Chapter 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Flashcards


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Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e (Tortora)
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1) Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding prokaryotic cells?

A) Their DNA is not enclosed within a membrane.

B) They lack membrane-enclosed organelles.

C) They typically have a circular chromosome.

D) They reproduce by binary fission.

E) They lack a plasma membrane.

E

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2) Each of the following statements concerning the gram-positive cell wall is true EXCEPT

A) it maintains the shape of the cell.

B) it is sensitive to lysozyme.

C) it protects the cell in a hypertonic environment.

D) it contains teichoic acids.

E) it is sensitive to penicillin.

C

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3) Which of the following statements best describes what happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a solution containing 5 percent NaCl?

A) Sucrose will move into the cell from a higher to a lower concentration.

B) The cell will undergo osmotic lysis.

C) Water will move out of the cell.

D) Water will move into the cell.

E) No change will result; the solution is isotonic.

C

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7) Which of the following have a cell wall?

A) protoplasts

B) fungi

C) L forms

D) mycoplasmas

E) animal cells

B

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8) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A) Endospores are for reproduction.

B) Endospores allow a cell to survive environmental changes.

C) Endospores are easily stained in a Gram stain.

D) A cell produces one endospore and keeps growing.

E) A cell can produce many endospores.

B

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10) Which of the following organelles most closely resembles a prokaryotic cell?

A) nucleus

B) mitochondrion

C) Golgi complex

D) vacuole

E) cell wall

B

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11) Which drawing in Figure 4.1 is a tetrad?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

B

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13) Which drawing in Figure 4.1 is streptococci?

A) a

B) b

C) c

D) d

E) e

D

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14) Antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis ultimately cause bacterial cell death as a result of

A) osmotic lysis.

B) inhibition of molecular transport.

C) decreased synthesis of peptidoglycan.

D) plasmolysis.

E) cell shrinkage.

A

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16) Which of the following statements about gram-negative cell walls is FALSE?

A) They protect the cell in a hypotonic environment.

B) They have an extra outer layer composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.

C) They are toxic to humans.

D) They are sensitive to penicillin.

E) Their Gram reaction is due to the outer membrane.

D

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18) Functions of the glycocalyx include all of the following EXCEPT

A) biofilm formation.

B) increased virulence.

C) source of nutrition.

D) protection against dehydration.

E) binary fission.

E

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19) Which structure acts like an "invisibility cloak" and protects bacteria from being phagocytized?

A) slime layer

B) fimbriae

C) capsule

D) cell membrane

E) cell wall

C

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21) Which of the following terms best describes the cell in Figure 4.2?

A) peritrichous flagella

B) amphitrichous flagella

C) lophotrichous flagella

D) monotrichous flagella

E) axial filament

C

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24) The terms "run" and "tumble" are generally associated with

A) cell wall fluidity.

B) taxic movements of the cell.

C) clustering properties of certain rod-shaped bacteria.

D) cell membrane synthesis.

B

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25) You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. You can safely assume that the cell

A) has 9 pairs + 2 flagella.

B) has a mitochondrion.

C) has a cell wall.

D) lives in an extreme environment.

E) has cilia.

C

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26) Fimbriae and pili differ in that

A) there are only one or two pili per cell.

B) pili are used for motility.

C) pili are used to transfer DNA.

D) pili are used for transfer of DNA and motility.

E) pili are used for attachment to surfaces.

D

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27) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is a gram-negative cell wall?

A) a

B) b

C) both a and b

D) neither a nor b

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

B

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28) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall possesses molecules responsible for symptoms associated with infection?

A) a

B) b

C) both a and b

D) neither a nor b

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

B

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29) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall has a structure that protects against osmotic lysis?

A) a

B) b

C) both a and b

D) neither a nor b

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

C

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30) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is decolorized by alcohol?

A) a

B) b

C) both a and b

D) neither a nor b

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

B

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31) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is resistant to many antibiotics (e.g., penicillin)?

A) a

B) b

C) both a and b

D) neither a nor b

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

B

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32) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains teichoic acids?

A) a

B) b

C) both a and b

D) neither a nor b

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

A

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33) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains porins?

A) a

B) b

C) both a and b

D) neither a nor b

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

A

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34) Where are phospholipids most likely found in a prokaryotic cell?

A) flagella

B) around organelles

C) the plasma membrane

D) ribosomes

E) the plasma membrane and around organelles

C

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39) In a hypertonic solution, a bacterial cell will typically

A) lyse.

B) burst.

C) stay the same.

D) plasmolyze.

E) osmolyze.

D

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40) What will happen if a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water with lysozyme?

A) The cell will plasmolyze.

B) The cell will undergo osmotic lysis.

C) Water will leave the cell.

D) Lysozyme will diffuse into the cell.

E) No change will result; the solution is isotonic.

B

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42) Which one of the following pairs is mismatched?

A) metachromatic granules - phosphate storage

B) lipid inclusions - energy reserve

C) ribosomes - protein storage

D) sulfur granules - energy reserve

E) gas vacuoles - flotation

C

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45) The DNA found in most bacterial cells

A) is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.

B) utilizes histones for chromosomal packaging.

C) is circular in structure.

D) is linear in structure.

E) is found in multiple copies.

C

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1) The cell walls of bacteria are responsible for the shape of the bacteria and the difference in the Gram stain reaction.

TRUE

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2) Antibiotics that target the cell wall are an effective treatment against many pathogenic bacteria.

TRUE

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3) Cells placed in a hypotonic solution tend to lose water due to osmotic pressure.

FALSE

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4) Small, hydrophobic molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily by diffusion.

TRUE

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5) Spheroplasts, protoplasts, and mycoplasms are bacterial cells without cell walls.

TRUE

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6) Endospores are a reproductive structure.

FALSE

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7) The internal structure of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are the same.

TRUE

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8) Many enzymes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized within organelles.

FALSE

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9) The number of organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and rough endoplasmic reticulum is the same in all eukaryotic cells.

FALSE

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10) If you observe rod-shaped red cells after the Gram stain, you can assume their cell walls contain endotoxin.

TRUE