Which of the following is not necessary for IgE mediated hypersensitivity?
Histamine released by mast cells leads to all of the following symptoms except
What are IgE molecules?
Immunoglobulin E (Antibodies) plays a role in allergies and asthma
If a person is sick with the common cold on May 1st, gets well, and then memory cells are exposed to the same virus on May 15th, what would the person's symptoms most likely be?
No symptoms at all due to IgM and IgG
Lymphatic vessel _________ cells are different from blood vessel cells.
Lymphatic endothelial cells ______ have tight junctions and they do not have a continual basal lamina.
There are large gaps between the endothelial cells so _______ and large molecules can pass between them.
The overlapping endothelial cells make _______ that can open and close.
They will open and close due to the _______ of the lymph fluid flowing through the vessel.
Which is of the following is true when interferon attaches to a cell?
The virus can enter the cell but can not replicate.
When interferon from one cell attaches to a second cell, _________.
the recipient cell makes enzymes that degrade mRNA and prevent viral protein synthesis
Which of the following is true regarding interferon?
Interferon is produced by one cell and used to warn nearby cells of the same type.
People with type AB blood have __________.
both type A and type B antigens on their red blood cells
When type B blood is given to a person with type A blood, __________.
the B antigen from the donor reacts with anti-B antibody in the recipient
People with type O blood can be universal donors because their red blood cells contain neither A antigens nor B antigens on their surface.
True or False
A person with type O blood may receive blood from a person with type B blood.
True or False
Which of the following statements is not true of the hepatitis B vaccine?
It consists of an internal protein from the virus.
The vaccine used to prevent measles consists of live measles viruses. This type of vaccine is most likely __________.
an attenuated vaccine
A subunit vaccine is composed of __________.
purified parts of a microorganism
Which of the following is produced by cytotoxic T cells?
Perforin, which makes holes in cell membrane of infected cells
Cytotoxic T cells produce:
Perforin, which makes holes in cell membrane of infected cells
Which of the following is true regarding infected cells?
They display peptide fragments of degraded viral proteins on their cell surface.
Cytotoxic T cells recognize __________.
viral antigens and class I MHC
The _______ is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration.
The volume of air exchanged during normal breathing is called the
After a normal inspiration, the amount of air that can then be inspired forcefully is called the
Inspiratory reserve volume.
If you subtract the residual volume from the total lung capacity, you get the
The vital capacity minus the _____ equals the inspiratory capacity.
Expiratory reserve volume
The effects of obstructive diseases such as asthma or emphysema may be determined by measuring the
Forced expiratory volume
Which of the following are bicarbonate ions exchanged for when they diffuse from plasma back into red blood cells?
At the respiratory membrane, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the plasma is _____ than in the _____ of the lungs.
This concept, specifically the change in pH, is referred to as the
Of the three forms of lung cancer, the most common is ______carcinoma.
In this type, ____ develop bleeding lesions as the dividing epithelial invade the bronchiole wall.
A second form, adenocarcinoma, originates in the _____ glands of the lamina propria.
The least common but most dangerous is small-cell carcinoma, which easily and quickly _____ to other organs.
Respiratory gases cross the respiratory membrane by ___________________
Which environment separated by the respiratory membrane would display the highest oxygen partial pressure?
Surfactant is produced by __________________
Type II pneumocytes
Increased production of surfactant would __________________
result in an increase in the thickness of the respiratory membrane, which would decrease diffusion of respiratory gases.
Insufficient surfactant production would result in
a tendency for the lungs to collapse.
At the onset of a bout of exercise, tissue ________ levels briefly increase due to elevated aerobic respiration.
Carbon dioxide production in respiring tissues creates an increased level of carbonic acid in the blood, resulting in a _______ blood pH.
Altered blood pH during exercise causes the affinity of hemoglobin to decrease, which is shown as a _______ shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
As a result of the oxyhemoglobin shift during exercise, blood arriving at the respiring tissues will deliver a(n) ______ amount of oxygen.
During recovery from exercise (cool-down), blood_____ increases back to its pre-exercise state.
