Developmental Psychology Final Exam
What is Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development?
Industry vs. Inferiority
What are Freud's five stages of Psychosexual Development?
Oral, Anal, Phalic, Latent, Genital
Which of Freud's PsychoSexual stages occurs in middle childhood and what are the characteristics of this stage?
Emotional Drives are quiet.
Unconscious sexual conflicts are submerged.
Sexual energy is channeled into social concerns.
What are the characteristics of High Self Esteem?
confidence, self assurance, and positive self image
What is the term for the capacity to adapt well despite of significant adversity and to overcome serious stress?
What is the term for household influences that are the same for two people?
(Shared environmental influences have less of an impact than non-shared influences)
If a family moves, what is the impact on a child in middle childhood and would this be a shared environmental factor?
Each child is affected differently so the situation is a non-shared environmental factor.
What is the term for the evaluation method that observes how any risk factor (such as low income, divorce, unemployment) increases the stress on a family.
What is the term for the ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human behavior
-May be crucial for peer acceptance
-Well-liked children tend to like themselves and assume social slights are accidental
What type of bullying is characteristic of girls?
Verbal aggression (teasing, taunting, name calling)
This is also a form of relational aggression.
Typical girl bullies are sharp-tounged and outspoken. They tend to bully shyer, quieter girls.
What are successful ways to halt bulling?
Whole school strategy- uses an ecological-systems approach. Pamphlets sent to parents, videos shown in school, train school staff, increase supervision at recess, classroom discussions on how to stop bullying and befriend lonely children.
Who developed 3 stages of moral reasoning?
What are the three stages of moral reasoning?
1. Preconventional: Emphasizes rewards and punishments
2. Conventional: Emphasizes social rules
3. Postconventional: Emphasizes moral principles
What is Piaget's cognitive structure attained in middle childhood and what does it involve?
Concrete operational thought: involves the ability to reason logically about direct experience and perceptions
What is Piaget's cognitive structure attained in adolescence and what does it involve?
Formal Operational Thought: involves the ability to apply systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas. Also includes hypothetical thought- reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality. (if-then scenarios)
What is the term for a girl's first menstrual period signaling that she has begun ovulation?
How long does puberty typically last?
What is the relationship between hormones and schizophrenia & depression?
Abnormalities in the HPA axis in adolescence - psychopathology is connected to hormones and appear for the first time or worsen at puberty
How do the hypothalamus and pituitary gland effect hormone regulation?
Hypothalamus releases hormones to stimulate pituitary
Pituitary then releases hormones to stimulate adrenal glands
Adrenal glands produce hormones including testosterone and estrogen
At what point does weight gain occur in puberty?
Four years after the first signs of puberty appear. Late teens to early 20's
What effect does low body weight have on the start of puberty?
Puberty is delayed
What are some symptoms of anorexia nervosa?
Refusal to maintain a body weight in the 85%
Intense fear of weight gain
Disturbed body perception and denial of problem
Lack of mestruation
What percentage of anorexics die by organ failure or suicide?
5-10% (according to web md) If you find a different percentage in the book, please put it in the comments section.
What is the term for the parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis?
Primary sex characteristics
What is the rate of teen births and abortions in the U.S.?
Teen birth- Increased in 2007 to 22/1000
Teen abortion- Decreased in 2005 to 22.3/10000
What is the most likely STI for teenagers?
What part of the brain matures last?
What is the term for an adolescent's belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else's?
What is the term for an adolescent's egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal?
What is the term for reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality. Reasoning about if-then propositions?
What is the term for top down reasoning- reasoning from a general premise through logical steps to figure out specifics.
What is the term for bottom up reasoning- reasoning from one or more specific experiences to reach a general conclusion. (Less advanced than the the other type of reasoning)
What are four facts about religion and teenagers?
Most feel close to god
Most were same religion as parents
Low percentage are agnostic
16 percent are not religious
Adolescent beliefs tend to be egocentric (faith used as a personal tool)
What is the relationship between completing High School and health?
Lower smoking rate among those with a high school degree. More access to health care.
What happens to academic achievement during middle school years?
It slows down.
Part of problem is students relationships with teachers deteriorate.
What is the term for the gap between students who have access to computers and those who do not?
The digital divide. (Less of an issue in U.S. now that schools have computers)
** What are the results of research on adolescents and video games?
Tend to be more aggressive
Are more prone to confrontation with their teachers
May engage in fights with their peers
See a decline in school achievements.
** What is the percent of students cyberbullied?
37%-43% Cyberbullied (This is what I found online) Anyone find the statistic in the book?)
Regular Bullying: 23% Bullied, 16% have bullied
What is the age range for emerging adulthood?
What is the age for maximum height in girls and boys?
What is the rate of chronic illness in emerging adulthood?
4% - The lowest rate of any age group
What is the term for the adjustment of all the body's systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium?
When does senescence begin?
In emerging adulthood as soon as full growth is reached.
What is the term for the capacity of organs to allow the body to cope with stress, via extra unused functioning ability?
(This is a major reason young adults rarely experience serious illness.)
What are the ages of peak fertility in women?
Both sexes become less fertile with age
What is the term for the ratio of a person's weight in kg divided by his or her height in meters squared?
Body Mass Index
Overweight: Over 25
Obese: Over 30
What is the term for the approach to intelligence that treats it as a measurable factor?
Psychometric approach to Intelligence
(Related to General Intelligence or G. measured by IQ test)
What are the three differences between adult thinking and earlier thinking?
