Child and Adolescent Development in Your Classroom, Topical Approach: PY199 Final Exam Q's Flashcards

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A researcher wants to find out whether increased hand washing causes a decreased number of illnesses among staff and children in child care. Which research design should the researcher use?



A researcher wishes to investigate how students of different ages view their parents, so he has students in grades 6, 9, and 12 fill out questionnaires. This type of research is...



Experts find a strong relationship between reading test scores and math test scores. Students who are high on one tend to be high on the other. This correlation would be be represented by which of the filling correlation coefficients?



If you want to investigate how a small number of ten0year-olds think and feel about divorce and you want to report the results in the children's own words, which of the following research approaches would you most likely use?



In Urie Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, the most influential processes tend to occur in the...



Calvin Murphy is on a swim team. When his parents take him to out-of-town swim meets, they try to visit the local museums and historical sites. This might affect his achievement because of...

Cultural capital


A key risk factor for children is...

maternal depression


Regarding starting school (kindergarten,) an environment is likely to believe that...

young children should start school even if readiness tests show lack of readiness because school causes children to learn


According to Maslow's hierarchy, the root cause of misbehavior is...

unmet needs


What is myelin?

a fatty substance that forms a sheath around axons


Of the following, which part of the brain is most involved in control processes such as impulse control, emotion control, and long-term planning?

prefrontal cortex


Which of the following is most true of brain development?

the brain changes as a result of experience


In terms of movement, physical activity peaks at about what age?

7-9 years


Exercise is linked with which of the following in the brain?

improved functioning and higher test scores


Which of the following is true of low birth weight children?

they often experience cognitive problems such as low IQ and attention deficits


Which of the following is true of breast feeding?

Breast milk is related to improved health and slightly higher intelligence


Which of the following is true of undernutrition?

reduces achievement and intelligence


A cause of nonorganic failure to thrive is...

low-quality parenting


Of the following, the biggest differences between boys and girls occur in...

physical development


Ideally, children should...

be able to wake up without an alarm


Which of the following is the term for a substance taken by a pregnant mother that can harm the developing fetus?



One characteristic of behaviorism is an emphasis on ...

observable events


Edward is severely beaten by his alcoholic father on several occasions. Before long, Edward begins to shake whenever his father approaches. In this situation, Edward's father is a(n)...

conditioned stimulus


Teresa has a painful experience at the dentist's office, so her mother takes Teresa to a new dentist, one who takes great care to make her visits painless. Teresa is anxious at first, but after a few visits, Teresa gradually becomes less resistant about going to the new dentist. Teresa's chance in behavior can probably be best explained in terms of...



Which of the following would be an operant conditioning explanation for why some children become aggressive?

When they ar aggressive, they tend to get their way.


Negative reinforcement does which of the following?

Increases the probability of a behavior


Of all the operant conditioning techniques and principles discusses in the text, which did Skinner (and others) recommend avoiding?



Mr. Johnson wants a hyperactive boy to be able to sit quietly for at least 15 minutes at a time. To do this, he begins praising the boy for sitting still for one minute, then for two minutes, then for four minutes, and so on. Mr. Johnson's strategy best reflects which of the following concepts?



Mr. Brillhart teaches from a script that is provided by a publisher. The script explains new information clearly, and then calls for student responses. Mr. Brillhart aims for a student success rate of 80% on initial learning. He is likely using which form of instruction?

direct instruction


According to Piaget, for children to learn something they need which of the following?

to create their own understanding


Object permanence refers to the belief that...

objects continue to exist even when out of sight


Serafina can go beyond what she sees in the real world and can consider possibilities and scenarios that don't exist. She is likely in which of Piaget's stages?

formal operational


Mr. Silas wants his students to understand properties of air, so he has them fly kites, press inverted glasses into water, release smelly gases in a warm room and a cold room, blow up balloons, and so forth. He follows his students' lead and asks lots of open-ended questions. His class could best be described as based on principles of...

constructivist teaching


If a teacher is working with Sally in her zone of proximal development, it means...

the teacher is improving Sally's competence by giving assistance


Which of the following is most likely to b a cultural tool?

Smart phone


Bandura's classic study, in which children viewed filmed adults hit an inflatable punching doll, demonstrated that...

children imitate aggressive behaviors that they view


Sally is reading her history textbook and realizes that she is using a poor strategy for remembering what she has read. What has been activated?



