chapter 24 Flashcards


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1

1) Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract, except the
A) stomach.
B) pharynx.
C) esophagus.
D) bladder.
E) colon.

D

2

2) Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
A) appendix
B) pancreas
C) spleen
D) colon
E) esophagus

B

3

3) Digestion refers to the
A) progressive dehydration of indigestible residue.
B) mechanical breakdown of food.
C) chemical breakdown of food.
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C

D

4

4) Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?
A) mechanical processing
B) absorption
C) compaction
D) ingestion
E) filtration

E

5

5) The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the
A) serosa.
B) adventitia.
C) muscularis mucosa.
D) mucosa.
E) submucosa.

D

6

6) Which of these descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?
A) component of mucosa
B) sensory neural network
C) secretes a watery fluid
D) coordinates activity of muscularis externa
E) loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels

D

7

6) Which of these descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?
A) component of mucosa
B) sensory neural network
C) secretes a watery fluid
D) coordinates activity of muscularis externa
E) loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels

D

8

8) The ________ are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves,
lymphatics, and blood vessels.
A) serosa
B) adventitia
C) mesenteries
D) fibrosa
E) lamina propria

C

9

9) Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the
A) mucosa.
B) serosa.
C) adventitia.
D) submucosal plexus.
E) lamina propria.

D

10

10) Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle in the muscularis externa is the
A) mucosa.
B) submucosa.
C) muscularis mucosa.
D) myenteric plexus.
E) submucosal plexus.

D

11

11) Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the
A) mucosa.
B) submucosa.
C) muscularis.
D) adventitia.
E) serosa.

B

12

12) The layer of loose connective tissue that directly supports the digestive epithelium is the
A) lamina propria.
B) muscularis mucosae.
C) submucosa.
D) submucosal plexus.
E) myenteric plexus.

A

13

13) A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following, except in the
A) anal canal.
B) esophagus.
C) stomach.
D) oropharynx.
E) oral cavity.

C

14

14) A feature of the digestive epithelium that assists expansion of the organ is the presence of
A) transitional cells.
B) plicae.
C) elastic cells.
D) rugae.
E) both B and D

E

15

15) Which of these descriptions best matches the term submucosal plexus?
A) component of mucosa
B) sensory neural network
C) secretes a watery fluid
D) coordinates activity of muscularis externa
E) loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels

B

16

16) Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called
A) segmentation.
B) pendular movements.
C) peristalsis.
D) churning movements.
E) mastication.

C

17

17) Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called
A) segmentation.
B) pendular movements.
C) haustral churning.
D) defecation.
E) mass movements.

E

18

18) The activities of the digestive system are regulated by
A) hormones.
B) parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons.
C) the contents of the digestive tract.
D) intrinsic nerve plexuses.
E) all of the above

E

19

19) The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following, except
A) analysis of material before swallowing.
B) mechanical processing of food.
C) lubrication.
D) absorption of monosaccharides.
E) digestion of carbohydrates.

D

20

20) ________ pair(s) of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity.
A) One
B) Two
C) Three
D) Four
E) Six to Ten

C

21

21) The ________ gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar.
A) submaxillary
B) submandibular
C) parotid
D) sublingual
E) vestibular

C

22

22) A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the
A) uvula.
B) pharyngeal arch.
C) palatoglossal arch.
D) palatopharyngeal arch.
E) epiglottis.

A

23

23) Functions of the tongue include all of the following, except
A) mechanical processing of food.
B) manipulation of food.
C) sensory analysis of food.
D) aiding in speech.
E) partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx.

E

24

24) The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called
A) enamel.
B) cementum.
C) dentin.
D) pulp.
E) periodontium.

C

25

25) The chamber within a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the
A) enamel.
B) cementum.
C) dentin.
D) pulp cavity.
E) periodontium.

D

26

26) The root of a tooth is covered by
A) enamel.
B) cementum.
C) dentin.
D) pulp.
E) the root canal.

B

27

27) The crown of a tooth is covered by
A) enamel.
B) cementum.
C) dentin.
D) pulp.
E) periodontium

A

28

28) During deglutition,
A) the soft palate elevates.
B) the larynx elevates and the epiglottis closes.
C) the lower esophageal sphincter opens.
D) all of the above
E) A and C only

D

29

29) Which of the following is false about secretions from the salivary glands?
A) are mostly water
B) help control bacterial populations in the mouth
C) help lubricate the oral cavity and its contents
D) contain enzymes for the digestion of polysaccharides
E) contain enzymes for the digestion of disaccharides

E

30

30) The roof of the oral cavity is formed by the
A) vestibule.
B) hard palate.
C) soft palate.
D) A, B, and C
E) B and C only

E

31

31) The space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called the
A) pharynx.
B) larynx.
C) fauces.
D) vestibule.
E) dip sulcus.

