipsilateral.

A) Plantar

B) Flexor

C) Crossed-extensor

D) Tendon

E) Stretch

B

9

Prevents muscle overstretching and maintains muscle tone.

A) Plantar

B) Flexor

C) Crossed-extensor

D) Tendon

E) Stretch

E

10

Produces muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to tension; the contracting muscle relaxes as its antagonist is activated.

A) Plantar

B) Flexor

C) Crossed-extensor

D) Tendon

E) Stretch

D

11

The obturator and femoral nerves branch from this plexus.

A) Brachial plexus

B) Lumbar plexus

C) Cervical plexus

D) Sacral plexus

B

12

Striking the "funny bone" (ulnar nerve) may cause injury to a nerve of this plexus.

A) Brachial plexus

B) Lumbar plexus

C) Cervical plexus

D) Sacral plexus

A

13

Trauma to a nerve of this plexus may cause wrist drop.

A) Brachial plexus

B) Lumbar plexus

C) Cervical plexus

D) Sacral plexus

A

14

A fall or improper administration of an injection to the buttocks may injure a nerve of this plexus.

A) Brachial plexus

B) Lumbar plexus

C) Cervical plexus

D) Sacral plexus

D

15

The phrenic nerve branches from this plexus.

A) Brachial plexus

B) Lumbar plexus

C) Cervical plexus

D) Sacral plexus

C

16

Controls the outputs of the cortex and regulates motor activity.

A) Segmental level

B) Projection level

C) Precommand level

C

17

Central pattern generators.

A) Segmental level

B) Projection level

C) Precommand level

A

18

Intermediate relay for incoming and outgoing neurons.

A) Segmental level

B) Projection level

C) Precommand level

B

19

The cerebellum and basal nuclei.

A) Segmental level

B) Projection level

C) Precommand level

C

20

Includes cortical and brain stem motor areas.

A) Segmental level

B) Projection level

C) Precommand level

B

21

The neural machinery of the spinal cord, including spinal cord circuits.

A) Segmental level

B) Projection level

C) Precommand level

A

22

Lamellar corpuscle.

A) Pacinian corpuscle

B) Ruffini endings

C) Meissner corpuscle

A

23

Bulbous corpuscle

A) Pacinian corpuscle

B) Ruffini endings

C) Meissner corpuscle

B

24

Tactile corpuscle.

A) Pacinian corpuscle

B) Ruffini endings

C) Meissner corpuscle

C

25

The meningeal branch of a spinal nerve actually reenters the vertebral canal to innervate the meninges and blood vessels.

T

26

Lamellar corpuscles can be exteroceptors, interoceptors, or proprioceptor.

T

27

The musculocutaneous nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus.

T

28

The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers.

T

29

Dorsal and ventral rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibers.

T

30

Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups.

T

31

Reciprocal inhibition means that while one sensory nerve is stimulated, another sensory neuron for synergistic muscles in the same area is inhibited and cannot respond.

F

32

Drooping of the upper eyelid, and double vision are potential symptoms of damage to the oculomotor nerve.

T

33

If someone spills very hot coffee (200°F) on their skin, they will likely perceive much pain. Which of the following receptor types is causing this sensation?

  1. A) mechanoreceptors
  2. B) thermoreceptors
  3. C) nociceptors
  4. D) chemoreceptors

C

34

Some large arteries that are proximal to the heart are sensitive to the stretch of the blood vessels. This stretch indicates the blood's pressure. Which of the following pairs of classifications below best fit the receptor type that is being described above?

A) mechanoreceptors that are also interoceptors

B) thermoreceptors that are also interoceptors

C) mechanoreceptors that are also exteroceptors

D) thermoreceptors that are also exteroceptors

A

35

We can touch our finger to our nose while our eyes are closed in part because we can sense the position and movement of our joints as well as the length of stretch in our muscles. These sensations create awareness of our body's positioning. The following receptors are most likely responsible for this ability.

A) nociceptors

B) exteroceptors

C) interoceptors

D) proprioceptors

D

36

Tactile sensation is a combination of touch, pressure, stretch and vibration. Which of the following is most likely the receptor type that senses tactile stimulation?

