The Respiratory System

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1

Which of the following is NOT considered part of the respiratory system?

  1. nose
  2. mouth
  3. throat
  4. larynx
  5. trachea

B

2

Which of the following classifications of respiratory structures is correctly described?

  1. structural, upper respiratory system: nose, pharynx and associated structures
  2. structural, lower respiratory system: larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
  3. functional, conducting portion: interconnecting cavities and tubes outside and within the lungs
  4. functional, Respiratory portion: tissues within the lungs where gas exchange occurs
  5. All of these are correct.

E

3

Nolan “caught” a sharply hit baseball with his face and now his nose is broken. Which of the following are external structures that have probably been damaged?

  1. maxilla, nasal, frontal bones
  2. septal, lateral and alar cartilages
  3. ethmoid bone and inferior nasal conchae
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

4

Which of the following is a function of the external nose?

  1. modifying speech vibrations
  2. detecting gustatory sensations
  3. cooling and drying air entering the respiratory system
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

A

5

The internal nose

  1. communicates posteriorly with the external nose.
  2. communicates anteriorly with the pharynx.
  3. receives drainage from the paranasal sinuses.
  4. is divided horizontally by the nasal septum.
  5. is divided into lateral, medial, and frontal meatuses.

C

6

Which of the following is NOT correct?

  1. The olfactory epithelium lies in a mucous membrane covering the inferior nasal conchae.
  2. Hairs in the nasal vestibule help remove large particles from the air.
  3. Conchae and their meatuses increase surface area and help moisten entering air.
  4. Mucus in the nasal cavity helps moisten air and removes smaller dust particles.
  5. Most of the air inhaled does not directly enter the paranasal sinuses.

A

7

The pharynx

  1. begins at the external nares.
  2. is a tube lined with a mucous membrane.
  3. is usually called the voice box or Adam’s apple.
  4. begins at the fauces and ends at the epiglottis.
  5. is a tube composed of smooth muscle.

B

8

Which portion of the pharynx communicates with the internal nares and Eustachian tubes?

  1. laryngopharynx
  2. oropharynx
  3. nasopharynx
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

C

9

Which of the following is correctly described?

  1. nasopharynx: usually receives only air, helps equalize pressure in inner ear
  2. oropharynx: receives food and air, contains palatine and lingual tonsils
  3. laryngopharynx: receives only food, lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

10

The larynx

  1. connects the pharynx to the trachea.
  2. is the primary site of voice production.
  3. normally receives only air.
  4. lies anterior to the esophagus.
  5. All of these are correct.

E

11

Which laryngeal cartilage is correctly described?

  1. epiglottis: single cartilage, blocks food and liquid from entering the larynx
  2. thyroid cartilage: single rectangular cartilage on posterior of larynx
  3. cricoid cartilage: single cartilage, superior to epiglottis
  4. corniculate cartilage: part of pair, important in voice production
  5. cuneiform cartilage: single cartilage, forms prominence commonly called Adam’s apple

A

12

Which of the following is correct?

  1. The true vocal cords are the superior folds of the mucous membrane of the larynx.
  2. When intrinsic muscles of the larynx contract, the rima glottidis widens.
  3. If air is directed against the vocal folds, silence results.
  4. Loudness of sound is controlled by the size of the larynx.
  5. Adjusting tension on vocal folds and changing rima glottidis shape alters pitch.

E

13

The trachea

  1. conducts air from the larynx into the bronchi.
  2. is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
  3. is usually located posterior to the esophagus.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

14

The C-shaped rings of the trachea

  1. are made of cartilage.
  2. allow the esophagus to expand slightly into the tracheal space.
  3. keep the trachea open for passage of air.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

15

The primary bronchi

  1. are branches arising from the trachea near the level of vertebra C5.
  2. carry air toward each lung.
  3. are more muscular than cartilaginous.
  4. are lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
  5. All of these are correct.

B

16

Keri was practicing her gymnastics floor exercise while chewing gum. During a disastrous attempt at a new flip, she accidentally inhaled the gum. Where did the gum probably lodge?

  1. right primary bronchus
  2. trachea
  3. left primary bronchus
  4. nasopharynx
  5. epiglottis

A

17

The airways that directly carry air to each lobe of a lung are the

  1. terminal bronchioles
  2. bronchioles
  3. tertiary bronchi
  4. secondary bronchi
  5. primary bronchi

D

18

As the diameters of the respiratory passages decrease, which of the following is observed?

