The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics

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1

Which of the following blood vessels carries blood away from the heart to other organs?

  1. arteries
  2. capillaries
  3. venules
  4. arterioles
  5. veins

A

2

Which of the following blood vessels carries blood from the tissues back to the heart?

  1. arteries
  2. arterioles
  3. aorta
  4. veins
  5. capillaries

D

3

Which layer of the arterial wall is responsible for vasoconstriction?

  1. tunica interna
  2. tunica media
  3. tunica externa
  4. tunica albuginea
  5. tunica fascia

B

4

Which layer of the arterial wall is primarily composed of elastic and collagen fibers?

  1. tunica interna
  2. tunica media
  3. tunica externa
  4. tunica albuginea
  5. tunica fascia

C

5

When an artery or arteriole is damaged, its smooth muscle layer contracts producing

  1. tear in the vessel.
  2. new vessel branching off the artery or arteriole.
  3. a vascular spasm.
  4. tetanus.
  5. increased blood flow to the damaged vessel.

C

6

Elastic arteries function as

  1. vasodilators.
  2. conduits to the tissues of the trunk only.
  3. barriers to microcirculation.
  4. pressure reservoirs.
  5. vasoconstrictors.

D

7

In resting individuals, these vessels serve as a large blood reservoir from which blood can be quickly diverted to other vessels as needed.

  1. Arteries and arterioles
  2. Arterioles and capillaries
  3. Venules and capillaries
  4. Veins and venules
  5. Aorta and veins

D

8

This type of blood vessel plays a key role in regulating blood flow into capillaries.

  1. arteries
  2. arterioles
  3. venules
  4. veins
  5. aorta

B

9

Which of the following structures are found in veins but NOT in arteries?

  1. tunica externa
  2. tunica media
  3. tunica interna
  4. valve
  5. lumen

D

10

Capillaries are also referred to as

  1. exchange vessels.
  2. vasoconstrictors.
  3. vasodilators.
  4. pressure reservoirs.
  5. distributing vessels.

A

11

Which of the following is the most important method of capillary exchange?

  1. diffusion
  2. transcytosis
  3. bulk flow
  4. primary active transport
  5. secondary active transport

A

12

Which of the following structures is used to control the flow of blood through a capillary bed?

  1. thoroughfare channels
  2. precapillary sphincters
  3. postcapillary sphincters
  4. venules
  5. valves in veins

B

13

Which of the following types of tissues contains continuous capillaries?

  1. skeletal muscle
  2. smooth muscle
  3. connective tissue
  4. lungs
  5. all of these choices

E

14

The alternate route of blood flow to a body part through an anastomosis is called

  1. a thoroughfare channel.
  2. a blood reservoir.
  3. a detour route.
  4. collateral circulation.
  5. microcirculation.

D

15

The largest driving force for pulling fluid from the interstitial spaces back into the capillaries is

  1. interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure.
  2. interstitial fluid osmotic pressure.
  3. blood colloid osmotic pressure.
  4. blood hydrostatic pressure.
  5. glomerular hydrostatic pressure.

C

16

The pressure-driven movement of fluids and solutes from blood into interstitial fluid is called

  1. reabsorption.
  2. filtration.
  3. bulk flow.
  4. osmosis.
  5. transcytosis.

B

17

The volume of blood that circulates through the systemic (or pulmonary) blood vessels per minute is called

  1. stroke volume.
  2. tidal volume.
  3. cardiac output.
  4. cardiac reserve.
  5. total peripheral resistance.

C

18

Cardiac output is dependent on both

  1. heart rate and stroke volume.
  2. stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance.
  3. heart rate and systemic vascular resistance.
  4. blood type and stroke volume.
  5. blood pressure and heart rate

A

19

Which of the following would NOT result in an increase in arterial blood pressure?

  1. Increased blood volume
  2. Increased sympathetic stimulation
  3. Increased heart rate
  4. Increased stroke volume
  5. Increased arteriolar vasodilation

E

20

Which of the following would NOT result in an increase in systemic vascular resistance?

  1. Decreased diameter of systemic arterioles
  2. Increased blood viscosity
  3. Decreased length of the systemic circulatory route
  4. Increased vasoconstriction of systemic arterioles
  5. Increased red blood cell count

C

21

Which of the following characteristics of blood depends mostly on the ratio of RBCs to plasma volume?