D

32

32) The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the
A) vestibule.
B) gingiva.
C) alveolus.
D) uvula.
E) faux

B

33

33) The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the
A) uvula.
B) faux.
C) lingual frenulum.
D) labial frenulum.
E) glossal septum.

C

34

34) The uvula is located at the
A) posterior of the tongue.
B) margin of the vestibule.
C) base of a tooth.
D) posterior margin of the soft palate.
E) margin of the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx.

D

35

35) ________ are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping.
A) Canines
B) Bicuspids
C) Cuspids
D) Incisors
E) Molars

D

36

36) ________ are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing.
A) Incisors
B) Bicuspids
C) Premolars
D) Cuspids
E) Molars

D

37

37) ________ are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and grinding.
A) Molars
B) Cuspids
C) Eye teeth
D) Canines
E) Dentins

A

38

38) The esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of the gut tube. These include
A) epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous.
B) epithelium of mucosa is simple columnar.
C) muscularis externa may be striated muscle.
D) A and C only
E) B and C only

D

39

39) Functions of the stomach include all of the following, except
A) storage of ingested food.
B) denaturation of proteins.
C) initiation of protein digestion.
D) absorption of triglycerides.
E) mechanical breakdown of food.

D

40

40) Parietal cells secrete
A) pepsinogen.
B) gastrin.
C) mucus.
D) hydrochloric acid.
E) enteropeptidase.

D

41

41) Chief cells secrete
A) pepsinogen.
B) gastrin.
C) mucus.
D) hydrochloric acid.
E) intrinsic factor.

A

42

42) G cells of the stomach secrete
A) cholecystokinin.
B) secretin.
C) gastrin.
D) enteropeptidase.
E) pepsin.

C

43

43) Which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect to?
A) fundus
B) cardia
C) body
D) antrum
E) pylorus

B

44

44) The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus is the
A) cardia.
B) pylorus.
C) fundus.
D) antrum.
E) body.

C

45

45) The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food and secretions is the
A) body.
B) antrum.
C) pylorus.
D) cardia.
E) fundus.

A

46

46) The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the
A) antrum.
B) fundus.
C) body.
D) cardia.
E) pylorus.

E

47

47) The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called
A) cardia.
B) papillae.
C) rugae.
D) plicae.
E) villi.

C

48

48) The greater omentum is
A) the entrance to the stomach.
B) attached to the stomach at the lesser curvature.
C) important in the digestion of fats.
D) a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera.
E) a sheet of mesentery that attaches to the liver.

D

49

49) Gastric pits are
A) ridges in the body of the stomach.
B) involved in absorption of liquids from the stomach.
C) openings into gastric glands.
D) acid scars in the esophagus.
E) hollows where proteins are stored.

C

50

50) The enzyme pepsin digests
A) carbohydrates.
B) proteins.
C) lipids.
D) nucleic acids.
E) vitamins.

B

51

51) An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that coagulates milk proteins is
A) pepsin.
B) trypsin.
C) gastrin.
D) rennin.
E) cholecystokinin.

D

52

52) Lacteals
A) increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.
B) carry absorbed fats to the lymphatic system.
C) produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine.
D) secrete digestive enzymes.
E) produce milk.

B

53

53) Plicae and intestinal villi
A) increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.
B) carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries.
C) produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine.
D) secrete digestive enzymes.
E) produce hormones.

A

54

54) Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic of the
A) duodenum.
B) jejunum.
C) ileum.
D) pancreas.
E) liver.

A

55

55) The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the
A) duodenum and the jejunum.
B) duodenum and the pylorus.
C) common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
D) duodenum and the pancreatic duct.
E) duodenum and the bile duct.

C

56

56) The villi are most developed in the
A) stomach.
B) duodenum.
C) jejunum.
D) gall bladder.
E) cecum.

C

57

57) Peyer patches are characteristic of the
A) stomach.
B) duodenum.
C) jejunum.
D) ileum.
E) colon.

