AP BIO CAMPBELL 29-30 35-36 37-38 Flashcards


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1

1) Bryophytes have all of the following characteristics except
A) specialized cells and tissues.
B) a reduced, dependent sporophyte.
C) multicellularity.
D) a protected, stationary egg cell.
E) lignified vascular tissue.

E

2

2) One of the major distinctions between plants and the green algae is that
A) only plants form a cell plate during cytokinesis.
B) only green algae have flagellated, swimming sperm.
C) embryos are not retained within parental tissues in green algae.
D) meiosis proceeds at a faster pace in green algae than in plants.
E) chlorophyll pigments in green algae are different from those in plants.

C

3

3) Arrange these adaptations to terrestrial existence in the order in which they first appeared during the evolution of land plants:
1. seeds
2. vascular tissues
3. apical meristems
4. flowers
A) 2, 3, 4, 1 B) 2, 4, 1, 3 C) 3, 2, 4, 1 D) 3, 2, 1, 4 E) 2, 3, 1, 4

D

4

4) The most recent common ancestors of all land plants were most likely similar to modern-day members of which group?
A) Phaeophyta (brown algae)
B) Cyanobacteria
C) Chrysophyta (golden algae)
D) Rhodophyta (red algae)
E) Charophycea

E

5

5) Which of the following characteristics, if observed in an unidentified green plant, would make it unlikely to be a charophycean?
A) peroxisome
B) apical meristem
C) phragmoplast
D) chlorophylls a and b
E) rosette cellulose-synthesizing complex

B

6

6) Which kind of plant tissue should lack phragmoplasts?
A) fern gametophyte tissues
B) diploid tissues
C) bryophyte tissues
D) tissues performing nuclear division without intervening cytokineses
E) spore-producing tissues

D

7

7) A number of characteristics are very similar between green algae and members of the kingdom Plantae. Of the following, which characteristic does not provide evidence for an evolutionarily close relationship between these two groups (that is, which is not a shared derived character)?
A) ribosomal RNA base sequences
B) chloroplast structure
C) alternation of generations
D) cell plate formation during cytokinesis
E) sperm cell structure

C

8

8) Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?
A) Eggs and sperm of primitive plants swim toward one another.
B) Both male and female primitive plants produce gametangia.
C) "Embryophytes" are small because they are in an early developmental stage.
D) Gametangia protect gametes from excess water.
E) It is limited to asexual reproduction in primitive plants.

B

9

9) In the life cycles of all land plants, there is true alternation of generations. Consequently,
A) meiosis in sporophytes produces haploid spores.
B) gametophytes produce spores that develop into gametes.
C) haploid sporophytes make haploid spores.
D) in plants, either the gametophyte or the sporophyte is unicellular.
E) sporophytes and gametophytes are typically similar in appearance.

A

10

10) Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No charophyceans exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that
A) charophyceans are not related to either green algae or land plants.
B) land plants evolved directly from the green algae that perform alternation of generations.
C) alternation of generations cannot be beneficial to charophyceans.
D) plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae.

D

11

11) Whereas the zygotes of charophyceans may remain within maternal tissues during their initial development, one should not expect to observe
A) the zygotes undergoing nuclear division.
B) the zygotes avoid digestion by enzymes from maternal lysosomes.
C) any nutrients from maternal tissues being used by the zygotes.
D) specialized placental transfer cells surounding the zygotes.
E) mitochondria in the maternal tissues, or in the tissues of the zygotes.

D

12

12) Which putative taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?
A) Streptophyta B) Plantae C) Viridiplantae D) Pteridophyta E) Charophycea

B

13

13) Plant spores give rise directly to
A) gametes. B) zygotes. C) gametophytes. D) seeds. E) sporophytes.

C

14

14) Peptidoglycan is to the structural integrity of bacteria as __________ is to the structural integrity of plant spores.
A) starch B) cellulose C) sporopollenin D) lignin E) tannin

C

15

15) Which of the following statements is true of archegonia?
A) They are the ancestral versions of animal gonads.
B) They are the sites where male gametes are produced.
C) They are the same things as sporangia.
D) They are asexual reproductive structures.
E) They may temporarily contain sporophyte embryos.