A) mechanoreceptors

B) thermoreceptors

C) nociceptors

D) proprioceptors

A

37

A person picks up a heavy suitcase in order to estimate its weight and reflexively drops it. Which of the following receptors has initiated this reflex?

A) free nerve ending

B) lamellae corpuscle

C) tendon organ

D) bulbous corpuscle

C

38

Which of the following is the best explanation of how a stimulus' strength is transmitted to the central nervous system from sensory nerves?

A) Action potential frequency is increased as stimulus' strength increases.

B) An action potential will increase in strength as stimulus's strength increases.

C) More than one type of receptor will respond to larger stimulus.

D) Action potentials as well as graded potentials are sent to the central nervous system when stimulus strength increases.

A

39

A patient is suffering from the inability to distinguish various types of odors. This patient may have damage to which of the following?

A) hypoglossal nerve (XII)

B) vagus nerve (X)

C) facial nerve (VIII)

D) olfactory nerve (I)

D

40

A patient has lost vision on the left side of both eyes. The patient has likely suffered damage to ________.

A) the optic nerves

B) the right optic tract

C) the retinas of the eyes

D) the optic chiasm

B

41

An emergency medical technician is examining a trauma victim by shining a pen light into her patient's eye. She records the reactivity of the patents pupils as they constrict when stimulated by the light. This test supports which of the following?

A) The patient has suffered brain damage.

B) The patient has function of the oculomotor nerve (III).

C) The patient has lost function of the optic nerve (II).

D) The patient has function of the trochlear nerve (IV).

B

42

A bit of dust blows into and touches the cornea of the eye. Which of the following is likely to happen?

A) Nothing, because there is no sensory information sent from the cornea.

B) Stimulation of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (V) will cause blinking.

C) Stimulation of the optic nerve (II) will cause tears to flow from the lacrimal gland.

D) Stimulation of the facial nerve (VII) will be perceived as pain.

B

43

A doctor asks her patient to follow the motion of her finger as she moves it up and down, left and right. Which of the following cranial nerves is not being tested?

A) the abducens (VI)

B) the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

C) the oculomotor nerve (III)

D) the trochlear nerve (IV)

B

44

As a cook chops red onions he begins to tear up due to activation of the lacrimal gland. Which of the following nerves provided the stimulus?

  1. A) the olfactory nerve (I)
  2. B) the facial nerve (VII)
  3. C) the vagus nerve (X)
  4. D) the optic nerve (II)

B

45

13) Dermatome maps are useful to clinicians because ________.

A) they can help pinpoint the location of spinal injury

B) they show doctors how to avoid striking spinal nerves during surgery

C) they show the routes of motor nerves

D) they outline the location of the numerous nerve plexus

A

46

A patient has an injury of the spine and is now suffering from a loss of motor function in his right arm. However, he still has normal sensory function in the arm. Based on this information it is likely that the patient has nervous tissue damage located at ________.

A) spinal nerves of the cervical vertebra

B) the dorsal root located at one or more of the cervical vertebra

C) the ventral root located at one or more of the cervical vertebra

D) the dorsal rootlets located at one of the thoracic vertebra

C

47

Injury to cervical vertebra C3-C4 is particularly problematic because ________.

A) part of the brain stem is located here

B) several ganglia are near this region that serve the heart

C) the phrenic nerve that serves the diaphragm receives its fibers from here

D) the greater auricular nerve that serve the parotid gland receive there fibers from here

C

48

Complicated interlacing of the ventral rami form networks called nerve plexus. The crisscrossing of the nerve fibers from the various spinal nerves is advantageous because ________.

A) viruses that infect us by moving through PNS nerves are prevented entry to the CNS

B) having several nerve fibers unite enhances motor function

C) having several nerve fibers unite enhances sensory function

D) injury to any single spinal nerve will be less damaging as there is less chance of total loss of innervation to any particular organ

D

49

Bill is a mechanic that works with vibrating tools. He also exerts force on his wrists when twisting wrenches and screws. Bill has a tingling sensation in the lateral portion of his hand. The doctor suspects carpal tunnel syndrome. Which of the following test might the doctor try on her patient?

