The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

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1

This is the mass of tissue from the sternum to the vertebral column between the lungs.

  1. Epicardium
  2. Parietal layer
  3. Pericardial tissue
  4. Mediastinum
  5. Fibrous cardium

D

2

This is the layer that protects the heart.

  1. Epicardium
  2. Parietal layer
  3. Myocardial tissue
  4. Mediastinum
  5. Endocardium

A

3

To which side of the body is the apex pointed?

  1. At the midline
  2. To the left
  3. To the right
  4. Different for males and females
  5. Posteriorly

B

4

Which of the following consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue?

  1. Parietal layer of pericardium
  2. Serous pericardium
  3. Fibrous pericardium
  4. Epicardium
  5. Pericardial cavity

C

5

This is used to reduce the friction between membranes of the heart.

  1. Epicardium
  2. Endocardium layer
  3. Pericardium
  4. Pericardial (serous) fluid
  5. Pericardial cavity

D

6

This consists of mesothelium and connective tissue.

  1. Epicardium
  2. Myocardium
  3. Endocardium
  4. Pericardial cavity
  5. Fibrous pericardium

A

7

Which layer consists of cardiac muscle tissue?

  1. Epicardium
  2. Pericardium
  3. Myocardium
  4. Endocardium
  5. Hypocardium

C

8

This is used to increase the capacity of the atrium.

  1. Ventricle
  2. Coronary sulcus
  3. Fossa ovalis
  4. Interatrial septum
  5. Auricle.

E

9

This marks the boundary between the ventricles.

  1. Coronary sulcus
  2. Anterior interventricular sulcus
  3. Posterior interventricular sulcus
  4. Coronary sulcus and posterior interventricular sulcus
  5. Anterior and posterior intercentricular sulcus

E

10

These extend into the auricle.

  1. Pectinate muscles
  2. Interatrial septum
  3. Coronary sulcus
  4. Ventricle
  5. Chordae tendinae

A

11

Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?

  1. Bicuspid valve
  2. Interventricular septum
  3. Tricuspid valve
  4. Mitral valve
  5. Ascending aorta

C

12

What types of tissue comprise the valves of the heart?

  1. Dense regular connective tissue
  2. Dense irregular connective tissue
  3. Areolar connective tissue
  4. Hyaline cartilage
  5. Cardiac muscle tissue

B

13

From the left ventricle, where does blood pass?

  1. Right atrium
  2. Right ventricle
  3. Bicuspid valve
  4. Aortic semilunar valve
  5. Pulmonary trunk

D

14

In a fetus, this structure temporarily shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.

  1. Fossa ovalis
  2. Foramen ovale
  3. Trabeculae carnae
  4. Descending aorta
  5. Ductus arteriosus

E

15

As each ventricle contracts where does blood move?

  1. Into an artery
  2. Into the apex
  3. Into a vein
  4. Through an atrioventricular valve
  5. Through the apex

A

16

As each atrium contracts where does blood move?

  1. Into an auricle
  2. Into an artery
  3. Into a vein
  4. Through an atrioventricular valve
  5. Through a semilunar valve

D

17

Which of the below valves prevents blood from flowing back from the lungs?

  1. Tricuspid valve
  2. Bicuspid valve
  3. Pulmonary valve
  4. Aortic valve
  5. Pulmonary vein

C

18

In this disorder the aortic valve is narrowed.

  1. Aortic insufficiency
  2. Rheumatic fever
  3. Mitral valve prolapse
  4. Aortic stenosis
  5. Mitral insufficiency

D

19

This heart structure carries deoxygenated blood.

  1. Left atrium and ventricle
  2. Left atrium only
  3. Right atrium and ventricle
  4. Right ventricle only
  5. Left atrium and right ventricle

C

20

This vessel distributes oxygenated blood to the myocardium.

  1. Coronary artery
  2. Coronary vein
  3. Right ventricle
  4. Left auricle
  5. Myocardial vein

A

21

Cardiac muscle fibers electrically connect to neighboring fibers by

  1. Desmosomes
  2. Intermediate discs
  3. Gap junctions
  4. Contractile fibers
  5. Chordae tendinae

C

22

Which of the following contains the largest amount of mitochondria?

  1. Smooth muscle
  2. Skeletal muscle
  3. Cardiac muscle
  4. Hepatocytes
  5. Leukocytes

C

23

This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.

  1. Pacemaker
  2. Sinoatrial node
  3. Purkinje fibers
  4. Conduction system
  5. Bundle of His

D

24

This is a the correct sequence of structures that allows the normal sequence of excitation to progress through the heart.

  1. Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers, Atrioventricular (AV) node
  2. Sinoatrial (SA), Purkinje fibers, AV node, Bundle of His
  3. Purkinje fibers, AV node, SA node, Bundle of His
  4. SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
  5. Bundle of His, SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibers

D

25

By comparison, cardiac muscle cells have _____________contraction plateau time than skeletal muscle cells.

  1. a shorter
  2. a longer
  3. no difference in

B

26

This is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute.

  1. Cardiac output
  2. Cardiac input
  3. Stroke volume
  4. Heart rate
  5. Auscultation

A

27

This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction occurs and blood pressure rises.

  1. filling
  2. systole
  3. repolarization
  4. diastole
  5. fibrillation

B

28

Which of these periods represents greatest cardiac output?

  1. atrial diastole
  2. ventricular diastole
  3. atrial systole
  4. ventricular systole

D

29

The second heart sound represents which of the below events?

  1. Valvular stenosis
  2. Semilunar valves opening
  3. Atrioventricular valves closing
  4. Semilunar valves closing
  5. Atrioventricular valves opening

D

30

This part of the heart can initiate a contraction and can set a constant heart rate of about 100 beats per minute.