  1. total blood volume
  2. blood viscosity
  3. venous return
  4. clotting time
  5. immunoglobulin profile

B

22

Circulation time

  1. varies with diet.
  2. is set by the hypothalamus.
  3. in a resting human is normally 1 minute.
  4. depends on hormones released from the liver.
  5. that is lower than 20 seconds will lead to heart failure.

C

23

The cardiovascular center is located

  1. in the thoracic cavity.
  2. in the cerebral cortex.
  3. in the cerebellum.
  4. in the medulla oblongata.
  5. in the hypothalamus.

D

24

All of the following aid in venous return of blood to heart EXCEPT

  1. the skeletal muscle pump.
  2. the respiratory pump
  3. blood viscosity.
  4. venoconstriction
  5. venous valves.

C

25

Which of the following would be a normal response of the cardiovascular system to a decreased frequency of action potentials arising from the baroreceptors?

  1. Increased systemic vascular resistance
  2. Increased parasympathetic stimulation
  3. Decreased heart rate
  4. Decreased stroke volume
  5. Decreased cardiac output

A

26

Which of the following hormones would NOT stimulate changes that lead to an increase in arterial blood pressure?

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP)
  2. Antidiuretic hormone(ADH)
  3. Aldosterone
  4. Angiotensin
  5. Epinephrine

A

27

When chemoreceptors in blood vessels detect high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, they stimulate all of the following changes EXCEPT

  1. increased vasoconstriction of arterioles.
  2. increased blood pressure.
  3. decreased respiratory rate.
  4. increased sympathetic stimulation of arterioles and veins.
  5. increased vasoconstriction of veins.

C

28

The myogenic response of smooth muscle results in

  1. more forceful contractions when stretched.
  2. more forceful contractions when relaxed
  3. tetany.
  4. relaxation of smooth muscle when stretched.
  5. formation of new desmosomes.

A

29

What do the following chemicals have in common: potassium, hydrogen ions, lactic acid, nitric oxide, and adenosine?

  1. All potent vasoconstrictors.
  2. All potent vasodilators.
  3. Used to stimulate smooth muscle contractions.
  4. Directly regulate the cardiac center of the hypothalamus.
  5. Decrease systolic blood pressure.

B

30

In which of the following types of blood vessels is blood pressure NOT pulsing?

1. Arteries

2. Capillaries

3. Arterioles

4. Venules

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 4 only
  5. Both 2 and 3

E

31

Abnormal conditions such as atherosclerosis and patent ductus arteriosus cause an large increase in the

  1. blood colloid osmotic pressure.
  2. central venous pressure.
  3. pulse pressure.
  4. venular hydrostatic pressure.
  5. capillary hyrdostatic pressure.

C

32

This type of shock is due to decreased blood volume.

  1. Hypovolemic
  2. Cardiogenic
  3. Vascular
  4. Obstructive
  5. Neurogenic

A

33
card image

Which of the labeled layers in the diagram of the arterial wall consists mainly of elastic fibers and smooth muscle fibers?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A and B
  5. A, B and C

B

34
card image

Which of the labeled layers in the diagram of the arterial wall is composed of a simple squamous epithelium, a basement membrane and a layer of elastic tissue?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A and B
  5. A, B, and C

A

35
card image

Which labeled structure in the figure is a metarteriole?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. D
  4. F
  5. E

B

36
card image

Which labeled structure in the figure is a capillary?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

D

37
card image

Which labeled structure in the figure is a precapillary sphincter?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

C

38
card image

Which of the capillaries shown in the figure has an incomplete or absent basement membrane?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A and B
  5. A, B, and C

C

39
card image

Which of the types of capillaries shown in the figure is commonly found in the kidneys, villi of the small intestine, choroid plexuses, and some endocrine glands?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A and B
  5. B and C

B

40
card image

What physiological process is depicted in this figure?

  1. Venous blood blockage
  2. Skeletal muscle pump
  3. Respiratory pump
  4. Thoroughfare channels
  5. Anastomosis

B

41

What do following arteries have in common: superficial temporal artery, brachial artery and common carotid artery?