Oxygen unloading occurs at the _________________________ This process causes a(n) _________________ in the oxygen partial pressure of the blood leaving this region.
Hyperpnea would result in ___________________________ within the blood
an increase in Pressure (oxygen) and a decrease in Pressure (carbon dioxide)
Decreased Pressure (carbon dioxide) results in an increase in blood pH levels. Both of these conditions result in a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the ______________________. This shift _______________ hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen.
Increased levels of 2,3 BPG occur in response to decreased blood pH levels. With all other variables unchanged, an increased concentration of 2,3 BPG in the blood would _____________________.
result in a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right enhancing unloading of oxygen at the tissues.
The altitude of Kabul, Afghanistan, is approximately 6000 feet. What is the approximate alveolar oxygen partial pressure found here?
85 mm Hg
Under normal conditions, the alveolar oxygen partial pressure is ______________________ than the atmospheric oxygen partial pressure.
Within the Tibetan highlander population, genetic variation has been found to determine relative oxygen-hemoglobin saturation levels. Individuals within this population may be homozygous for either the low oxygen saturation gene or the high oxygen saturation gene. Individuals may also be heterozygous, carrying one low and one high oxygen saturation gene. Based on this information, individuals within the population carrying __________________________ alleles are expected to demonstrate a physiological advantage for survival.
homozygous high oxygen saturation population
No genetic differences were found among the Andean population in either oxygen-hemoglobin saturation levels, nor hemoglobin concentrations. However, this group as a whole displayed higher hemoglobin concentration levels than their lower altitude neighbors. The most accurate explanation for this finding is that individuals constantly exposed to lower atmospheric partial pressures for oxygen would have a physiologic response which would _______________________.
increase the cumulative number of red blood cells
If intrapulmonary pressure was 760 mm Hg, what would you expect the intrapleural pressure to be?
756 mm Hg
Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles results in ____________ in the thoracic volume which results in _______________ of the intrapulmonary pressure.
an increase; a decrease
Negative pressure ventilation, demonstrated by iron lungs, allows a person to breathe by producing an intermittent negative pressure that moves across the chest and diaphragm. This specific action would artificially induce the intrapulmonary pressure to _____________ atmospheric pressure thus resulting in ______________
drop below; inspiration.
When this negative pressure stops being applied, the lungs __________________and the intrapulmonary pressure __________________
When using positive pressure ventilators, what triggers the elastic recoil of the lung, and what does this action cause?
airway pressure reaching zero; expiration
Oxygen molecules bind ___________________ of the hemoglobin.
specifically to the heme region
A single hemoglobin displaying a saturation level of 75% would be bound to ___________________________
three oxygen molecules.
The binding of CO to hemoglobin causes the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to ___________________
shift to the left, indicating that the carboxyhemoglobin is less likely to release bound oxygen.
Acute carbon monoxide poisoning would result in ____________________ of the tissues because oxygen ____________________
hypoxia; is not released from hemoglobin in sufficient amounts at the tissues.
What determines the direction of gas movement?
The partial pressure differences
Which of the following statements about partial pressures of gases in the lungs is true?
Po2 in the lungs > Po2 in the blood; Pco2 in the lungs < Pco2 in the blood
Which of the following statements about partial pressures of gases in the tissues is true?
Po2 in blood > Po2 in tissues; Pco2 in blood < Pco2 in tissues
Which of the following are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
The average person has approximately __________ nephrons per kidney.
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
In a healthy kidney, very little __________ is filtered by the glomerulus.
Catabolism of urea is
Catabolism of uric acid is
Aldosterone acts on the __________.
distal convoluted tubule
The __________ muscle is located in the urinary bladder.
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures __________ and is based on fluid flowing in the __________ direction in two adjacent tubules.
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the __________.
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen, which is released from the _________, to form angiotensin I.
Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?
They release waste into the bloodstream.
A byproduct of protein catabolism, __________ constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.
The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when the __________.
body's water volume is high
Micturition is another term for __________.
the elimination of urine
Which organ system does not excrete waste?
The cardiovascular system
Normal urine from a healthy person should not contain __________.
Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on the __________.
countercurrent multiplier system
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the __________.
proximal convoluted tubule