Microbiology Flashcards


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1

Biotechnology involves the:

A)use of microorganisms to make desired products and the use of animal cells to make vaccines.

B)development of disease-resistant crop plants.

C)use of animal cells to make vaccines.

D)use of microorganisms to make desired products, the use of animal cells to make vaccines, and the development of disease-resistant crop plants.

E)use of microorganisms to make desired products.

D)use of microorganisms to make desired products, the use of animal cells to make vaccines, and the development of disease-resistant crop plants.

2

In Figure 9.5, the marker genes used for selecting recombinant DNA are

A)lacZ and ori.

B)ampR and ori.

C)ori.

D)HindIII, BamHI, and EcoRI.

E)ampR and lacZ.

E)ampR and lacZ.

3

The Human Genome Project, which was completed in 2003, was focused on

A)identifying all of the genes in the human genome.

B)determining all of the proteins encoded by the human genome.

C)finding a cure for all human genetic disorders.

D)determining the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.

E)cloning all of the genes of the human genome.

D)determining the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.

4

Bioinformatics is the use of computer technology to compare and analyze genome sequence.

True

5

Which of the following are used to silence specific genes and hold promise for treating cancer or viral diseases, such as hepatitis B?

DNA fingerprinting

complementary DNA (cDNA)

reverse transcriptase PCR (rtPCR)

tumor-inducing plasmids (Ti plasmids)

RNA interference (RNAi)

RNA interference (RNAi)

6

The Ti plasmid isolated from Agrobacterium can be used to insert DNA into any type of plant.

False

7

An advantage of cDNA over genomic DNA is that it

A)contains selectable markers.

B)can form very large DNA segments.

C)lacks exons.

D)lacks introns.

E)is very easy to isolate.

D)lacks introns.

8

The use of an antibiotic-resistance gene on a plasmid used in genetic engineering makes

direct selection possible.

replica plating possible.

the recombinant cell unable to survive.

the recombinant cell dangerous.

All of the answers are correct.

direct selection possible.

9

One of the first commercial successes of recombinant DNA technology was the production of human insulin using genetically engineered E. coli.

True

10

How many pieces will EcoRI produce from the plasmid shown in Figure 9.1?

2

11

A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a

A)PCR.

B)library.

C)clone.

D)vector.

E)Southern blot.

C)clone.

12

The term biotechnology refers exclusively to the use of genetically engineered organisms for the production of desired products.

False

13

A colleague has used computer modeling to design an improved enzyme. To produce this enzyme, the next step is to

A)mutate bacteria until one makes the improved enzyme.

B)look for a bacterium that makes the improved enzyme.

C)determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme.

D)synthesize the gene for the improved enzyme.

E)use siRNA to produce the enzyme.

C)determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme.

14

Your research group is investigating the possible use of genetically-engineered cells to produce a vaccine for malaria. List the pros and cons of using E. coli, Saccharomyces, and animal cells to produce the vaccine.

Pros of using E coli would be that the bacteria is easily grown in labs because it isn't picky about the required nutrients.

Animal cells would provide the genetic material that will closely resemble human DNA.

Saccharomyces have been effectively used to discover various gastrointestinal diseases.

CONS

E. coli needs to be modified

Animal cells are slow growing

Saccharomyces are unicellular while humans are multicellular

15

If you have inserted a gene in the Ti plasmid, the next step in genetic engineering is

splicing T DNA into a plasmid.

inserting the Ti plasmid into Agrobacterium.

transformation of E. coli with Ti plasmid.

transformation of an animal cell.

inserting the Ti plasmid into a plant cell.

inserting the Ti plasmid into Agrobacterium.

16

Which enzyme would cut this strand of DNA?

GCATGGATCCCAATGC
Enzyme Recognition
Pst ICTGC↓G
G↑ACGTC

Enzyme Recognition
HaeIII GG↓CC
CC↑GG

Enzyme Recognition
BamHI G↓GATCC
CCCTAG↑G

Enzyme Recognition
HindIII A↓AGCTT
TTCGA↑A

Enzyme Recognition
EcoRI G↓AATTC
CTTAA↑G

Enzyme Recognition
BamHI G↓GATCC
CCCTAG↑G

17

The use of "suicide" genes in genetically modified organisms is designed to

delete genes necessary for modified organism's growth.

kill the modified organisms before they are released in the environment.

provide for resistance of the modified organisms to pesticides.

prevent the growth of the modified organisms in the environment.

provide a means to eliminate non-modified organisms.

prevent the growth of the modified organisms in the environment.

18

The following are steps used to make DNA fingerprints. What is the third step?

Digest with a restriction enzyme.

Add stain.

Collect DNA.

Lyse cells.

Perform electrophoresis.

Digest with a restriction enzyme.

19

The Pap test for cervical cancer involves microscopic examination of cervical cells for cancerous cells. A new, rapid diagnostic test to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA before cancer develops is done without microscopic exam. The steps involved in this FastHPV test are listed below. What is the second step?

Add enzyme-linked antibodies against DNA-RNA.

The order is unimportant.

Add an RNA probe for HPV DNA.

Add enzyme substrate.

Lyse human cells.

Add an RNA probe for HPV DNA.

20

In Figure 9.4, the bacteria transformed with the recombinant plasmid and plated on media containing ampicillin and X-gal willnot grow.

form blue, ampicillin-sensitive colonies.

form white, ampicillin-sensitive colonies.

form white, ampicillin-resistant colonies.

form blue, ampicillin-resistant colonies.

form white, ampicillin-resistant colonies.

21

The local public health agency has received reports of an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among attendees at a city-sponsored chili cook-off. What techniques from recombinant DNA technology would the agency likely use to investigate this outbreak? Describe the expected results from these techniques.

The antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) would be utilized. Results are cost effective and require no further culturing. The ELISA is a reliable screening for Salmonella.

22

Which of the following techniques is NOT used to introduce recombinant DNA into plants?

gene guns

Ti plasmids and Agrobacterium

microinjection

protoplast fusion

electroporation

microinjection

23

In Figure 9.5, the gene that allows the plasmid to be self-replicating is

EcoRI.

ori.

ampR.

lacZ.

HindIII.

ori.

24

You have a small gene that you wish replicated by PCR. After 3 replication cycles, how many double-stranded DNA molecules do you have?

8

25

Pseudomonas syringae is found naturally in the soil. Sold as Snomax, it is used to make snow at ski resorts. The same bacterium with a gene deletion (Ice-minus) is used to prevent ice formation on plants. Should Snomax and Ice-minus be considered modified organisms and subject to precautions of releasing genetically modified organisms? Explain why or why not.

Snomax should not be considered a genetically modified organism (GMO) because the bacterium Pseudomonas Syringae is in its original state. However Ice-minus should be considered a GMO since the bacterium's DNA has been modified through gene deletion.