E

16

1) The following are all true concerning the sporophyte or gametophyte generations in flowering plants except
A) the flower is composede of gametophyte tissue only.
B) the sporophyte generation is what we see when observing a plant.
C) the gametophyte generation consists of relatively few cells within the flower.
D) unlike ferns, the gametophyte generation is not photosynthetic.
E) the sporophyte generation is dominant.

A

17

2) Which of the following is an ongoing trend in the evolution of land plants?
A) the elimination of sperm cells or sperm nuclei
B) a decrease in the size of the leaf
C) the replacement of roots by rhizomes
D) the reduction of the gametophyte phase of the life cycle
E) avoiding being eaten by dinosaurs

D

18

3) The following cellular structures are all found in cells of angiosperm or gymnosperm gametophytes except
A) haploid nuclei.
B) chloroplasts.
C) endomembrane system.
D) mitochondria.
E) cell walls.

B

19

4) Plants with a dominant sporophyte are successful on land partly because
A) having no stomata, they lose less water.
B) they all disperse by means of seeds.
C) diploid plants are more protected from the effects of mutation than are haploid plants.
D) eggs and sperm need not be produced.
E) their gametophytes are all parasitic on the sporophytes.

C

20

5) The following are all advantages of seeds for survival except
A) dormancy.
B) desiccation resistance.
C) dispersal.
D) a choice of germination location.
E) a nutrient supply for the embryo.

D

21

6) The following plant structures are all adaptations specifically for a terrestrial environment except
A) xylem. B) waxy cuticle. C) seeds. D) cell walls. E) roots.

D

22

7) In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?
A) a haploid gametophyte retained within tissues of the diploid sporophyte
B) lignin present in cell walls
C) pollen
D) Both A and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

D

23

8) In seed plants, which structure/material is properly considered part of a pollen grain?
A) sporophyll
B) male gametophyte
C) sporopollenin
D) stigma
E) Both B and C contribute to the structure of the pollen grain.

E

24

9) In terms of alternation generations, the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are equivalent to a
A) fern gametophyte that will bear only antheridia.
B) fern sporophyte.
C) hermaphroditic fern gametophyte.
D) moss sporophyte.
E) moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia.

A

25

10) Conifers are noted for all of the following except
A) size.
B) utility to humans.
C) longevity.
D) success in cold climates.
E) great diversity of species.

E

26

11) Gymnosperms differ from ferns in that gymnosperms
A) have pollen.
B) have macrophylls.
C) produce seeds.
D) Both A and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

D

27

12) What is the main way that pine trees disperse their offspring? They use
A) spores.
B) wind-blown seeds.
C) fruits that are eaten by animals.
D) flagellated sperm swimming through water.
E) squirrels to bury cones.

B

28

13) The following statements all correctly describe portions of the pine life cycle except
A) female gametophytes have archegonia.
B) pollen grains are male gametophytes.
C) meiosis occurs in sporangia.
D) seeds are produced in ovulate cones.
E) pollination and fertilization are the same process.

E

29

14) Which of the following terms is equivalent to fertilization?
A) spore dispersal
B) fusion of gametes
C) meiosis
D) fruit formation
E) pollination

B

30

15) The following statements are all true of the pine life cycle except
A) the pine tree is a sporophyte.
B) pollen grains are very different from pine male gametophytes.
C) pine trees have a simpler vascular tissue than flowering plants.
D) cones are short stems with spore-bearing, leaflike structures.
E) male and female gametophytes come together for fertilization.

B

31

1) A friend has discovered a new plant and brings it to you to classify. The plant has the following characteristics: a fibrous root system; no petioles; parallel leaf veins; thick, lignified cell walls; and a vascular cambium. Which of the following best describes the new plant?
A) herbaceous monocot
B) woody monocot
C) woody dicot
D) herbaceous dicot
E) woody annual

B

32

1) A friend has discovered a new plant and brings it to you to classify. The plant has the following characteristics: a fibrous root system; no petioles; parallel leaf veins; thick, lignified cell walls; and a vascular cambium. Which of the following best describes the new plant?
A) herbaceous monocot
B) woody monocot
C) woody dicot
D) herbaceous dicot
E) woody annual

D

33

3) An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is
A) lateral buds.
B) intercalary meristems.
C) absence of petioles.
D) apical dominance.
E) closing of the stomates.