A) Have bill flex and extend his arm against resistance.

B) Check for reflex on the medial condyle of the humerus with a rubber mallet.

C) Have bill grip an object with his thumb and index finger and try to pull the object away.

D) Check for hyperextension at the knuckles of the little and ring finger.

C

50

Which of the following nerves does not arise from the brachial plexus?

A) median

B) phrenic

C) radial

D) ulnar

B

51

The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the ________ nerve.

A) obturator

B) common fibular

C) tibial

D) femoral

C

52

Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order) ________.

A) roots, trunks, divisions, and cords

B) roots, divisions, cords, and trunks

C) divisions, roots, trunks, and cords

D) trunks, divisions, cords, and roots

A

53

The cranial nerve with a cervical origin (spinal cord) is the ________.
A) hypoglossal
B) accessory
C) vagus
D) glossopharyngeal

B

54

Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?
A) The stimulus energy must match the specificity of the receptor.
B) The stimulus energy must occur within the receptor's receptive field.
C) The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.
D) A generator potential in the associated sensory neuron must reach threshold.

C

55

A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ________.
A) femoral
B) iliohypogastric
C) sciatic
D) ilioinguinal

A

56

Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the ________.
A) lumbar plexus
B) femoral plexus
C) sacral plexus
D) thoracic plexus

C

57

Inborn or intrinsic reflexes are ________.
A) rapid, predictable, and can be learned responses
B) involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior
C) autonomic only
D) always mediated by the brain

B

58

Striking the "funny bone" is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the ________.
A) radial nerve
B) sciatic nerve
C) ulnar nerve
D) median nerve

C

59

A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a ________.
A) tendon reflex
B) flexor reflex
C) crossed-extensor reflex
D) plantar reflex

A

60

Which receptors adapt most slowly?
A) smell receptors
B) pressure receptors
C) nociceptors
D) touch receptors

B

61

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.
A) afferent nerves
B) efferent nerves
C) motor nerves
D) mixed nerves

A

62

After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.
A) Wallerian cells
B) Schwann cells
C) dendrites
D) Golgi organs

B

63

Regeneration within the CNS ________.
A) is more successful than with the PNS
B) typically allows axonal sprouting of 20 mm
C) is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes
D) is promoted by growth inhibitors and glial scars

C

64

In a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________.
A) also flex
B) extend
C) abduct
D) adduct

B

65

Select the correct definition.
A) Magnitude estimation is the simplest level of sensation.
B) Perceptual detection is the ability to detect how much stimulus is applied to the body.
C) Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.
D) Spatial discrimination allows us to recognize textures.

C

66

All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.
A) pons
B) thalamus
C) reticular formation
D) medulla

B

67

The sciatic nerve is a combination of which two nerves?
A) pudendal and posterior femoral cutaneous
B) posterior femoral cutaneous and tibial
C) pudendal and common fibular
D) common fibular and tibial

D

68

Which nerve is compressed in carpal tunnel syndrome?
A) median
B) axillary
C) radial
D) ulnar

A

69

Bell's palsy is ________.
A) characterized by partial paralysis of diaphragm muscles
B) characterized by loss of vision
C) often caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve
D) characterized by paralysis of facial muscles

D

70

Which of the following is the correct simple spinal reflex arc?
A) effector, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, receptor
B) receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
C) effector, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, receptor
D) receptor, efferent neuron, integration center, afferent neuron, effector

B

71

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
A) oculomotor
B) olfactory
C) trigeminal
D) facial

B

72

Transduction refers to conversion of ________.
A) presynaptic nerve impulses to postsynaptic nerve impulses
B) stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential
C) receptor energy to stimulus energy
D) afferent impulses to efferent impulses

B

73

The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?
A) radial
B) median
C) ulnar
D) musculocutaneous

D

74

Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?
A) abducens
B) vestibulocochlear
C) trigeminal
D) accessory

B

75

A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
A) glossopharyngeal
B) vagus
C) olfactory
D) accessory