D

58

58) Which of these enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?
A) the plicae circulares
B) the villi
C) the microvilli
D) intestinal movements
E) all of the above

E

59

59) Brunner glands are characteristic of the
A) stomach.
B) duodenum.
C) jejunum.
D) ileum.
E) colon.

B

60

60) The pylorus empties into the
A) ileum.
B) colon.
C) cecum.
D) jejunum.
E) duodenum.

E

61

61) The middle segment of the small intestine is the
A) ileum.
B) duodenum.
C) jejunum.
D) pylorus.
E) cecum.

C

62

62) The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the
A) haustrum.
B) appendix.
C) ileum.
D) duodenum.
E) jejunum.

C

63

63) Plicae circulares are
A) ridges in the wall of the stomach.
B) circumferential folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine.
C) fingerlike projections on the surface of the mucosa of the small intestine.
D) sacculations in the colon.
E) abnormal structures formed by excessive pressure in the small intestine

B

64

64) An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucus secretion by the submucosal duodenal glands is
A) secretin.
B) cholecystokinin.
C) enterocrinin.
D) GIP.
E) gastrin.

C

65

65) The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is
A) enterocrinin.
B) secretin.
C) cholecystokinin.
D) GIP.
E) gastrin.

B

66

66) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is
A) enteropeptidase.
B) secretin.
C) cholecystokinin.
D) GIP.
E) gastrin.

C

67

67) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is
A) enterocrinin.
B) enteropeptidase.
C) secretin.
D) cholecystokinin.
E) gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).

E

68

68) An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is
A) secretin.
B) cholecystokinin.
C) enteropeptidase.
D) gastrin.
E) gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).

D

69

69) Which of these descriptions best matches the term gastrin?
A) where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
B) carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
C) stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
D) causes gall bladder to contract
E) stimulates gastric secretion

E

70

70) The human liver is composed of ________ lobe(s).
A) one
B) two
C) three
D) four
E) two large, four small

D

71

71) The fusion of the hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the
A) hepatic portal vein.
B) porta hepatis.
C) common bile duct.
D) common pancreatic duct.
E) bile canaliculus.

c

72

72) In the center of a liver lobule there is a
A) hepatic duct.
B) portal area.
C) sinusoid.
D) central vein.
E) portal vein.

d

73

73) The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of
A) islets of Langerhans.
B) pancreatic crypts.
C) pancreatic acini.
D) pancreatic lobules.
E) triads.

c

74

74) Each of the following is a function of the liver, except
A) synthesis and secretion of bile.
B) antibody production.
C) synthesis of plasma proteins.
D) inactivation of toxins.
E) storage of glycogen and iron reserves.

b

75

75) The basic functional unit of the liver is the
A) hepatocyte.
B) Kupffer cell.
C) lobule.
D) portal area.
E) bile canaliculus.

c

76

76) ________ are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of plates converging toward a central vein.
A) Kupffer cells
B) Hepatocytes
C) Bile canaliculi
D) Portal areas
E) Hepatic ducts

b

77

77) The Kupffer cells of the liver
A) destroy RBCs.
B) destroy bacteria.
C) present antigens.
D) are phagocytic.
E) all of the above

e

78

78) The pancreas produces
A) lipases and amylase.
B) nucleases.
C) peptidases and proteinases.
D) all of the above
E) A and C only

d

79

79) The pancreas produces ________-digesting enzymes in the form of proenzymes.
A) carbohydrate
B) protein
C) sugar
D) lipid
E) nucleic acid

b

80

80) The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the
A) lesser omentum.
B) greater omentum.
C) falciform ligament.
D) ligamentum teres.
E) hepatic ligament.

c

81

Bile is stored in the
A) liver.
B) duodenum.
C) pancreas.
D) gallbladder.
E) appendix

d

82

82) During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion,
A) the stomach responds to distention.
B) secretin inhibits parietal and chief cells.
C) there is an increased flow of action potentials along the vagus nerve to the stomach.
D) the intestinal reflex inhibits gastric emptying.
E) production of gastric juice slows down.

c

83

83) The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the
A) sight, thought, or smell of food.
B) entry of food into the stomach.
C) entry of chyme into the small intestine.
D) entry of chyme into the large intestine.
E) release of cholecystokinin and secretin by the small intestine

b

84

84) All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion, except that it
A) precedes the gastric phase.
B) functions to control the rate of gastric emptying.
C) involves both neural and endocrine reflexes.
D) helps ensure that the functions of the small intestine proceed with relative efficiency.
E) begins when chyme enters the small intestine

a

85

85) Enzymes secreted by the pancreas include
A) trypsin (as trypsinogen).
B) amylase.
C) lactase.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

d

86

86) The gastroileal reflex
A) empties the duodenum.
B) promotes gastric secretion.
C) decreases peristaltic activity.
D) moves some chyme to the colon.
E) is relayed through the CNS.