D

34

4) A person working with plants may remove apical dominance by doing which of the following?
A) deep watering of the roots
B) fertilizing
C) pruning
D) transplanting
E) feeding the plants nutrients

C

35

The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root.
I. root cap
II. zone of elongation
III. zone of cell division
IV. zone of cell maturation
V. apical meristem

5) Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward?
A) IV, II, III, I, V B) I, II, V, III, IV C) III, V, I, II, IV D) II, IV, I, V, III E) I, V, III, II, IV

E

36

6) What effect does "pinching back" a houseplant have on the plant?
A) increases the flow of auxin down the shoot
B) inhibits the growth of lateral buds
C) produces a plant that will grow taller
D) produces a plant that will grow fuller
E) increases apical dominance

D

37

7) Land plants are composed of all the following tissue types except
A) ground tissue. B) meristematic. C) vascular. D) epidermal. E) mesoderm.

E

38

8) Plant vascular tissue includes all of the following cell types except
A) tracheids.
B) cambium cells.
C) sieve cells.
D) vessel elements.
E) companion cells.

B

39

9) Which functional plant cells lack a nucleus?
A) xylem only
B) sieve-tube cell only
C) companion cells only
D) both companion and parenchyma cells
E) both xylem and sieve-tube cells

E

40

A. parenchyma
B. collenchyma
C. sclerenchyma
D. tracheids
E. sieve-tube cells

10) long, thin, tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water flow through pits

11) living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes; they transport sucrose and other organic nutrients

12) the least specialized plant cells, which serve general metabolic, synthetic, and storage functions

13) cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that support young parts of the plant

14) mature cells without protoplasts but with thick, lignified secondary walls that may form fibers

10) Answer: D 11) Answer: E 12) Answer: A 13) Answer: B 14) Answer: C

41

1) There are several properties of a soil in which typical plants would grow well. Of the following, which would be the least conducive to plant growth?
A) abundant humus
B) high cation exchange capacity
C) high clay content
D) high porosity
E) numerous soil organisms

C

42

2) Which of the following describes the fate of most of the water taken up by a plant?
A) It is used as a hydrogen source in photosynthesis.
B) It is lost during transpiration.
C) It makes cell elongation possible.
D) It is used as a solvent.
E) It is used to keep cells turgid.

B

43

3) The greatest proportion of the water taken up by plants is
A) stored in the xylem.
B) absorbed by central vacuoles during cell elongation.
C) lost through stomata during transpiration.
D) returned to the soil by roots.
E) split during photosynthesis.

C

44

4) Organic molecules make up what percentage of the dry weight of a plant?
A) 17% B) 6% C) 67% D) 96% E) 81%

D

45

5) You are conducting an experiment on plant growth. You take a plant fresh from the soil and it weighs 5 kg. Then you dry the plant overnight and determine the dry weight to be 1 kg. Of this dry weight, how much would you expect to be made up of inorganic minerals?
A) 1 kg B) 5 kg C) 500 grams D) 50 grams E) 4 kg

D

46

6) Plant growth and development depend primarily on three main components: __________, __________, and __________.
A) phosphorus; nitrogen; oxygen
B) sulfur; nitrogen; phosphorus
C) nitrogen; carbon; oxygen
D) oxygen; carbon; hydrogen
E) potassium; carbon; oxygen

D

47

7) A growing plant exhibits chlorosis of the leaves of the entire plant. The chlorosis is probably due to a deficiency of which of the following macronutrients?
A) nitrogen B) calcium C) hydrogen D) oxygen E) carbon

A

48

8) Which of the following elements is incorrectly paired with its function in a plant?
A) nitrogenhorizontalcomponent of nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, coenzymes
B) sulfurhorizontalcomponent of DNA; activates some enzymes
C) potassiumhorizontalcofactor functional in protein synthesis; osmosis; operation of stomata
D) magnesiumhorizontalcomponent of chlorophyll; activates many enzymes
E) phosphorushorizontalcomponent of nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP, several coenzymes

B

49

9) In the nutrition of a plant, which element is classified as a macronutrient?
A) zinc B) chlorine C) molybdenum D) manganese E) calcium

E

50

10) Which of the following best describes the general role of micronutrients in plants?
A) They are necessary for essential regulatory functions.
B) They prevent chlorosis.
C) They are components of nucleic acids.
D) They are necessary for the formation of cell walls.
E) They are cofactors in enzyme reactions.

