Which tree depicts the microsporidians as a sister group of the ascomycetes?
Which tree depicts the closest relationship between zygomycetes and chytrids?
Which tree shows the greatest evolutionary distance between chytrids and ascomycetes?
In the phylogenetic trees, numbers represent species, and the same species are shown in both trees. Which two species are represented as sister species in Tree 2 but are not shown as sister species in Tree 1?
A) 1 and 2
B) 2 and 3
C) 3 and 4
D) 4 and 5
The legless condition that is observed in several groups of extant reptiles is the result of ________.
A) their common ancestor having been legless
B) a shared adaptation to an arboreal (living in trees) lifestyle
C) several instances of the legless condition arising independently of each other
D) individual lizards adapting to a fossorial (living in burrows) lifestyle during their lifetimes
The various taxonomic levels (for example, phyla, genera, classes) of the hierarchical classification system differ from each other on the basis of ________.
A) how widely the organisms assigned to each are distributed throughout the environment
B) their inclusiveness
C) the relative genome sizes of the organisms assigned to each
D) morphological characters that are applicable to all organisms
If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms C, D, and E belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology?
A) A and D
B) B and D
C) B and C
D) D and E
Carolus Linnaeus believed that species remained fixed in the form in which they had been created. Linnaeus would have been uncomfortable with ________.
A) a hierarchical classification scheme
D) nested, increasingly inclusive categories of organisms
The best classification system is that which most closely ________.
A) unites organisms that possess similar morphologies
B) conforms to traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices
C) reflects evolutionary history
D) reflects the basic separation of prokaryotes from eukaryotes
Based on this tree, which statement is correct?
A) The human lineage is a basal taxon.
B) Salamanders are a sister group to the group containing lizards, goats, and humans.
C) Salamanders are as closely related to lizards as to humans.
D) Goats are more closely related to salamanders than to humans.
The following phylogeny shows six living species (a-f) and five ancestral (now extinct) species (#1-5). If the phylogeny had been developed on the basis of similarities in bone structure, which of the following predictions would you make in terms of the structure of a particular enzyme?
A) The enzymes of species b and f are very similar.
B) The enzymes of species b and c are more similar to ancestor #4 than to ancestor 2
C) The enzymes of species a and b are the same as that of ancestor #2.
D) The enzyme of species c is very similar to that of species d.
Some beetles and flies have antler-like structures on their heads, much like male deer. The existence of antlers in beetle, fly, and deer species with strong male-male competition is an example of ________.
A) convergent evolution
B) similarity due to shared ancestry
The term convergent evolution is most applicable to which of the following features?
A) the legless condition found in various lineages of extant lizards
B) the five-digit condition of human hands and bat wings
C) the fur that covers Australian moles and North American moles
D) the bones of bat forelimbs and the bones of bird forelimbs
If, someday, an archaean cell is discovered whose rRNA sequence is more similar to that of humans than the sequence of mouse rRNA is to that of humans, the best explanation for this apparent discrepancy would be ________.
B) convergent evolution
C) common ancestry
D) retro-evolution by humans
Which of the following pairs are the best examples of homologous structures?
A) eyelessness in the Australian mole and eyelessness in the North American mole
B) owl wing and hornet wing
C) bat wing and bird wing
D) bones in the bat wing and bones in the human forelimb
Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). If the molecular data best reflect the evolutionary history of these two groups, then the morphological similarities of these two species is most likely due to ________.
A) the inheritance of acquired characteristics
B) sexual selection
C) possession of analogous (convergent) traits
D) possession of shared primitive characters
The importance of computers and of computer software to modern systematics s is most closely linked to advances in ________.
A) light microscopy
B) radiometric dating
C) fossil discovery techniques
D) molecular genetics
The common ancestors of birds and mammals were very early (stem) reptiles, which almost certainly possessed three-chambered hearts (two atria, one ventricle). Birds and mammals, however, are alike in having four-chambered hearts (two atria, two ventricles). The four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals are best described as ________.