  1. They are all areas where Korotkoff sounds cannot be heard.
  2. They are all only found on the left side of the body.
  3. They are all common pulse points.
  4. They all contain baroreceptors.
  5. They all deliver blood to structures in the head.

C

42

Which of the following would NOT occur in response to hypovolemic shock?

  1. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system.
  2. Secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  3. Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS.
  4. Release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).
  5. Release of local vasodilators.

D

43

All the veins of the systemic circulation eventually drain into the

  1. superior vena cava.
  2. inferior vena cava.
  3. coronary sinus.
  4. superior and inferior vena cava.
  5. superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus.

E

44

The pulmonary trunk divides into

  1. brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery
  2. right and left subclavain arteries.
  3. right and left pulmonary veins.
  4. right and left pulmonary arteries.
  5. right and left common carotid arteries.

D

45

In fetal circulation, what is the opening between the right and left atria called?

  1. Ductus venousus
  2. Umbilicus
  3. Fossa ovalis
  4. Foramen ovale
  5. Ductus arteriosus

D

46

Which of the following vessels is a pulse point found at the wrist?

  1. Radial artery
  2. Subclavian artery
  3. Axillary artery
  4. Cephalic artery
  5. Palmar artery

A

47

Which of the following vessels supplies blood to the intestines?

  1. Radial artery
  2. Subclavian artery
  3. Mesenteric artery
  4. Coronary artery
  5. Popliteal artery

C

48

Which of the following vessels supplies blood to the kidneys?

  1. Hepatic artery
  2. Renal artery
  3. Mesenteric artery
  4. Coronary artery
  5. Popliteal artery

B

49

Which of the following vessels drains blood from the lower leg?

  1. Jugular vein
  2. Superior vena cava
  3. Tibial vein
  4. Coronary vein
  5. Inferior mesenteric vein

C

50

Which of the following vessels drains blood from the head and neck?

  1. Median cubital vein
  2. Inferior vena cava
  3. Axillary vein
  4. Femoral vein
  5. Jugular vein

E

51

Which of the following vessels carries the venous blood from the lower body into the right atrium?

  1. Inferior vena cava
  2. Superior vena cava
  3. Tibial vein
  4. Coronary vein
  5. Iliac vein

A

52

When the umbilical cord is tied after birth, the umbilical arteries close by filling in with

  1. placental fluid.
  2. platelet plugs.
  3. connective tissue.
  4. smooth muscle.
  5. epithelial tissue.

C

53
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled “E”?

  1. right ulnar artery
  2. right subclavian artery
  3. right radial artery
  4. right brachial artery
  5. right axillary artery

A

54
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled “D”?

  1. right ulnar artery
  2. right subclavian artery
  3. right radial artery
  4. right brachial artery
  5. right axillary artery

C

55
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled “B”?

  1. right ulnar artery
  2. right subclavian artery
  3. right radial artery
  4. right brachial artery
  5. right axillary artery

B

56
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "C"?

  1. right ulnar artery
  2. right subclavian artery
  3. right radial artery
  4. right brachial artery
  5. right axillary artery

D

57
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "A"?

  1. right subclavian artery
  2. right radial artery
  3. right common carotid artery
  4. right brachial artery
  5. right axillary artery

C

58
card image

Oxygenated blood is directly carried into the vessel labeled "F" by both

  1. right subclavian artery and right axillary artery.
  2. right radial artery and right ulnar artery.
  3. right common carotid artery and brachiocephalic trunk.
  4. right brachial artery and right ulnar artery.
  5. right axillary artery and right ulnar artery.

B

59
card image

Oxygenated blood is carried directly into the vessel labeled E by the

  1. right subclavian artery.
  2. right radial artery.
  3. right common carotid artery.
  4. right brachial artery.
  5. right axillary artery.

D

60
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "B"?

  1. left femoral vein
  2. left great saphenous vein
  3. left popliteal vein
  4. left anterior tibial vein
  5. left fibular vein

A

61
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "C"?

  1. left femoral vein
  2. left great saphenous vein
  3. left popliteal vein
  4. left anterior tibial vein
  5. left fibular vein

B

62
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "D"?

  1. left femoral vein
  2. left great saphenous vein
  3. left popliteal vein
  4. left anterior tibial vein
  5. left fibular vein

C

63
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "F"?