C

76

Select the statement that is most correct.
A) Ganglia are collections of neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord that are associated with efferent fibers.
B) Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.
C) The dorsal root ganglion is a motor-only structure.
D) The cell bodies of afferent ganglia are located in the spinal cord

B

77

A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in ________.
A) neurofibromatosis
B) postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy
C) phantom limb pain
D) sciatica

D

78

Feeling a gentle caress on your arm would likely involve all of the following except ________.
A) Meissner's corpuscles
B) tactile discs
C) Lamellar corpuscles
D) hair follicle receptors

C

79

A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?
A) facial
B) glossopharyngeal
C) hypoglossal
D) accessory

A

80

If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?
A) complete loss of sensation
B) a complete loss of voluntary movement
C) loss of neither sensation nor movement but only of autonomic control
D) a complete loss of sensation and movement

B

81

One of the adaptive advantages of human body hair is believed to be its ability to help us detect potentially harmful insects crawling or landing on our skin. Which receptor type is most associated with this type of perception?

Hair follicle receptors

82

The highest level of motor control involves the basal nuclei and the ________.

cerebellum

83

Body movement receptors are called ________.

proprioceptors

84

The perineurium defines the boundary of a ________.

fascicle

85

We are aware of our facial expression because of which functional feature of which cranial nerve?

The proprioception of facial muscles by the facial nerve, cranial nerve VII

86

Describe the cause and symptoms of paresthesia.

Paresthesia is the tingling sensation that is felt when blood flow is reduced to a sensory nerve.

87

Describe the symptoms that may occur from lesions of the olfactory nerve, cranial nerve I.

anosmia

88

An incorrectly placed intramuscular injection can cause injury to which nerve of the lumbar plexus?

sciatic

89

Information regarding skeletal muscle tension is provided by ________ and muscle length by ________.

tendon organs; muscle spindles

90

Secreted by preganglionic sympathetic fibers.

A) Norepinephrine (NE)
B) Acetylcholine (ACh)

B

91

Secreted by preganglionic parasympathetic fibers

A) Norepinephrine (NE)
B) Acetylcholine (ACh)

B

92

Secreted by postganglionic sympathetic fibers to sweat glands.

A) Norepinephrine (NE)
B) Acetylcholine (ACh)

B

93

Secreted by postganglionic parasympathetic fibers.

A) Norepinephrine (NE)
B) Acetylcholine (ACh)

B

94

Secreted by most postganglionic sympathetic fibers.

A) Norepinephrine (NE)
B) Acetylcholine (ACh)

A

95

Somatic and visceral reflex arcs are similar, but visceral reflex arcs lack afferent fibers (visceral sensory neurons).

F

96

The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS.

T

97

The gray rami communicantes consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers.

F

98

The sympathetic division innervates more organs than the parasympathetic division.

T

99

The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.

T

100

The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division.

T

101

All visceral organs receive dual innervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.

F

102

Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.

T

103

Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.

T

104

The effect of beta-blocker drugs (block beta-receptors) is to decrease blood pressure.

T

105

The adrenal medulla is considered by some to be a "misplaced" sympathetic ganglion since embryologically, they arise from the same tissue.

T

106

Acetylcholine is released by all somatic motor neurons, all preganglionic neurons of the ANS and by the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers.

T

107

The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS have the same effect on most body organ systems.

F

108

Some sympathetic preganglionic fibers stimulate the adrenal medulla to release norepinephrine and epinephrine into the blood, producing a "surge of adrenaline."

T

109

The facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), and vagus (X) nerves contain postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system.

F

110

The ANS stimulates smooth muscles, skeletal muscles and glands, whereas the somatic nervous system innervates skeletal muscles only.

F

111

Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers.

F

112

Autonomic ganglia are motor ganglia, containing the cell bodies of motor neurons.

T

113

The craniosacral division is another name for the parasympathetic division.

T

114

Autonomic ganglia are sights of synapse and information transmission from preganglionic to postganglionic neurons

T

115

Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone.