You give a three-year-old some cards depicting shapes (ex dogs and cookies) that are drawn in two colors (black and yellow). Ask the child to first sort by color. After sorting several cards, ask to switch tasks and sort by shape. This is best described as a test of what?

inhibitory control


The textbook points out that ADHD is linked with which of the following?

the mother's use of tobacco or alcohol during pregnancy


According to the book, what is one reason why medication is a controversial treatment for ADHD?

medications have negative side effects


Which of the following is the LEAST advanced encoding method?



Which of the following best illustrates a script? A child know that...

on school days, we get up, shower, eat breakfast, make lunch, and wait for the bus


Which of the following is true of the effects of testing on memory?

testing can be more effective than re-reading or reviewing material


Which of the following is the most effective memory strategy?

Elaborating by creating associations between what is being learned and what is already known


Studies showing that six-month-olds gaze longer at a screen that shows dots that change in number than a screen that shows the same number of dots that change color suggest that...

number sense is a core domain


The definition of intelligence which is widely used and accepted by most experts, emphasizes which of the following?

ability to reason, solve problems, and think abstractly


When theorists talk about intelligence, some emphasize "g" which stands for...

general intelligence


Which of the following is true of children with high intelligence?

they need less time to learn material


The Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children, which we looked at in class, is widely used in schools. One strength of WISC is that...

gives both a verbal IQ and a performance IQs so children with language processing difficulties can still show their abilities


An IQ score of 116 suggests which of the following about the student?

more intelligent than most other students


Which of the following is most true about average gender differences in intelligence?

Boys tend to be superior in spatial ability


The Flynn effect refers to which of the following?

an increase in measured intelligence in many countries of the world


According to research on expert violinists, the primary cause of talent is...

time spent in deliberate practice


Which of the following statements about the SES achievement gap is true?

the gap increases across the school years


A key insight of attachment theory is that...

securely attached infants use their attachment figure as a base for exploration


Attachment research suggests that most children would be particularly resistant about being left with a new babysitter when they are...

about one-year-old


A one-year-old child largely ignores the fact that his mother has left him with a stranger and does not seem to care when his mother returns. What form of attachment is this?

insecure avoidant


Children who display disorganized attachment are likely to have...

strange or bizarre behaviors


A child views herself as unworthy of love and expects that adults will be unresponsive and uncaring. She has a negative...

internal working model


Which of the following is the strongest predictor of teacher-student relationships?

attachment at home


School bonding is primarily caused by which of the following?

close relationships with teachers and others at school


Temperament traits which we can see even in young children include...

negative emotionality and behavioral inhibiion


An infant's temperament is highly reactive to novelty and frustration. The parent is intrusive, coercive, and controlling. What is the likely outcome for the child?

angry and aggressive


According to the text, how should teachers treat shy learners?

give the control over how quickly they engage in new situations


Which way of measuring delay of gratification in preschoolers was used in the famous study by Walter Mischel?

offer one marshmallow immediately or two marshmallows if they wait 15 minutes


Which tends to mature more quickly in the brain?

reward center


Research on delay of gratification shows that delay during preschool was related to what later in life?

SAT scores and less drug use


According to the text, the long-term goal of discipline encounters should be to...

instill values and foster self-control


Boris anger his teacher by throwing spit wads at students in class and throwing spit wads so they stick to the ceiling. The teacher sighs and tells Boris that he is an embarrassment to his class and his family. The teacher sighs whenever she walks past Boris and asks if he is ready to do something nice for once. Which of the following forms of disciplines is the teacher using?

psychological control


Which is the most common form of child abuse?



Which of the following is a guideline for effective behavior modification?

Use shaping (reinforcing in small steps toward the target goal)


Which of the following is a drawback of behavior modification?

does little to foster internalization of values or motiviation


Which parenting-style is demanding of the child yet also warm and supportive?



Which of the following emotions typically develops last?



Eight-year-old Selena hates receiving socks as a birthday gift. Selena's grandmother gives her socks for her birthday. Selena smiles and says, "thank you." Selena is engaged in...

emotional dissemblance


Which of the following is true of adolescent moodiness?

Most adolescents report being fairly happy most of the time


To foster good emotion regulation in children, parents should who which of the following?

express both positive and negative emotions, but primarily positive


When is depression most common?