What is the term for the additional cognitive development stage (after Piaget's 4) that is characterized by problem finding? A person is more open with ideas and less concerned with absolute right and wrong in this stage.
What are the characteristics for time management in emerging adults?
It is a struggle for emerging adults but is usually mastered as cognition matures.
What is the self description that are more common in adolescents than in adults and are characterized by a high level of self-involvement and a low level of self doubt?
protective self description
What are the characteristics of the problem solving abilities of adolescents?
Adolescents think less abstractly and have less cognitive flexibility.
What is the most advanced cognitive process which is the ability to consider a thesis and it's atithesis and arrive at a synthesis. (Being able to see the pros and cons of a situation.
More common in middle-aged people
When do moral issues begin to mature?
According to Gilligan, how do the two sexes approach moral decisions differently?
Female: morality of care
Male: morality of justice
What is the theory that developed a sequence of six stages of faith?
Fowler theory of faith development
1. Intuitive projective(magical)
2. Mythic Literal(take stories literally)
3. Synthetic-conventional (what you feel is right)
4. Individual reflective (detatchment from values of others)
5. Conjunctive (unconscious values such as power of prayer and conscious values such as worth of life.) Able to accept contradictions.
6. Universalizing faith (transforming experience leads to living life in altruistic way eg. Gandhi
What are the three phases of cognitive development in college students?
Commitments in relativism developed
What are two invisible aspects of aging?
Hight blood pressure and cholesterol
What happens to the size of the brain as we age in adulthood?
What is the most visible sign of senescence?
Skin becomes thinner and less flexible and wrinkles become visible- especially around the eyes
What is one organ system showing significant effects of aging
Sense Organs (Vision and Hearing) Aging Hearing is called Presbycusis
The time in middle age (usually around 50) when a woman's menstrual periods cease completely and the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops completely. Dated one year after a woman's last menstrual period is called________
What are the long term effects of hormone replacement therapy?
Increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer
What is the leading cause of cancer deaths in North America?
How many drinks signals binge drinking?
5 or more drinks on a single occasion in the past year.
What percentage of Americans are overweight?
What is the trend when comparing male and female longevity?
Women typically live 5 years longer than men.
What is the term for the idea that intelligence is one basic trait, underlying all cognitive abilities? According to this concept, people have varying levels of this general ability.
General Intelligence (called G)
Cannot be measured directly but inferred from various abilities.
What is the types of basic intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick and thorough? This includes abilities such as working memory, abstract thought, and speed of thinking.
What is the types of intellectual ability that reflect accumulated learning? Vocabulary and general information are examples.
What was the cross-sequential study of adult intelligence that showed people improve in most mental abilities during adulthood?
Seattle Longitudinal Study (conducted by K. Warner Schaie) Study lasted more than 50 years. Every 7 years a new cohort was added.
What were the findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study?
People improve in adulthood and decline later in life.
Each ability has a distinct pattern for each gender.
What factors can influence IQ?
Health, emotions, and history
What are Sternberg's three forms of intelligence?
Analytic, Creative, Practical
What did Balte's study on aging and cognitive abilities find?
Test hundreds of older Germans. Only at age 80 did every cognitive ability show age-related average declines.
What is the definition of intelligence?
Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria.
What is the form of intelligence that involves such mental processes as abstract planning, strategy selection, focused attention, and information processing as well as verbal and logical skills?
What is the form of intelligence that involves the capacity to be intellectually flexible and innovative?
What is the form of intelligence that is used in everyday problem solving?
What is the Baltes theory of selective optimization with compensation?
People try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well.
What is the thinking that occurs without deliberate, conscious thought? Experts process most tasks automatically, saving conscious thought for unfamiliar challenges.
What is a prejudice in which people are categorized and judged solely on the basis of their chronological age?
What is the multidisciplinary study of old age?
What is the largest group of older adults?
What percentage of the world's population will be over 65 in 2050?
What is the term for the universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older?
What is the term for the specific physical illnesses or conditions that become more common with aging but are caused by health habits, genes, and other influences that vary from person to person?
What is the term for a shortening of the time a person spends ill or infirm before death; accomplished by postponing illness?
Compression of morbidity
(Due to improvements in lifestyle, medicine, and technological aids.)
Term for a buildup of fluid in the eye? The pressure from this fluid damages the optic nerve causing the visual field to narrow and eventually causing blindness.
Glaucoma (Can relieve the problem with eye drops or laser surgery. Occurs at younger ages among African Americans and diabetics)
What is the theory of aging by which the human body wears out due to the passage of time and exposure to stressors?
Wear and Tear
What is the term for the oldest possible age to which members of a species can live, under ideal circumstances? 122 years for humans.
Maximum life span
What is the term for the number of times a human cell is capable of dividing? The limit for most human cells is approx. 50 divisions.
What is the term for the study of death and dying, especially of the social and emotional aspects?
What is the most common cause of death in 15-24 year olds?
What is the term for an episode in which a person comes close to dying but survives and reports having left his or her body and having moved toward a bright, white light while feeling peacefulness and joy?
What was the location of the first modern hospice?
What is the fourth stage of dying according to Kubler-Ross?
What is the term for care designed not to treat an illness but to relieve the pain and suffering of the patient and his or her family?
What is a requirement for entering hospice?
1. Patient must be terminally ill with death anticipated within six months.
2. Must accept death (usually end treatments)
What organ is used to define death?
Brain - when brainwaves cease
What is the term for a situation in which a seriously ill person is allowed to die naturally, through the cessation of medical interventions?