A) structural homologies
C) structural analogies
D) the result of shared ancestry
Imagine that a phylogeny was developed for a group of mammals based on bone structure. Which of the following statements would be a reasonable prediction about a phylogeny for the same group of species based on similarities and differences in the structure of a particular enzyme?
A) The same phylogeny would be unlikely.
B) The same phylogeny would be predicted.
C) No prediction could be made.
D) The amino acid sequence would be identical in all species.
According to the phylogenetic tree in the figure above, G. intestinalis constitutes a ________ group.
By examining the phylogenetic tree diagrammed in the figure above, what conclusion can you draw about the species G. microti?
A) It evolved before G. intestinalis.
B) It is more closely related to G. muris than to G. intestinalis.
C) It should not be labeled a species distinct from G. intestinalis.
D) It is part of a monophyletic group that also includes G. intestinalis.
Which of the following changes would a modern systematist be most likely to make after learning of the results of the rRNA analyses?
A) continue to keep subgroups A-D as members of the species G. intestinalis
B) break the species G. intestinalis into four separate species, A, B, C, and D
C) combine subgroup D and G. microti into one species
D) combine all the subgroups of G. intestinalis (A-D) and G. microti to make one species
Refer to the figure. Which of the following forms a monophyletic group?
A) A, B, C, D
B) C and D
C) D, E, and F
D) E, F, and G
Which of the following trees, if any, depicts the same relationship among species as shown above?
Which of the following would be most useful in creating a phylogenetic tree of a taxon?
A) morphological data from fossil and living species
B) a knowledge of color patterns in fossil and living species
C) a knowledge of mutation rates in modern species
D) morphological data from fossil species
Your professor wants you to construct a phylogenetic tree of orchids. She gives you tissue from seven orchid species and one lily. What is the most likely reason she gave you the lily?
A) to serve as an outgroup
B) to see if the lily is a cryptic orchid species
C) to see if the lily and the orchids show all the same shared derived characters
D) to demonstrate likely homoplasies
Which of the following statements best describes the rationale for applying the principle of maximum parsimony in constructing phylogenetic trees?
A) Parsimony allows the researcher to "root" the tree.
B) Similarity due to common ancestry should be more common than similarity due to convergent evolution.
C) The molecular clock validates the principle of parsimony.
D) The outgroup roots the tree, allowing the principle of parsimony to be applied.
Applying the principle of parsimony to the trait "ability to fly," which of the two phylogenetic trees is better?
A) Tree 1
B) Tree 2
C) Both trees are equally parsimonious.
D) Since the trees show different evolutionary relationships, you cannot determine which is more parsimonious.
Which of the following statements is accurate with regard to a phylogeny, as represented by a phylogenetic tree?
A) Descendant groups (branches) from the same node likely share many derived characters.
B) A monophyletic group can be properly based on convergent features.
C) The ancestral group often has all the derived characters of the descendant species.
D) Shared ancestral characters are excellent traits to use in developing a phylogeny.
Given that phylogenies are based on shared derived characteristics, which of the following traits is useful in generating a phylogeny of species W, X, Y, and Z?
A) Trait 1
B) Trait 2
C) Trait 3
D) Traits 1, 2, and 3
Which of the following is (are) problematic when the goal is to construct phylogenies that accurately reflect evolutionary history?
A) polyphyletic taxa
B) paraphyletic taxa
C) monophyletic taxa
D) polyphyletic taxa and paraphyletic taxa
Phylogenetic trees constructed from evidence from molecular systematics are based on similarities in ________.
B) the pattern of embryological development
C) biochemical pathways
D) mutations to homologous genes
There is some evidence that reptiles called cynodonts may have had whisker-like hairs around their mouths. If true, then hair is a shared ________.
