MCB 16 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 4 years ago by jfndz0595
886 views
updated 4 years ago by jfndz0595
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Mucous membranes are a part of:

A. innate defense

B. cell-mediated immunity

C. humoral immunity

D. adaptive defense

E. the complement system

A

2

B cells interact directly with:

A. the complement system

B. helper T cells

C. phagocytes

D. infammation

B

3

Which of the following defense systems would be involved in eliminating virally-infected cells?

A. Complement system

B. Humoral immunity

C. T lymphocytes

D. Phagocytosis

C

4

According to the animation, antibodies directly interact with which innate defenses?

A. Phagocytosis and the complement system

B. The complement system

C. Phagocytosis, inflammation, and the complement system

D. First-line defenses

E. Inflammation

F. Phagocytosis

A

5

Which cells directly attack abnormal cells in the body?

A. Phagocytes

B. Cytotoxic T cells

C. B cells

D. Helper T cells

B

6

If one is examining a blood smear from a patient with a parasitic worm infection, which of the following leukocytes would be found in increased numbers (as opposed to a blood smear from a normal patient NOT infected with worms)?

A. monocytes

B. eosinophils

C. lymphocytes

D. basophils

B

7

What direct effect do histamines and leukotrienes have on capillaries?

A. They decrease the diameter of capillaries.

B. They prevent phagocytes from sticking to the walls of capillaries.

C. They allow capillary walls to open and become leaky.

C

8

Emigration is

.A the attachment of phagocytes to the walls of capillaries.

B. the migration of phagocytes through blood vessels to the site of tissue damage.

C. the increase in the diameter of blood vessels.

D. the production and release of chemicals during inflammation.

B

9

Why is vasodilation important to tissue repair?

A. It allows for an increased delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and phagocytes to the site of damage.

B. It allows for an increase in oxygen to the site of damage.

C. It allows more nutrients to be delivered to the site of damage.

D. It allows more phagocytes to travel to the site of damage.

A

10

Pus is comprised of

A. dead phagocytes.

B. collected cells from damaged tissue.

C. excess fluid from leaky blood vessels.

D. unused histamines and leukotrienes.

A

11

Which of the following can release histamines?

A. Wood from a splinter

B. The complement system

C. Cells from damaged tissues

D. Invading bacterial cells

E. Cells from damaged tissues and the complement pathway

E

12

Which of the complement pathways employs properdin?

A. Classical pathway

B. Alternative pathway

C. Lectin pathway

D. Alternative and lectin pathways all employ properdin.

E. Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways all employ properdin.

F. The classical and alternative pathways both require properdin.

B

13

In the classical pathway, which of the following directly activates cellular responses?

A. C3a and C5a

B. C4aC2bC3b

C. C3a, C5a, and C5bC6C7

D. C2aC4b

E. C3b

F. C5bC6C7

C

14

Antibodies from cellular immune responses are used in

A. both the classical and alternative pathways.

B. the alternative pathway.

C. the classical pathway.

D. the lectin pathway.

C

15

Which of the complement pathways was discovered first?

A. The classical pathway

B. The lectin pathway

C. The alternative pathway

A

16

Which of the following are functions of lectins?

A. They act as opsonins for phagocytosis.

B. They attach to carbohydrates on some bacterial and viral surfaces.

C. They can activate C2 and C4.

D. They produce factor P (properdin).

E. They produce antibodies.They act as opsonins for phagocytosis, they attach to carbohydrates on some bacterial and viral surfaces, and they activate C2 and C4.

E

17

How does cytolysis occur via the complement pathway?

A. Disrupting cell wall of pathogens

B. Formation of the MAC in invading cells, killing them

C. Triggering the release of histamine

D. Stimulation of the inflammatory response

B

18

Which complement protein is used as an opsonin?

A. C7

B. C3b

C. C4a

D. C3a

E. C2a

F. C5b

B

19

If a person lacked the ability to form C5, what direct result of complement could still occur?

A. Opsonization

B. Cytolysis

C. Chemotaxis

A

20

If a person could not form C2, which result of complement would be affected?

A. Opsonization

B. Chemotaxis and inflammation

C. Cytolysis

D. Cytolysis, chemotaxis, inflammation, and opsonization

D

21

What complement result involves the use of phagocytes?

.A Chemotaxis

B. Cytolysis

C. Chemotaxis and opsonization

D. Opsonization

C

22

Which of the following is an event that ultimately results in activation of complement C3 by splitting it into C3a and C3b?

