Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in ________.
The first of a series of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation is ________.
________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.
The ________ tonsils are the largest, and their surgical removal (tonsillectomy) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.
Which of the following does (do) not belong to the second line of defense?
The gastric juices
Which of the following forces does not help lymph to flow?
The lymphatic node pump
________ lacks the capacity to remember a pathogen or react differently to it in the future, whereas ________ utilizes memory cells to adapt to a given pathogen and ward it off more easily in the future.
Nonspecific resistance; adaptive immunity
Removal of the ________ would be more harmful to a one-year-old child than an adult.
________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels, and they empty into the ________.
Collecting ducts; subclavian veins
When an enemy cell is present, a(n) ________ secrete perforins, which bore a hole in the enemy cell membrane.
natural killer cell
Which of these cellular agents does not participate in inflammation?
Cytotoxic T cells
Special lymphatic vessels, called lacteals, absorb dietary ________ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
________ employ a "respiratory burst" to produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).
________ are found especially in the mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites and allergens.
Vaccination stimulates ________ immunity.
Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a good samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood
Which law states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases?
Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
The upper respiratory tract extends from the nose through the ________.
from the nose through the larynx
Normally, the systemic arterial blood has a Po2 of ________ mm Hg, a Pco2 of ________ mm Hg, and a pH of ________. (You better not get this wrong)
95; 40; 7.4
How is the vital capacity calculated?
expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
an increase in membrane thickness
The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ________ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.
Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
Aids in defecation
In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?
What are the most numerous cells in the lungs?
Which of the following does not contain ciliated cells?
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to ________ oxygen molecules.
Which bronchus is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side?
Left main bronchus
Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in ________.
appearance of that solute in the urine.
A single lobe of a kidney is comprised of ________.
one pyramid and the overlying cortex.
Blood plasma is filtered in the ________.
the renal corpuscle
Which organ system does not excrete waste?
the cardiovascular system
A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?
Which of the following is not composed of cuboidal epithelium?
the thin segment of the nephron loop
Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?
They release waste into the bloodstream
A renal pyramid voids urine into the ________.
the minor calyx
Which of the following correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?
segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → interlobular a
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
In a healthy kidney, very little ________ is filtered by the glomerulus.
Which of the following are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
Natriuretic peptide inhibits ________ reabsorption by the collecting duct, which ________ urine output.
Which of the following is not true about the anatomy of the urinary system?
The kidneys are at equal heights within the pelvic cavity.
In life threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose by ________.
deaminating amino acids
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the ________.
proximal convoluted tubule