  1. The amount of cartilage in the walls of the passages increases.
  2. Simple cuboidal epithelial linings are replaced by pseudostratified squamous epithelia.
  3. The walls of the passages become more muscular.
  4. More goblet cells are observed in the epithelial lining.
  5. All of these are correct.

C

19

A patient is having an asthma attack and can hardly breathe. Which of the following should probably be administered to the patient? Why?

  1. norepinephrine, to relax smooth muscle in the bronchioles and increase airflow
  2. antihistamine, to counteract the bronchoconstriction caused by histamine
  3. ACh, to increase bronchoconstriction
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

20

Which of the following is NOT correct?

  1. A segment of lung supplied by a given tertiary bronchus is a bronchopulmonary segment.
  2. The left lung has 2 lobes, but the right lung has 3 lobes.
  3. The apex of the lung can be palpated posterior and superior to the clavicle.
  4. The lungs do not completely fill the pleurae at their bases.
  5. The visceral pleura adheres directly to the chest wall.

E

21

Each of the following is part of the respiratory membrane EXCEPT the:

  1. alveolar wall
  2. lymphatic vessel basement membrane
  3. epithelial basement membrane of the alveolar wall
  4. capillary basement membrane
  5. capillary endothelial cells

B

22

Ventilation-perfusion coupling

  1. involves vasoconstriction in poorly ventilated areas of the lungs to redirect well-ventilated areas of the lungs.
  2. is a response to localized hypoxia.
  3. is most associated with pulmonary, not bronchial, blood vessels.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

23

The basic steps of gas exchange, or respiration, in the body include

  1. pulmonary ventilation
  2. external respiration
  3. internal respiration
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

24

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, which of the following actions does NOT occur?

  1. the diaphragm moves inferiorly.
  2. the volume of the thoracic cavity increases.
  3. the intrapleural pressure increases.
  4. the intrapulmonic pressure decreases.
  5. air moves into the lungs.

C

25

Which muscles assist in inhalation when running up the stairs?

  1. sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, scalenes
  2. sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, scalenes
  3. rectus abdominis, pectoralis major, scalenes
  4. rectus abdominis, pectoralis major, internal intercostals
  5. sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, internal intercostals

B

26

Exhalation (expiration)

  1. is usually a passive process.
  2. depends upon the elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs.
  3. starts when the expiratory muscles relax.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

27

A 70 year-old patient suffering from emphysema comes down with pneumonia, and his alveoli begin to fill with fluid. How will his illnesses affect his pulmonary ventilation?

  1. The pneumonia will decrease surface tension in the alveolar fluid.
  2. The emphysema will decrease airway resistance.
  3. The emphysema will decrease lung compliance.
  4. The pneumonia will increase lung compliance.
  5. All of these will occur.

C

28

Odella has a tidal volume of 520 mL with an anatomical dead space of 120 mL. If she is to maintain an alveolar ventilation rate of 4000 mL/min, what must her respiration rate be?

  1. 10 breaths per minute
  2. 7- 8 breaths per minute
  3. 33 breaths per minute
  4. 5-6 breaths per minute
  5. The respiration rate cannot be determined from this information.

A

29

Which of the following is NOT correctly described?

  1. inspiratory reserve volume: amount of additional air, beyond tidal volume, that can be inhaled
  2. expiratory reserve volume: amount of additional air, beyond tidal volume, that can be exhaled
  3. residual volume: amount of air moved in and out of the lungs during normal quiet breathing
  4. minimal volume: amount of air trapped in lungs even when intrapleural pressure = 760 mmHg
  5. fFEV1.0: amount of air forcefully exhaled in 1 sec following a maximal inhalation

C

30

Dalton’s law

  1. helps explain how gases move down their pressure gradients.
  2. states that each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as though no other gas was present.
  3. helps explain how the solubility of a gas relates to its diffusion.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. B and C are correct.

D

31

Which of the following may be explained, at least in part, by Henry’s law?

  1. decompression sickness
  2. nitrogen narcosis
  3. hyperbaric oxygenation
  4. high altitude sickness
  5. All of these are correct.

E

32

External respiration

  1. is also called systemic gas exchange.
  2. is the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.
  3. moves CO2 into the blood and O2 out of the blood.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

B

33

During internal respiration,

  1. gases are exchanged between the blood and the tissues.
  2. 75% of the O2 is removed from the blood.
  3. the PCO2 in the tissues rises from 40 to 45 mmHg.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

A

34

Which of the following does NOT directly factor in the rate of gas exchange?