E

51

11) All of the following are elements that plants need in very small amounts (micronutrients) except
A) hydrogen. B) zinc. C) copper. D) iron. E) chlorine.

A

52

12) Which of the following is not true of micronutrients in plants?
A) Overdoses of them can be toxic.
B) They are required for a plant to grow from a seed and complete its life cycle.
C) They are the essential elements of small size and molecular weight.
D) They are the elements required in relatively small amounts.
E) They generally help in catalytic functions in the plant.

C

53

13) What is meant by the term chlorosis?
A) a contamination of glassware in hydroponic culture
B) the uptake of the micronutrient chlorine by a plant
C) release of negatively charged minerals such as chloride from clay particles in soil
D) the formation of chlorophyll within the thylakoid membranes of a plant
E) the yellowing of leaves due to decreased chlorophyll production

E

54

14) The factor most limiting to algal growth in open ocean is
A) a deficit of dissolved iron and other minerals.
B) inadequate light exposure.
C) excessive wave action.
D) lack of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
E) low concentrations of oxygen.

A

55

15) What soil(s) is (are) the most fertile?
A) humus only
B) loam only
C) clay only
D) silt only
E) both humus and loam

E

56

1) The products of meiosis in plants are always which of the following?
A) seeds
B) eggs
C) spores
D) sperm
E) Both B and C are correct.

C

57

2) Which of the following is the correct sequence during alternation of generations in a flowering plant?
A) haploid gametophyte-gametes-meiosis-fertilization-diploid sporophyte
B) haploid sporophyte-spores-fertilization-diploid gametophyte
C) sporophyte-mitosis-gametophyte-meiosis-sporophyte
D) sporophyte-meiosis-gametophyte-gametes-fertilization-diploid zygote
E) sporophyte-spores-meiosis-gametophyte-gametes

D

58

3) Which of the following is true in plants?
A) Meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores.
B) Plants exist continually as either sporophytes or gametophytes.
C) Male gametophytes and female gametophytes are the same structure.
D) Meiosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes.
E) The gametophyte is the dominant generation in flowering plants.

A

59

4) All of the following are features that can account for the evolutionary success of angiosperms except
A) a triploid endosperm.
B) an ovary that becomes a fruit.
C) a reduced sporophyte phase.
D) double fertilization.
E) animal pollination.

C

60

5) Based on studies of plant evolution, which flower part is not a modified leaf?
A) petal B) receptacle C) carpel D) sepal E) stamen

B

61

6) All of the following floral parts are directly involved in pollination or fertilization except the
A) anther. B) stigma. C) sepal. D) carpel. E) style.

C

62

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
The questions below refer to the following answers. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
A. stamen
B. stigma
C. embryo sac
D. sepal
E. coleoptile

7) the sheath covering the embryonic shoot in a monocot

8) flower part modified as a male reproductive structure

9) the outer modified leaf of a flower

10) the female gametophyte of angiosperms

11) the sticky top of a carpel

7) Answer: E 8) Answer: A 9) Answer: D 10) Answer: C 11) Answer: B 12) Answer: D

63

12) Which of the following is the correct order of floral organs from the outside to the inside of a complete flower?
A) sepals-stamens-petals-carpels
B) petals-sepals-stamens-carpels
C) male gametophyte-female gametophyte-sepals-petals
D) sepals-petals-stamens-carpels
E) spores-gametes-zygote-embryo

D

64

13) All of the following are primary functions of flowers except
A) pollen production.
B) meiosis.
C) photosynthesis.
D) sexual reproduction.
E) egg production.

C

65

14) Meiosis occurs within all of the following flower parts except the
A) ovule.
B) anther.
C) style.
D) ovary.
E) megasporangium.

C

66

15) A perfect flower is correctly described as a flower that
A) is on a dioecious plant.
B) has no endosperm.
C) has no sepals.
D) has fused carpels.
E) has both stamens and carpels.

E