d

87

87) Nutrients are absorbed by all of the following, except
A) active transport.
B) diffusion.
C) facilitated diffusion.
D) cotransport.
E) osmosis.

e

88

88) Functions of the large intestine include
A) absorption of bile salts.
B) absorption of vitamins.
C) resorption of water and compaction of feces.
D) all of the above.
E) B and C only

E

89

89) At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes the
A) ascending colon.
B) transverse colon.
C) descending colon.
D) sigmoid colon.
E) rectum.

b

90

90) Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the
A) anus.
B) anal canal.
C) rectum.
D) sigmoid colon.
E) rectal column.

c

91

91) Haustra are
A) expansible pouches of the colon.
B) strips of muscle in the colon.
C) glands in the large intestine that secrete mucus.
D) the source of colon hormones.
E) compact feces stored in the rectum.

a

92

92) The taenia coli are
A) tears of the colon.
B) longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall.
C) ridges in the mucosa of the colon.
D) polyps that obstruct the sigmoid colon.
E) tumors normally confined in the sigmoid colon.

b

93

93) The saclike structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the
A) appendix.
B) sigmoid colon.
C) rectum.
D) haustra.
E) cecum.

e

94

94) A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum is the
A) haustra.
B) pancreas.
C) gallbladder.
D) appendix.
E) ileum.

d

95

95) Movements unique to the large intestine are ________ movements.
A) peristaltic
B) segmentation
C) mass
D) pendular
E) writhing

c

96

96) The enzyme amylase digests
A) peptides.
B) polysaccharides.
C) disaccharides.
D) triglycerides.
E) nucleotides.

b

97

97) An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is
A) lipase.
B) amylase.
C) nuclease.
D) maltase.
E) trypsin.

e

98

98) Carbohydrate digestion begins in the
A) mouth.
B) esophagus.
C) stomach.
D) duodenum.
E) ileum.

a

99

99) Products of fat digestion are transported initially by
A) capillaries.
B) veins.
C) lymphatic vessels.
D) the interstitial fluid.
E) the arterioles.

c

100

100) The absorption of some sugars in the small intestine involves
A) osmosis.
B) diffusion.
C) cotransport.
D) phagocytosis.
E) pinocytosis.

c

101

101) The digestive tract is also referred to as the
A) alimentary canal.
B) esophagus.
C) GI tract.
D) both A and C
E) all of the above

d

102

102) The ________ supports all but 25 cm of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement.
A) falciform ligament
B) greater omentum
C) mesentery proper
D) lesser omentum
E) diaphragm

c

103

103) This organ is primarily responsible for water absorption.
A) small intestine
B) esophagus
C) large intestine
D) stomach
E) anus

c

104

104) Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of
the abdomen?
A) falciform ligament
B) greater omentum
C) mesentery proper
D) lesser omentum
E) diaphragm

b

105

105) Which of these descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?
A) where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
B) carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
C) stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
D) causes gall bladder to contract
E) stimulates gastric secretion

d

106

106) The ________ mechanically digests ingested food.
A) small intestine
B) esophagus
C) large intestine
D) stomach
E) anus

d

107

107) Which layer of the digestive tract has a dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the muscularis
mucosae?
A) submucosa
B) digestive epithelium
C) muscularis mucosae
D) lamina propria
E) mucosa

a

108

108) Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
A) small intestine
B) esophagus
C) large intestine
D) stomach
E) anus

c

109

109) The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity
A) secretes peritoneal fluid.
B) decreases friction.
C) lubricates the cavity.
D) prevents irritation.
E) all of the above

e

110

110) Which of the following contains a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein?
A) falciform ligament
B) greater omentum
C) mesentery proper
D) lesser omentum
E) diaphragm

a

111

111) Which of the following is not a component of the hepatic triad found at the edges of a liver lobule?
A) hepatic artery
B) bile duct
C) central vein
D) hepatic portal vein
E) None of the aboveNall are present in the hepatic triad.

