Chapter 19 - Microbiology BIOL 2420 Flashcards


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1

Hypersensitivity is due to

A) The presence of an antigen

B) Immunity

C) The presence of antibodies

D) An altered immune response

E) Allergies

D

2

The chemical mediators of anaphylaxis are

A) Found in basophils and mast cells

B) Antibodies

C) Antigens

D) Antigen-antibody complexes

E) The proteins of the complement system

A

3

Which of the following may result form systemic anaphylaxis?

A) Hay fever

B) Asthma

C) Shock

D) Hives

E) None of the above

C

4

Which antibodies will be in the serum of a person with blood type B, Rh-?

A) anti A, anti B, anti Rh

B) anti A, anti Rh

C) anti A

D) anti B, anti Rh

E) anti B

C

5

Which type of transplant is least compatible?

A)Autograft

B) Allograft

C) Isograft

D) Xenotransplant

E) None of the above

D

6

Which of the following is not used to determine relatedness between a donor and a recipient for transplants?

A) ABO antigens

B) ABO antibodies

C) MHC antegens

D) MHC antibodies

E) None of the above

E

7

Graft-versus-host disease will most likely be a complication of

A) a skin graft

B) a bone marrow transplant

C) a blood transfusion

D) an Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus

E) all of the above

B

8

Which of the following is not an immune complex disease?

A) Rheumatic fever

B) Systemic lupus erythematosus

C) Hemolytic disease of the newborn

D) Glomerulonephritis

E) None of the above

C

9

Cancer cells may escape the immune system because

A) They are recognized as "self"

B) Antibodies are not formed against cancer cells

C) Killer T cells react with tumor-specific antigens

D) Tumor cells shed their specific antigens

E) None of the above

D

10

The symptoms of an immune complex reaction are due to

A) Destruction of the antigen.
B) Complement fixation.
C) Phagocytosis.
D) Antibodies against self.
E) Cytokines.

B

11

Autoimmunity is due to

A) IgG and IgM antibodies.
B) IgA antibodies.
C) IgD antibodies.
D) IgE antibodies. E) CTLs.

A

12

Allergic contact dermatitis is due to

A) Sensitized T cells.
B) IgG antibodies.
C) IgE antibodies.
D) IgM antibodies.
E) All of the above.

A

13

Immunotoxins can be used to treat cancer because they

A) Phagocytize foreign cells

B) Fix complement

C) Poison cells

D) Agglutinate cells

E) None of the above

C

14

Worldwide, the primary method of transmission of HIV is

A) Heterosexual intercourse

B) Homosexual intercourse

C) Intravenous drug use

D) Blood transfusions

E) Nosocomial

A

15

A hypersensitivity reaction occurs

A) During the first exposure to an antigen.
B) On a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen.
C) In immunologically tolerant individuals.
D) During autoimmune diseases.
E) In individuals with diseases of the immune system.

B

16

All of the following statements about type I hypersensitivities are true except

A) They are cell-mediated.
B) They involve IgE antibodies.
C) The symptoms are due to histamine.
D) Antibodies are bound to host cells.
E) The symptoms occur soon after exposure to an antigen.

A

17

All of the following statements about type IV hypersensitivities are true except

A) They are cell-mediated.
B) The symptoms occur within a few days after exposure to an antigen.
C) They can be passively transferred with serum.
D) The symptoms are due to lymphokines.
E) They contribute to the symptoms of certain diseases.

C

18

Which of the following blood transfusions are incompatible?

Donor Recipient
1. AB, Rh- AB, Rh+
2. A, Rh+ A, Rh-
3. A, Rh+ O, Rh+
4. B, Rh- B, Rh+
5. B, Rh+ A, Rh+

A) 2 and 5
B) 1, 2, and 3
C) 2, 3, and 5
D) 3 and 4
E) 1 and 2

C

19

Hemolytic disease of the newborn can result from

A) An Rh+ mother with an Rh- fetus.
B) An Rh- mother with an Rh+ fetus.
C) An AB mother with a B fetus.
D) An AB mother with an O fetus.
E) An Rh- mother and an A fetus.

B

20

Reaction of antigen with IgE antibodies attached to mast cells causes

A) Lysis of the cells.
B) Release of chemical mediators.
C) Complement fixation.
D) Agglutination.
E) Hemolysis.

B

21

Which of the following involves a monoclonal anti-tumor antibody and a toxin?

A) Immunologic enhancement
B) Immunologic surveillance
C) Immunotherapy
D) Immunosuppression
E) Immune complex

C

22

Which of the following may be inherited or result from HIV infection?

A) Immunologic enhancement
B) Immunologic surveillance
C) Immunotherapy
D) Immunosuppression
E) Autoimmunity

D

23

Treatment with certain drugs to reduce transplant rejection can cause

A) Immunologic enhancement.
B) Immunologic surveillance.
C) Immunotherapy.
D) Immunosuppression.