Sigrid is about the cross the street to join her mother when she notices her mother's horrified look. She stops, and a speeding card that she had not seen passes by. What has Sigrid displayed?

social referencing


Which of the following techniques is most likely to help students who experience test anxiety?

avoid time limits during tests and quizzes


Five-year-old Sonny has begun to understand what other people might be thinking; for example, Sonny thinks that his mother will think his fake rat is a real rat when she sees him pull it with a fishing line from under the rug. Sonny is developing...

theory of mind


Theory of mind is important in schools because is influences students' ability to...

understand their teachers and fellow students


According to Freud, psychological symptoms arise from...

unconscious or repressed memories


Kohlberg's first two stages of moral development emphasize...

punishment and obedience to authority


How should you respond to students' humor?

Respond positively as long as it is not insulting or disruptive


Which of the following tends to increase cheating?

student perceptions that a teacher is unfair


What is the relationship between moral behavior and moral judgement?

there is not a clear relationship between them


Which of the following factors is most important for children's moral development?

authoritative parenting style


Which of the following scenarios best illustrates the concept of joint attention?

Sonya and her father look together at a fancy car across the street


Which of the following is MOST common in children with autism?

abnormal social cognition


What is prosocial behavior?

voluntary behavior that benefits others


Pablo keeps pushing and poking Ben. The teacher asks Pablo to stop teasing Ben and to think about how sad it must make Ben feel. In this scenario, the teacher is using which of the following?

victim-centered induction


Your colleague says that her 3rd grade students are always trying to feed the pets, pick up dropped papers, and share pencils. She finds their behavior frustrating. What advice do you have for her?

point out that these are important prosocial behaviors that she should encourage in her students


Which of the following is true of conduct disorder?

It is more likely in boys than girls


Instrumental aggression is likely to be observed when a child wants to...

obtain the last slice of pizza


Twelve-year-old Delia refuses to let other girls join her group of friends. She ignores other girls and spreads rumors that they smell and have dirty underwear. Which of the following concepts is illustrated in this scenario?

social aggression


Which of the following statements is true about age trends in average levels of aggression?

the most aggressive age group is preschoolers from about two to four years of age


Which of the following is a protective factor for antisocial behavior?



Juan picks on his little brother, which causes his parents to yell at him. Lately they have to yell a lot to get his attention, and he yells back at them. When they punish him, he behaves for little while, but soon misbehaves. His parents punish him more. What is the label given to the form of family interaction?

coercive family cycle


Theory of mind is important for the social information processing model because students must do which of the following?

figure out other people's intentions


People often claim that girls are more socially aggressive than boys. What does the text say about this claim?

it is probably a stereotype; boys are socially aggressive as often as girls


Two students, Nicolas and Pia, are fighting over a puzzle. Nicole gets frustrated and goes to read a book, while Pia goes to work on her math homework. Which of the following concepts is illustrated?



Which of the following is true about conflict-resolution programs?

research shows that some do reduce conflict


Some children are popular but not well liked. What are they called by psychologists?



A child's peer status is primarily a result of...

the way he reads other students


Well-executed cooperative learning tends to...

promote good peer relations as students work together


Nancy and Marta are friends. Both are authentic and like softball and volleyball. They like the same movies and dislike the same movies. Their friendship is most likely a result of which of the following?



The influence of peer pressure...

depends on the peer network


Children with imaginary friends tend to...

be imaginative


Four children are playing together. They assign pretend roles of mommy, daddy, boss at work, and teacher. They take on the assigned roles and plan the meaning of the roles. They interact extensively. Thy are engaged in which of the following play type?



Which of the following is true of play?

It increases self-control and emotion regulation


Countries that show higher achievement than the United States tend to have...

more recess than the United States


Which of the following refers to the sounds of a language?



Which of the following is an example of child-directed speech, also called motherese?

An adult speaks to an infant using higher pitch than usual, with exaggerated ups and downs and slow tempo


Fast mapping refers to the ability to learn new words...

through a single, or very minimal, exposure


Utterances such as "we wented to the park"...

are examples of overregularization (to take irregular things and make them regular)


Students who are bilingual tend to experience which of the following?

improved executive functions and theory of mind compared to monolingual students


Which of the following is trust about the education of ELL students?

teach Standard English (SE) and syntax explicitly


In order to build students' language ability, it is useful to...

use academic language


Which of the following has NOT been found to promote phonological awareness?

having students work independently to figure out letter sounds