A. interaction of mannose-binding lectin with mannose molecules on a bacterium

B. binding of factors B, D, and P to antibodies on bacteria

C. linkage of C2b with C4abinding of C2 to antigen-antibody complexes

A

23

Which of the following are best described as short chains of amino acids that are very stable and can have a variety of different antimicrobial activities, such as forming pores in bacterial plasma membranes and inhibiting cell wall synthesis?

A. antiviral proteins

B. antimicrobial peptides

C. siderophores

D. mannose-binding lectin

B

24

________________ is/are always present in an individual's blood. However, in the absence of infection, it is in an inactive form.

A. Prostaglandins

B. Kinins

C. Histamine

D. Cytokines

B

25

You note that the body temperature of one of your patients is starting to increase. As a result, you can infer that all of the following may be occurring in this patient EXCEPT __________.

A. constriction of blood vessels

B. increased metabolic rate

C. dilation of blood vessels

D. shivering

C

26

Which statement regarding the lymphatic system is true?

A. The thymus serves as the site for activation of B cells.

B. Lymphatic capillaries possess one-way valves. These valves permit the uptake of fluid from the body but do not allow the fluid to flow back out of the capillaries into the intracellular spaces.

C. Lymph nodes are sites of activation of neutrophils, which destroy microbes.

D. The pancreas contains lymphocytes and macrophages that monitor the blood for microbes.

B

27

A child falls and suffers a deep cut on her leg. The cut went through her skin and she is bleeding. Which of the following defense mechanisms will participate in eliminating contaminating microbes?

A. normal skin flora

B. acidic skin secretions

C. mucociliary escalator

D. phagocytosis in the inflammatory response

E. lysozyme

D

28

Aspirin alleviates pain, inflammation, and fever by inhibiting prostaglandins.

True or False

True

29

If one is examining a blood smear from a patient with a parasitic worm infection, which of the following leukocytes would be found in increased numbers (as opposed to a blood smear from a normal patient NOT infected with worms)?

A. basophils

B. monocytes

C. eosinophils

D. lymphocytes

C

30

Ingestion of certain lactic acid bacteria (LABs) has been shown to be beneficial for function and health of the intestinal tract.

True or False

True

31

Innate immunity

A. involves a memory component.

B. is slower than adaptive immunity in responding to pathogens.

C. is nonspecific and present at birth.

D. involves T cells and B cells.

E. provides increased susceptibility to disease.

C

32

All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?

A. margination

B. vasodilation

C. repair

D. phagocyte migration

E. diapedesis

B

33

Macrophages arise from which of the following?

A. monocytes

B. basophils

C. neutrophils

D. eosinophils

E. lymphocytes

A

34

Lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin have similar mechanisms of action in that they both cause damage to the bacterial

A. cell membrane.

B. cell wall.

C. capsule.

D. ribosomes.

E. DNA

B

35

Maturation of stem cells into mature blood cells occurs in the red bone marrow.

True or False

True

36

The inflammatory response can only be triggered by an infection.

True or False

False

37

Normal microbiota provide protection from infection in each of the following ways EXCEPT

A. they produce antibacterial chemicals.

B. they produce lysozyme.

C. they make the chemical environment unsuitable for nonresident bacteria.

D. they compete with pathogens for nutrients.

E. they change the pH of the environment.

B

38

You note that the body temperature of one of your patients is starting to increase. As a result, you can infer that all of the following may be occurring in this patient EXCEPT __________.

A. constriction of blood vessels

B. shivering

C. dilation of blood vessels

D. increased metabolic rate

C

39

Which of the following is NOT part of the body’s first line of defense?

A. skiny

B. mucous membranes

C. saliva

D. fever

D

40

The so-called ciliary escalator functions by

A. moving microbes towards the lower respiratory tract

B. killing microbes

C. moving microbes toward the throat

D. moving microbes from the nose

C

41

Which of the following bacteria neutralizes stomach acid, allowing the bacterium to grow in the stomach?

A. Clostridium botulinum

B. Streptococcus mutans

C. Lactobacillus pyogenes

D. Helicobacter pylori

D

42

The attraction of phagocytes to microorganisms is called

A. chemotaxis

B. adherence

C. osponization

D. ingestion

A

43

Some bacteria evade the complement system by means of their

A. endospores

B. flagella

C. cilia

D. capsules

D