  1. left femoral vein
  2. left great saphenous vein
  3. left popliteal vein
  4. left anterior tibial vein
  5. left small saphenous vein

D

64
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "E"?

  1. left femoral vein
  2. left great saphenous vein
  3. left popliteal vein
  4. left anterior tibial vein
  5. left small saphenous vein

E

65
card image

Deoxygenated blood draining from the vessel labeled “F” in the figure, immediately travels into the

  1. left small saphenous vein.
  2. left femoral vein.
  3. left great saphenous vein.
  4. left posterior tibial vein.
  5. left popliteal vein.

E

66
card image

Deoxygenated blood draining from the vessel labeled “E” in the figure, immediately travels into the

  1. left small saphenous vein.
  2. left femoral vein.
  3. left anterior tibial vein.
  4. left posterior tibial vein.
  5. left popliteal vein.

E

67
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "C"?

  1. accessory hemiazygos vein
  2. hemiazygos vein
  3. left gonadal vein
  4. right renal vein
  5. right suprarenal vein

C

68
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "D"?

  1. accessory hemiazygos vein
  2. hemiazygos vein
  3. right renal vein
  4. right suprarenal vein
  5. pericardial vein

C

69
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "B"?

  1. accessory hemiazygos vein
  2. hemiazygos vein
  3. right suprarenal vein
  4. pericardial vein
  5. azygos vein

B

70
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "A"?

  1. accessory hemiazygos vein
  2. hemiazygos vein
  3. right suprarenal vein
  4. pericardial vein
  5. azygos vein

A

71
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "G"?

  1. accessory hemiazygos vein
  2. hemiazygos vein
  3. right suprarenal vein
  4. pericardial vein
  5. azygos vein

E

72
card image

Which vessel in the figure is labeled "F"?

  1. accessory hemiazygos vein
  2. hemiazygos vein
  3. right suprarenal vein
  4. pericardial vein
  5. azygos vein

D

73

During embryonic development, blood vessels are formed by

  1. endodermal cells.
  2. pluripotent stem cells.
  3. angioblasts.
  4. fibroblasts.
  5. osteoblasts.

C

74

During embryonic development, blood cells are formed from

  1. endodermal cells.
  2. pluripotent stem cells.
  3. angioblasts.
  4. fibroblasts.
  5. osteoblasts.

B

75

Normal blood pressure for a young adult male is

  1. 120/80.
  2. 130/90.
  3. 80/120.
  4. 100/80.
  5. 150/85.

A

76

Which of the following types of blood vessels have high pulsing blood pressure?

  1. arterioles
  2. capillaries
  3. venules
  4. veins
  5. vena cavae

A

77

What would the pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure be for an individual with a blood pressure of 120/80?

  1. 40; 100
  2. 40; 93.3
  3. 40; 103.3
  4. 200; 100
  5. 100; 200

B

78

Which of the following effectors would NOT be activated as described below in response to hypovolemic shock?

  1. Adrenal cortex releases aldosterone.
  2. Kidneys conserve salt and water.
  3. Heart rate increases.
  4. Systemic arterioles vasodilate.
  5. Heart contractility increases.

D

79

The pulmonary circulatory route carries blood from the

  1. right atrium to the right ventricle .
  2. right ventricle to the left atrium.
  3. left atrium to the left ventricle.
  4. left ventricle to the right atrium.
  5. left ventricle to the coronary sinus.

B

80

All of the following changes are commonly observed in the cardiovascular system in response to aging EXCEPT

  1. decreased cardiac output.
  2. increased compliance of the aorta.
  3. loss of cardiac muscle strength.
  4. decline in maximum heart rate.
  5. increased systolic blood pressure.

B

81

Which of the following categories would an individual with a blood pressure of 145/95 be placed in?

  1. Normal
  2. High normal
  3. Prehypertension
  4. Stage 1 hypertension
  5. Stage 2 hypertension

D

82

Which of the following categories of hypertension drugs lower blood pressure by blocking formation of angiotensin II, which results in vasodilation and decreased aldosterone secretion?

  1. Diuretics
  2. ACE inhibitors
  3. Beta blockers
  4. Calcium channel blockers
  5. Anabolic steroids

B