  1. difference in the partial pressures of a gas
  2. volume of a gas available
  3. solubility of a gas
  4. size (molecular weight) of a gas
  5. diffusion distance

B

35

What is the most important factor in determining whether O2 dissociates from or binds to hemoglobin?

  1. pH
  2. PCO2
  3. PO2
  4. BPG concentration
  5. body temperature

C

36

Which of the following will increase O2 dissociation from hemoglobin?

  1. equivalent levels of PO2 on both sides of exchange surface
  2. decreased BPG concentration
  3. decreased H+ concentration
  4. increased BPG concentration
  5. decreased temperature

D

37

How is CO2 transported in blood?

  1. as dissolved CO2
  2. as carbamino compounds
  3. as bicarbonate ions
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

38

Which of the following is correct?

  1. The amount of CO2 that can be transported in blood is affected by the amount of Hb-O2.
  2. The Cl- shift occurs when CO2 binds to Hb.
  3. When hemoglobin consists of a mixture of Hb and Hb-O2, it is fully saturated.
  4. Hb-O2 buffers more H+ than Hb does.
  5. All of these are correct.

A

39

How is the basic rhythm of quiet respiration set?

  1. by pacemaker cells in the diaphragm
  2. by the pneumotaxic area of the pons
  3. by the apneustic area of the pons
  4. by the inspiratory area of the medulla oblongata
  5. by the expiratory area of the medulla oblongata

D

40

When running 100 m, which part of the brain stem stimulates the internal intercostal and abdominal muscles to contract causing forceful exhalation?

  1. inspiratory area of the medulla oblongata
  2. expiratory area of the medulla oblongata
  3. pneumotaxic area of the pons
  4. apneustic area of the pons
  5. B and D are correct.

B

41

Which of the following is correct?

  1. The inspiratory center controls the pneumotaxic center, causing rapid shallow breathing.
  2. The expiratory center controls the pneumotaxic center, causing prolonged exhalation.
  3. The apneustic center stimulates the inspiratory center, causing prolonged inhalation.
  4. The pneumotaxic center stimulates the expiratory center, causing sudden exhalation.
  5. All of these are correct.

C

42

Other than those in the brain stem, which parts of the brain can influence respiratory rate and depth?

  1. cerebral cortex
  2. limbic system
  3. hypothalamus
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

43

Chemoreceptors

  1. in the medulla oblongata detect changes in H+ and CO2 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. in the aortic and carotid bodies detect only changes in O2 concentrations in blood.
  3. of the peripheral nervous system send sensory impulses to the brain stem via cranial nerve XI.
  4. responding to high concentrations of H+ and CO2 inhibit the inspiratory area.
  5. responding to low concentrations of O2 inhibit the pneumotaxic area.

A

44

It has been one of those mornings for Latisha. First the hot water went off suddenly in the middle of her shower. When she tried to get out of the ice-cold water quickly, she stubbed her toe on the edge of the shower stall, fell and hit her “funny bone” on the toilet. When she checked her blood pressure, it was 150/100 instead of her usual 90/60. What common response did her respiratory system probably have to each of these situations?

  1. decreased respiration rate
  2. brief apnea
  3. increased inspiration rate.
  4. A or B is correct.
  5. B or C is correct.

D

45

Which of the following is true of changes in ventilation associated with exercise?

  1. Neither duration nor intensity of exercise causes changes in ventilation.
  2. Pulmonary perfusion increases during exercise.
  3. Moderate exercise tends to increase the rate rather than the depth of breathing.
  4. Physical changes cause the abrupt increase in ventilation at the beginning of exercise.
  5. Neural and chemical changes cause a gradual increase in ventilation with moderate exercise.

B

46

The respiratory system

  1. develops largely from ectoderm.
  2. smooth muscles and cartilages develop from endoderm.
  3. begins development about four weeks after conception.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

C

47

Which of the following is NOT associated with aging of the respiratory system?

  1. decreased lung compliance
  2. increased airway resistance
  3. decreased vital capacity
  4. increased alveolar macrophage activity
  5. increased susceptibility to respiratory infection

D

48

Which of the following are classified as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders?

  1. chronic bronchitis
  2. emphysema
  3. pneumonia
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

49

Which of the following is an inherited disease of the respiratory system?

  1. coryza
  2. cystic fibrosis
  3. pneumonia
  4. SARS
  5. tuberculosis

B

50

Pulmonary edema maybe characterized by each of the following EXCEPT:

  1. wheezing
  2. rapid respirations
  3. painful respirations
  4. decreased fluid in the alveoli and interstitial spaces of the lungs
  5. pallor

D