T

116

The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

F

117

The effect of the parasympathetic division on the penis is vasodilation causing erection, while ejaculation is due to sympathetic stimulation.

T

118

All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic

F

119

Most splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal aortic plexus.

T

120

The vasomotor tone of blood vessels is mostly under sympathetic control.

T

121

Because many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic, meaning contraction is strongest when both divisions act together.

F

122

β-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart.

F

123

Visceral reflexes include the reflexes that empty the bladder and the rectum.

T

124

Cranial nerves III (oculomotor), VII (facial), and IX (glossopharyngeal) supply the entire parasympathetic innervation of the head; however, only the preganglionic fibers lie within these three pairs of cranial nerves

T

125

The sacral part of the parasympathetic division serves the pelvic organs and the distal half of the large intestine.

T

126

Rami communicantes are designated white or gray to indicate whether or not the fibers passing through them are myelinated.

T

127

The autonomic and somatic nervous systems are two separate systems that work totally independent of each other and lack any functional overlap.

F

128

Albuterol (Ventolin) binds to β2 receptors and is used by asthma patients to dilate the bronchioles of the lungs and ease breathing.

T

129

The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
A) parasympathetic innervation
B) sympathetic stimulation
C) vagus (X) nerve activity
D) somatic stimulation

B

130

Which of the following does NOT describe the ANS?
A) a system of motor neurons that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
B) a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
C) involuntary nervous system
D) general visceral motor system

B

131

Preparing the body for the "fight-or-flight" response is the role of the ________.
A) sympathetic division
B) cerebrum
C) parasympathetic division
D) somatic nervous system

A

132

The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) their effectors
B) their efferent pathways and ganglia
C) target organ responses to their neurotransmitters
D) regulation of activity by higher brain centers

D

133

Where would you NOT find a cholinergeric nicotinic receptor?
A) all parasympathetic target organs
B) all postganglionic neurons (cell bodies and dendrites)
C) adrenal medulla hormone producing cells
D) sarcolemma of skeletal muscle cells at neuromuscular junctions

A

134

The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
A) ciliary ganglion
B) pterygopalatine ganglion
C) submandibular ganglion
D) otic ganglion

A

135

Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) constriction of most blood vessels
B) weak dilation of the blood vessels of skeletal muscles during exercise
C) increase of heart rate and force
D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

D

136

Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerves ________.
A) V (trigeminal)
B) VII (facial)
C) X (vagus)
D) XII (hypoglossal)

C

137

The "resting and digesting" division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
A) parasympathetic division
B) sympathetic division
C) somatic division
D) peripheral division

A

138

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
A) medulla
B) cerebellum
C) hypothalamus
D) thalamus

C

139

Which of these effectors is NOT directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
A) smooth muscle
B) cardiac muscle
C) skeletal muscle
D) most glands

C

140

Which of the following is NOT a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
A) salivation
B) dilation of the pupils
C) increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
D) elimination of urine

B

141

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.
B) Sympathetic ganglia are within a few centimeters of the CNS; parasympathetic ganglia are close to the visceral organs served.
C) Sympathetic division has short preganglionic and long postganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers.
D) Sympathetic has extensive branching of preganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has minimal branching of preganglionic fibers.

A

142

Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
A) inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
B) NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
C) preganglionic fibers are short
D) preganglionic fibers are long

B

143

Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebra?
A) second cervical
B) third lumbar
C) first coccyx
D) first thoracic

D

144

Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
A) an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
B) synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
C) the cell bodies of motor neurons
D) both somatic afferent and efferent neurons

C

145

The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accommodate close vision.
A) optic (II)
B) oculomotor (III)
C) trochlear (IV)
D) abducens (VI)

B

146

Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic trunks without synapsing form structures called ________.
A) white rami communicantes
B) gray rami communicantes
C) spinal nerves
D) splanchnic nerves

D

147

Which of the following is NOT a plexus of the vagus (X) nerve?
A) cardiac
B) pulmonary
C) inferior hypogastric
D) esophageal

C

148

Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
A) visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons
B) somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess
C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
D) visceral arcs do not use integration centers

