Respiratory ch. 22 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by dani_michael
2,493 views
updated 5 years ago by dani_michael
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

The parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall.

True
False

True

2

The lungs are perfused by two circulations: the pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is for oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures (tissue).

True
False

True

3

Which of the following is responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall?

the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs
surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone
the smooth muscles of the lung

Surface tension from pleural fluid negative pressure in the pleural cavity

4

Which of the following statements about the pleurae is NOT true?

The parietal and visceral pleura are continuous.
The visceral pleura covers the lung tissue and lines the fissures of the lung lobes.
The pleural lining reduces friction during ventilation.
The pleurae create one continuous cavity for both lungs.

The pleural create one continuous cavity for both lungs

5

Which blood vessels supply oxygenated systemic blood to the lung tissue?

bronchial arteries

6

Which of the following cavities surround(s) the lungs alone?

pleural cavities

7

Which of the following pressures rises and falls with the phases of breathing but eventually equalizes with the atmospheric pressure?

intrapulmonary pressure

8

Which of the following pressures must remain negative to prevent lung collapse?

intrapleural pressure

9

Calculate the intrapleural pressure if atmospheric pressure is 765 millimeters of mercury, assuming that the subject is at rest (not inhaling or exhaling).

761 millimeter of mercury

10

Which of the following pressure relationships best illustrates when inspiration will occur?

Ppul < Patm

11

__________ pressure, the difference between the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures, prevents the lungs from collapsing.

Transthoracic
Intra-alveolar
Transpulmonary
Atmospheric

transpulmonary

12

In pneumothorax, the lung collapses because ______.

intrapleural pressure is lower than transpulmonary pressure
intrapleural pressure is higher than intrapulmonary pressure
intrapulmonary pressure is lower than transpulmonary pressure
intrapulmonary pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure

intrapleural pressure is higher than intrapulmonary pressure

13

Which of the following would NOT be involved in causing bronchiolar constriction during an asthma attack?

acetylcholine
central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
adrenal medulla

adrenal medulla

14

In babies born prematurely, pulmonary surfactant may not be present in adequate amounts ______.

in the conducting zone structures of the lungs
due to insufficient exocytosis in the type II alveolar cells
to permit adequate surface tension in the alveoli
because the presence of collapsed alveoli prevents surfactant production

due to insufficient exocytosis in the type II alveolar cells

15

If the compliance of the thoracic wall is decreased, ______.

the intrapleural pressure would not decrease normally during inhalation
the intrapulmonary pressure would remain lower than the atmospheric pressure
the airway resistance would be decreased
None of the listed responses is correct.

the intrapleural pressure would not decrease normally during inhalation

16

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
pressure within the pleural cavity
negative pressure in the intrapleural space

pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

17

Part complete
The relationship between gas pressure and gas volume is described by ________.

Henry's law
Boyle's law
Charles' law
Dalton's law

Boyle's law

18

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

-interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
-humidifying the air before it enters
-protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations
-warming the air before it enters

interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

19

Which of the following refers to the movement of air into and out of the lungs?

internal respiration
pulmonary ventilation
external respiration
gas exchange

pulmonary ventilation

20

The major nonelastic source of resistance to air flow in the respiratory passageways is ________.

surfactant
air pressure
friction
surface tension

friction

21

Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.

Surfactant helps increase alveolar surface tension.
A lung that is less elastic will require less muscle action to perform adequate ventilation.
As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.
A decrease in compliance causes an increase in ventilation.

As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required

22

Which of the following is NOT a physical factor that influences pulmonary ventilation?

partial pressure of oxygen in the air
alveolar surface tension
lung compliance
airway resistance

partial pressure of oxygen in the air

23

Intrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli.

True
False

true

24

Tidal volume is air ________.

exchanged during normal breathing
inhaled after normal inspiration
forcibly expelled after normal expiration
remaining in the lungs after forced expiration

exchanged during normal breathing

25

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.

tidal volume
expiratory reserve volume
vital capacity
inspiratory capacity

vital capacity

26

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.

vital capacity
inspiratory reserve volume
reserve air
expiratory capacity

inspiratory reserve volume

27

Inspiratory capacity is ________.

the total amount of exchangeable air
air inspired after a tidal inhalation
the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
functional residual capacity

the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

28

Spirometry results reveal a vital capacity of two liters which is well below the predicted value of five liters. This suggests which disorder?

emphysema
asthma
obstructive pulmonary disease
restrictive disease

restrictive disease

29

Part complete
What is the amount of air that is normally ventilated in one breath?

tidal volume
expiratory reserve volume
inspiratory reserve volume
vital capacity

tidal volume

30

The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.

True
False

true

31

Emphysema can result in an ______.

increased level of carbaminohemoglobin
increased level of deoxyhemoglobin
increased likelihood of the skin of Caucasians developing a slightly blue coloration
All of the listed responses are correct.

all of the list responses are correct

32

During pneumonia, the lungs become "waterlogged"; this means that within the alveoli there is an abnormal accumulation of ______.

blood
blood plasma
interstitial fluid
water

interstitial fluid

33

Henry's law of partial pressures states that when a gas is in contact with a liquid, that gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure.

True
False

true

34

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.

Boyle's law
Henry's law
Dalton's law
Charles' law

Datlon's law

35

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.

between 5 and 6 micrometers thick
0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
at least 3 micrometers thick
The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange.

0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

36

The local matching of blood flow with ventilation is ________.

chloride shifting
the Bohr effect
the Haldane effect
ventilation-perfusion coupling

ventilation- perfusion coupling

37

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

the temperature
solubility in water
molecular weight and size of the gas molecule
partial pressure gradien

partial pressure gradiant

38

Part complete
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

diffusion
osmosis
filtration
active transport

diffusion

39

Part complete
Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.

True
False

true

40

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.

about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood
greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules

only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood

41

Which form of CO2 transport accounts for the least amount of CO2 transported in blood?

as carbon monoxide in plasma
as bicarbonate ion in plasma
chemically bound to hemoglobin
dissolved in plasma

dissolved in plasma

42

Which form of hypoxia reflects poor O2 delivery resulting from too few RBCs or from RBCs that contain abnormal or too little hemoglobin?

hypoxemic hypoxia
ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia
anemic hypoxia
histotoxic hypoxia

anemic hypoxia

43

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide transported in blood?

-chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells
-as bicarbonate ions in plasma after first entering the red blood cells
-chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin
-as carbonic acid in the plasma

as bicarbonate ions in plasma after first entering the red blood cells

44

Which of the following is an appropriate response to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning?

hyperbaric oxygen chamber to increase PO2 and clear CO from the body
hyperventilation to exhale CO from the body
slow breathing into a paper bag
immediate application of bicarbonate ions to facilitate removal of CO from Hb

hyperbaric oxygen chamber to increase PO2 and clear CO from the body

45

The Bohr effect refers to the unloading of ________ in a RBC due to declining blood pH.

carbon dioxide
chloride ions
BPG
oxygen

oxygen

46

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breathing through the nose?

heating and moistening the air entering the nasal cavity
destruction of pathogens entering the nasopharynx
extraction of heat and moisture from the air leaving the nasal cavity
filtration of the air entering the nasal cavity

destruction of pathogens entering the nasopharynx

47

Which of the following is the region where the respiratory path has to cross the digestive pathway?

larynx
trachea
pharynx
esophagus

pharynx