C

112

112) Which of the following is classified as being either squamous or columnar?
A) submucosa
B) digestive epithelium
C) muscularis mucosae
D) lamina propria
E) mucosa

e

113

113) Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted and reabsorbed into the digestive system each day.
A) 5
B) 10
C) 2
D) 1
E) 7

e

114

114) Identify the salivary gland that secretes a watery mixture rich in salivary amylase and bicarbonate ion.
A) mandibular
B) sublingual
C) lingual
D) submandibular
E) parotid

e

115

115) The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called
A) peritoneal sheets.
B) mesenteries.
C) ascites.
D) the diaphragm.
E) the dorsal and ventral frenulums

b

116

116) What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?
A) falciform ligament
B) greater omentum
C) mesentery proper
D) lesser omentum
E) diaphragm

d

117

117) Which layer of the digestive tract directly underlies the epithelium?
A) submucosa
B) digestive epithelium
C) muscularis mucosae
D) lamina propria
E) lymphoid nodules

d

118

118) All of the following contain mucous cells in the epithelium, except the
A) stomach.
B) transverse colon.
C) esophagus.
D) small intestine.
E) large intestine.

c

119

119) Which of the following is surrounded by a serosa?
A) rectum
B) pharynx
C) esophagus
D) small intestine
E) oral cavity

d

120

120) Gastrin secretion in response to elevated luminal pH is an example of
A) neural stimulation.
B) local stimulation.
C) muscular stimulation.
D) hormone stimulation.
E) none of the above

b

121

121) ________ are also known as canines.
A) Bicuspids
B) Incisors
C) Molars
D) Secondary teeth
E) Cuspids

e

122

122) The oral mucosa has ________ epithelium.
A) simple squamous
B) stratified squamous
C) pseudostratified
D) stratified columnar
E) transitional

b

123

123) The ________ salivary glands are covered by the mucous membrane in the floor of the mouth.
A) mandibular
B) sublingual
C) lingual
D) submandibular
E) parotid

b

124

124) Which of these statements about the tongue is false?
A) dorsal surface covered with papillae
B) composed of large extrinsic and small intrinsic muscles
C) lingual frenulum attaches ventral surface to floor of oral cavity
D) secretes lingual lipase
E) secretes salivary amylase

e

125

125) Which of these descriptions best matches the term duodenal ampulla?
A) where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
B) carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
C) stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
D) causes gall bladder to contract
E) stimulates gastric secretion

a

126

126) Which of the following is a function of the tongue?
A) manipulation to assist with chewing
B) mechanical processing
C) sensory analysis
D) secretion of mucins
E) all of the above

e

127

127) Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?
A) mandibular
B) sublingual
C) lingual
D) submandibular
E) parotid

e

128

128) Absorption of glucose from the gut lumen depends on
A) the sodium-potassium pump in the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell.
B) cotransporter proteins in the apical membrane of the epithelial cell.
C) higher sodium ion concentration in the lumen than in the epithelial cell.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

e

129

129) Functions of teeth include
A) tearing.
B) crushing.
C) cutting.
D) clipping.
E) all of the above

e

130

130) ________ crush and grind food.
A) Bicuspids
B) Incisors
C) Molars
D) Cuspids
E) both A and C

e

131

131) The part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients is the
A) cecum.
B) jejunum.
C) stomach.
D) duodenum.
E) colon.

b

132

132) The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is
A) gastrin.
B) enteropeptidase.
C) secretin.
D) cholecystokinin.
E) CCK.

a

133

133) The essential functions of the liver include
A) metabolic regulation.
B) hematological regulation.
C) bile production.
D) all of the above
E) A and C only

d

134

134) If the lingual frenulum is too restrictive, an individual
A) has a condition called ankyloglossia.
B) has difficulty eating.
C) cannot speak normally.
D) all of the above
E) A and C onlyd

d

135

135) Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from
A) sympathetic stimulation.
B) hormonal stimulation.
C) parasympathetic stimulation.
D) myenteric reflexes.
E) hunger.

c

136

136) The secretion of acid and enzymes by the gastric mucosa is controlled and regulated by
A) the central nervous system.
B) short reflexes coordinated in the stomach wall.
C) digestive tract hormones.
D) A, B, and C
E) A and C only

d

137

137) At the splenic flexure, the colon becomes the
A) ascending colon.
B) transverse colon.
C) descending colon.
D) sigmoid colon.
E) rectum.

c

138

138) Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of
A) proteins.
B) fats.
C) disaccharides.
D) complex carbohydrates.
E) vitamins.