D

24

Cancer cells avoid the immune system by

A) Immunologic enhancement.
B) Immunologic surveillance.
C) Immunotherapy.
D) Immunosuppression.
E) Autoimmunity

D

25

Which of the following is the body's response to tumor-specific antigen?

A) Immunologic enhancement.
B) Immunologic surveillance.
C) Immunotherapy.
D) Immunosuppression.

B

26

Which of the following results in increased susceptibility to infection?

A) Immunologic enhancement.
B) Immunologic surveillance.
C) Immunotherapy.
D) Immunosuppression.

D

27

Hay fever is an example of

A) Type I hypersensitivity

B) Type II hypersensitivity

C) Type III hypersensitivity

D) Type IV hypersensitivity

E) All of the above

A

28

Transfusion reactions are an example of

A) Type I hypersensitivity

B) Type II hypersensitivity

C) Type III hypersensitivity

D) Type IV hypersensitivity

E) All of the above

B

29

Transplant rejection is an example of

A) Type I hypersensitivity

B) Type II hypersensitivity

C) Type III hypersensitivity

D) Type IV hypersensitivity

E) All of the above

D

30

Which one of the following statements about HIV is not true?

A) The T-cell response triggers viral multiplication

B) HIV van be transmitted by cell-to-cell contact

C) Bone marrow can be a reservoir for future infection

D) Viral infection of the TH cells results in signs elsewhere in the patient

E) HIV infection directly causes death

E

31

Someone with AIDS probably

A) Does not make any antibodies.
B) Makes T-dependent antibodies.
C) Makes T-independent antibodies.
D) Makes TC- and TD-dependent antibodies.
E) None of the above.

C

32

Which of the following is the least likely vaccine against HIV?

A) Attenuated virus

B) Glycoprotein

C) Protein core

D) Subunit

E) None of the above

A

33

Antibodies against HIV are ineffective for all of the following reasons except

A) Antibodies arenʹt made against HIV.
B) Transmission by cell-to-cell fusion.
C) Antigenic change.
D) Latency.
E) Virus particles staying in vesicles.

A

34

The outcome of an HIV infection could be all of the following except

A) Latency

B) Slow production

C) TC-killing infected cells

D) Viral-killing of infected cells

E) None of the above

E

35

Which of these causes of glomerulonephritis leads to all the others?

A) Antibodies against Streptococcus
B) Circulating immune complexes
C) Complement fixation
D) Formation of immune complexes
E) Production of IgG

A

36

Which of these causes damage to kidney cells in glomerulonephritis?

A) Antibodies against Streptococcus
B) Circulating immune complexes
C) Complement fixation
D) Formation of immune complexes
E) Production of IgG

C

37

HIV is transmitted by all of the following except

A) Homosexual activity
B) Heterosexual activity
C) Hypodermic needles
D) Mosquitoes
E) Human milk

D

38

Drugs, such as AZT and ddC, currently used to treat AIDS act by

A) Stimulatory TH cells.
B) Stopping DNA synthesis.
C) Promoting antibody formation.
D) Neutralizing the virus.
E) All of the above.

B

39

The following events occur if human cells expressing HLA-I are mixed with anti-HLA-I, complement, and trypan blue. What step indicates the cells are HLA-I?

A) The MAC makes a pore in the plasma membrane.
B) Complement is fixed.
C) Trypan blue enters the cells.
D) Antibody binds to the cells.
E) None of the above; the T cells are missing.

A

40

Which of the following is NOT considered a type I hypersensitivity?

A) Asthma
B) Dust allergies
C) Penicillin allergic reactions
D) Pollen allergies
E) Transplant rejections

E

41

Immunodeficiencies are caused by all of the following. Which one does NOT cause an acquired immunodeficiency?

A) Chromosomal-linked B-cell deficiency
B) Cyclosporine to inhibit IL-2 secretion
C) HIV infection
D) Rapamycin to inhibit IL-2 action
E) All of the above cause an acquired immunodeficiency.

A

42

Which of the following describes a cytotoxic autoimmune reaction?

A) Antibodies react to cell-surface antigens.
B) Antibodies are not made.
C) Cells are killed.
D) Immune complexes form.
E) Mediate by T cells.

A

43

Clinical AIDS is diagnosed when

A) A patient has lymphadenopathy.
B) HIV is found in a patient by Western blotting.
C) The CD4 T-cell count is <200/mm3.
D) The patient has persistent diarrhea.
E) The patient has antibodies against HIV.

C

44

In rheumatoid arthritis, IgM, IgG, and complement deposit in joints. This is an example of

A) Cytotoxic autoimmunity.
B) Immune complex autoimmunity.
C) Cell-mediated autoimmunity.
D) Immunosuppression.
E) Acquired immunodeficiency.

B

45

MMR vaccine contains hydrolyzed gelatin. A person receiving this vaccine could develop an anaphylactic reaction if the person has

A) An immunodeficiency.
B) Antibodies against eggs.
C) Antibodies against gelatin.
D) Received the influenza vaccine.
E) None of the above.

C