A) derived character of mammals, even if cynodonts continue to be classified as reptiles
B) derived character of all vertebrates and not of the mammal clade
C) ancestral character of the all vertebrates, but only if cynodonts are reclassified as mammals
D) derived character of mammals, but only if cynodonts are reclassified as mammals
Which extinct species should be the best candidate to serve as the outgroup for the clade whose common ancestor occurs at position 2 in the figure?
If the figure above is an accurate depiction of relatedness, then which of the following should be an accurate statement?
A) The entire tree is based on minimum parsimony.
B) If all species depicted here make up a taxon, this taxon is paraphyletic.
C) The last common ancestor of species B and C occurred more recently than the last common ancestor of species D and E.
D) Species A is the direct ancestor of both species B and species C.
If the figure is an accurate depiction of relatedness, then which of the following should be an accurate statement?
A) If all species depicted here make up a taxon, this taxon is monophyletic.
B) The species present at position 4 is ancestral to species E, but not species D.
C) Species C is more closely related to species B than D is to B
D) The species present at position 3 is ancestral to C, D, and E.
Humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans are members of a clade called the great apes, which shared a common ancestor about 15 million years ago. Gibbons and siamangs comprise a clade called the lesser apes. Tree-branch lengths indicate elapsed time.
Assuming chimps and gorillas are humans' closest relatives, removing humans from the great ape clade and placing them in a different clade has the effect of making the phylogenetic tree of the great apes ________.
D) into a new order
The question refers to the following table, which compares the percent sequence homology of four different parts (two introns and two exons) of a gene that is found in five different eukaryotic species. Each part is numbered to indicate its distance from the promoter (for example, Intron I is the one closest to the promoter). The data reported for species A were obtained by comparing DNA from one member of species A to another member of species A.
Based on the tabular data, and assuming that time advances vertically, which phylogenetic tree is the most likely depiction of the evolutionary relationships among these five species?
Regarding these sequence homology data, the principle of maximum parsimony would be applicable in ________.
A) distinguishing introns from exons
B) determining degree of sequence homology
C) selecting appropriate genes for comparison among species
D) inferring evolutionary relatedness from the number of sequence differences
In a comparison of birds and mammals, having four limbs is ________.
A) a shared ancestral character
B) a shared derived character
C) a character useful for distinguishing birds from mammals
D) an example of analogy rather than homology
To apply the principle of maximum parsimony to construction of a phylogenetic tree, ________.
A) choose the tree that assumes all evolutionary changes are equally probable
B) choose the tree in which the branch points are based on as many shared derived characters as possible
C) choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, either in DNA sequences or morphology
D) choose the tree with the fewest branch points
If you were using cladistics to build a phylogenetic tree of cats, which of the following would be the best outgroup?
B) domestic cat
The phylogenetic tree shown ________.
A) depicts uncertainty about whether the bryophytes or the vascular plants evolved first
B) depicts an evolutionary hypothesis
C) includes evolution of convergent characteristics
D) indicates that seeds are a shared ancestral character of all vascular plants
In Figure 26.4, which similarly inclusive taxon is represented as descending from the same common ancestor as Canidae?
Three living species X, Y, and Z share a common ancestor T, as do extinct species U and V. A grouping that consists of species T, X, Y, and Z (but not U or V) makes up
A) a monophyletic taxon.
B) an ingroup, with species U as the outgroup.
C) a paraphyletic group.
D) a polyphyletic group.
Based on the tree below, which statement is not correct?
A) Goats and humans form a sister group.
B) Salamanders are a sister group to the group containing lizards, goats, and humans.
C) Salamanders are as closely related to goats as to humans.
D) Lizards are more closely related to salamanders than to humans.
The relative lengths of the frog and mouse branches in the phylogenetic tree in Figure 26.13 indicate that
A) frogs evolved before mice.
B) mice evolved before frogs.
C) the homolog has evolved more rapidly in mice.
D) the homolog has evolved more slowly in mice.