C

149

The parasympathetic tone ________.
A) prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
B) accelerates activity of the digestive tract
C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
D) causes blood pressure to rise

C

150

Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all of the following EXCEPT?
A) synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
B) synapse with a ganglionic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
C) ascend or descend the trunk to synapse in another trunk ganglion
D) pass through the trunk ganglion without synapsing with another neuron

A

151

Which of the following appears to exert the most direct influence over autonomic functions?
A) hypothalamus
B) midbrain
C) reticular formation
D) medulla oblongata

C

152

Drugs called beta-blockers ________.
A) increase a dangerously low heart rate
B) decrease heart rate and blood pressure
C) have widespread sympathetic effects
D) are potent antidepressants

B

153

Erection (vasodilation) of the penis or clitoris ________.
A) is primarily under sympathetic control
B) is primarily under parasympathetic control
C) is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
D) depends very little on autonomic activation

B

154

Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
A) regulation of pupil size
B) regulation of cardiac rate
C) regulation of respiratory rate
D) regulation of body temperature

D

155

Raynaud's disease ________.
A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
B) is induced by heat stress
C) occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord
D) is frequently life threatening

A

156

Autonomic dysreflexia ________.
A) is also known as autonomic areflexia
B) involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
C) usually precedes spinal shock
D) results from over-excitatory input from the cortex

B

157

Which sympathetic fibers form a splanchnic nerve?
A) those that synapse with parasympathetic fibers
B) those that synapse in the same trunk ganglion they entered
C) those that synapse with somatic fibers
D) those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia

D

158

Which of the following adrenergic neurotransmitter receptors plays the major role in heart activity?
A) beta 1
B) beta 2
C) beta 3
D) alpha 1

A

159

Where would you NOT find autonomic ganglia?
A) unpaired, anterior to spinal cord
B) paired, beside spinal cord
C) within wall of organ served or close to organ
D) within spinal cord

D

160

Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
A) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
B) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
D) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure

C

161

The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
A) lumbar splanchnic nerves
B) cephalic plexus
C) pelvic nerves
D) vagus (X) nerves

D

162

The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.
A) sympathetic trunk
B) phrenic nerve
C) vagus (X) nerves
D) sacral nerves

C

163

Parasympathetic functions include ________.
A) a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
B) allowing the body to cope with an external threat
C) lens accommodation for close vision
D) raising blood glucose levels

C

164

Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
A) lateral horn of the spinal cord
B) hypothalamus
C) lateral geniculate of the thalamus
D) inferior colliculus

B

165

The mushroom poison muscarine can bind to receptors on ________.
A) all effector cells stimulated by postganglionic cholinergic fibers
B) the hormone producing cells of the adrenal medulla
C) cell bodies and dendrites of parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
D) cell bodies and dendrites of sympathetic postganglionic neurons

A

166

Which of the following drug classes would be useful for smoking cessation products?
A) nicotinic agents
B) parasympathomimetic agents (muscarinic agents)
C) acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
D) sympathomimetic agents

A

167

A mugger steals your wallet causing all of the following to happen EXCEPT ________.
A) increased rate and force of heartbeat
B) inability to read close-up print
C) increased glucose uptake to the liver from blood
D) increased metabolic rate

C

168

Which of the following is mismatched?
A) gallbladder contracts to expel bile; parasympathetic
B) bronchiole dilation in lungs; sympathetic
C) penis ejaculation; sympathetic
D) promotes urination; sympathetic

D

169

Which type of drug would be useful in dilating the pupils for an examination of the retina?
A) beta-3 receptor mimic
B) muscarinic receptor inhibitor
C) alpha-1 receptor inhibitor
D) beta-1 receptor mimic

B

170

Which target organ receives dual innervation?
A) kidney
B) sweat glands
C) small intestine
D) coronary blood vessels

C

171

Which of the following is mismatched?
A) sympathetic preganglionic fibers; release ACh
B) parasympathetic preganglionic fibers; release ACh
C) sympathetic postganglionic fibers; release NE
D) parasympathetic postganglionic fibers; release NE

D