b

139

139) During deglutition, which of the following phases is not present?
A) voluntary
B) pharyngeal
C) laryngeal
D) esophageal
E) None of the above.ȱȱAll are phases in deglutition.

c

140

140) A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would
A) increase intestinal motility.
B) decrease intestinal motility.
C) increase gastric secretion.
D) decrease gastric secretion.
E) interfere with both intestinal motility and gastric secretion

b

141

141) Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in
A) mastication.
B) moving the tongue.
C) swallowing.
D) esophageal peristalsis.
E) opening the cardiac sphincter.

c

142

142) All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach, except that it
A) has a simple columnar epithelium.
B) is covered by a thick, viscous mucus.
C) is constantly being replaced.
D) contains gastric pits.
E) recycles bile.

e

143

143) Which of the following is greater?
A) the pH of the blood in gastric veins during digestion of a large meal
B) the pH of the blood in gastric veins following a 24-hour fast
C) Can be either.
D) Blood pH is constant because of buffering.

a

144

144) Enterogastric reflexes
A) inhibit gastric motility.
B) inhibit gastric secretion.
C) are triggered by chyme entering the duodenum.
D) involve the enteric nervous system.
E) all of the above

e

145

145) The part of the small intestine most likely to develop an ulcer from exposure to gastric juice is the
A) pylorus.
B) duodenum.
C) ileum.
D) caecum.
E) jejunum.

b

146

146) In response to the arrival of acid chyme in the duodenum, the
A) blood levels of secretin rise.
B) blood levels of cholecystokinin fall.
C) blood levels of gastrin rise.
D) blood levels of enterocrinin fall.
E) both C and D

a

147

147) A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would
A) reduce delivery of saliva.
B) cause mumps-like swelling of the face.
C) interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.
D) A, B, and C
E) B and C only

d

148

148) In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
A) rich in enzymes.
B) rich in bicarbonate ion.
C) rich in bile.
D) rich in mucus.
E) that contains only amylase.

b

149

149) In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
A) rich in enzymes.
B) rich in bicarbonate.
C) rich in bile.
D) rich in mucus.
E) that contains only amylase.

a

150

150) If digestion of a carbohydrate results in equal amounts of glucose and galactose, this carbohydrate is probably
A) sucrose.
B) maltose.
C) lactose.
D) cellulose.
E) glycogen.

c

151

151) All of the following are true of the process known as cotransport, except that
A) only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported.
B) more than one molecule or ion is moved through the cell membrane at one time.
C) ATP is not required by the transport protein.
D) saturation phenomenon can be observed.
E) molecules can be moved against a concentration gradient.

a

152

152) Parietal cells secrete
A) pepsinogen.
B) gastrin.
C) mucus.
D) intrinsic factor.
E) vitamin B12.

d

153

153) The stomach is able to distend a great deal as it receives food because of all of the following, except that
A) there is a great deal of loose tissue in the form of rugae.
B) the smooth muscle of the stomach is very elastic.
C) the hormone gastrin relaxes stomach smooth muscle.
D) sympathetic stimulation decreases the tonus of the gastric smooth muscle.
E) the gastric smooth muscle is very extensible.

c

154

154) A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in
A) a lower pH during gastric digestion.
B) a higher pH during gastric digestion.
C) decreased production of pepsinogen by chief cells.
D) increased protein digestion in the stomach.
E) decreased gastrin production.

b

155

155) A drug that blocks the action of the hormone cholecystokinin would affect
A) acid production by the stomach.
B) the composition of pancreatic secretions.
C) the delivery of bile.
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C

e

156

156) An obstruction of the common bile duct often results in
A) undigested fat in the feces.
B) jaundice.
C) inability to digest protein.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

d

157

157) If the pancreatic duct was obstructed, you would expect to see elevated blood levels of
A) bilirubin.
B) amylase.
C) cholecystokinin.
D) secretin.
E) gastrin.

b

158

158) Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result you would expect Mary to be at
risk for
A) protein malnutrition.
B) pernicious anemia.
C) diarrhea.
D) dehydration.
E) an ulcer.

b

159

159) Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe
in Tom?
A) jaundice
B) elevated levels of blood glucose
C) impaired digestion of protein
D) blood in the feces
E) overproduction of blood plasma albumin

a

160

160) Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by
connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?
A) increased clotting time
B) jaundice
C) portal hypertension and ascites
D) all of the above
E) B and C only

d