  1. Cardiac accelerator nerves
  2. Chemoreceptors
  3. Cardiovascular center
  4. Sinoatrial valve
  5. Proprioceptors

D

31

Stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate.

  1. Cardiac accelerator nerve
  2. Hypoglossal nerve
  3. Medulla oblongata nerve
  4. Vagus nerve
  5. Phrenic nerve

D

32

Which of the below reduces heart rate.

  1. Increased Norepinephrine hormone
  2. Increased Thyroid hormone
  3. Increased potassium levels
  4. Increased calcium levels
  5. Increased sympathetic stimulation

C

33

This part of the brain regulates heart rate.

  1. Cardiac accelerator nerves
  2. Chemoreceptors
  3. Medulla oblongata
  4. Vagus nerve
  5. Proprioceptors

C

34

This electrical event represents repolarization of the ventricle.

  1. R wave
  2. T wave
  3. S wave
  4. P wave
  5. Q wave

B

35

Which of the below factors would increase Stroke volume?

  1. increased preload, increased afterload, increased contractility
  2. decreased preload, decreased afterload, decreased contractility
  3. increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility
  4. decreased preload, increased afterload, increased contractility
  5. increased preload, increased afterload, decreased contractility

C

36

This electrical event triggers contraction of the atria.

  1. R wave
  2. T wave
  3. S wave
  4. P wave
  5. Q wave

D

37
card image

This portion of the heart wall is responsible for the pumping action.

  1. E
  2. F
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

E

38
card image

This is comprised of a thin layer of endothelium overlying a thin layer of connective tissue.

  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. G

D

39
card image

Which layer of the pericardium consists of dense irregular connective tissue?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

B

40
card image

In the diagram, where is the trabeculae carnae?

  1. D
  2. E
  3. F
  4. G
  5. H

D

41
card image

In the diagram, where is the coronary sulcus?

  1. C
  2. E
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

B

42
card image

In the diagram, where is the left auricle of left atrium?

  1. C
  2. F
  3. G
  4. H
  5. I

C

43
card image

In the diagram, where is the ascending aorta?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. D
  4. F
  5. H

B

44
card image

In the diagram, these contain coronary blood vessels and a variable amount of fat.

  1. F and H
  2. A and B
  3. C and G
  4. E and I
  5. D and F

D

45
card image

In the diagram, where does the blood pass from the right atrium into the right ventricle?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

B

46
card image

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the pulmonary semilunar valve?

  1. B
  2. D
  3. E
  4. A
  5. None of the above

D

47
card image

In the diagram, where is the atrioventricular valve?

  1. B
  2. D
  3. A
  4. B and D
  5. B,D, and A

D

48
card image

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery?

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

D

49
card image

In the diagram, this supplies the walls of the ventricles with oxygenated blood.

  1. B
  2. C
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

E

50
card image

In the diagram, all of the following carry oxygenated blood.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. F
  4. E
  5. All of the above

E

51
card image

In the diagram, where is the marginal branch of the right coronary artery?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. D
  4. E
  5. F

B

52
card image

In the diagram, which labeled structure is the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery?

  1. B
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. C

B

53
card image

In the diagram, where is the posterior interventricular branch?

  1. B
  2. D
  3. E
  4. F
  5. C

D

54
card image

Which phases of a heartbeat shown in the diagram involve repolarization of the heart’s four chambers?

  1. 1 and 4
  2. 2 and 4
  3. 4 and 6
  4. 1, 3, and 5
  5. 1, 2, 4 and 6
  6. 3 and 5

F

55
card image

Where in the figure does depolarization events occur?

  1. 2 and 4
  2. 1 and 3
  3. 2,4 and 6
  4. 1,3, and 5
  5. 4 and 6

B

56
card image

Which of the following represents coarctation of the aorta?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

A

57
card image

Which of the following represents an atrial septal defect?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

C

58
card image

Which of the following represents the formation of the primitive heart tube?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

C

59
card image

Which of the following represents formation of the endocardial tubes?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

B

60
card image

Which blood vessel shown in the figure carries oxygenated blood to the lower thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity of the body?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. E
  4. F
  5. H

D

61
card image

Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a remnant of fetal circulation that is not directly involved in adult circulation?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. H
  4. D
  5. E

D

62
card image

Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is an artery carrying deoxygenated blood?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. E
  5. I

D

63
card image

Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is the left common carotid artery?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. E
  4. F
  5. H

A

64
card image

Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is the right common carotid artery?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. E
  4. F
  5. not shown in the diagram

E

65
card image

Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is the left subclavian artery?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. E
  4. F
  5. H

B

66
card image

Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a pouch-like extension that serves to slightly increase the capacity of an atrium?

  1. F
  2. E
  3. G
  4. I
  5. D

C

67
card image

What labeled structure in the figure is the ligamentum arteriosum?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

D

68
card image

Which labeled structure in the figure receives deoxygenated blood from the blood vessel labeled A?

  1. G
  2. C
  3. D
  4. I
  5. F

C

69
card image

What labeled structure in the figure divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries to carry blood to the lungs?

  1. E
  2. A
  3. D
  4. G

A

70
card image

Which structure in the figure is labeled B?

  1. left common carotid artery
  2. left subclavian artery
  3. left pulmonary vein
  4. mitral valve

B

71
card image

Which structure in the figure is labeled C?

  1. arch of aorta
  2. pulmonary trunk
  3. tricuspid valve
  4. aortic valve

A

72
card image

Which structure in the figure is labeled A?

  1. left common carotid artery
  2. left subclavian artery
  3. left pulmonary vein
  4. mitral valve

A

73
card image

Which labeled structure in the figure acts as the natural pacemaker of the heart?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

A

74
card image

Which labeled structure in the figure is the AV node?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

B

75
card image

Which labeled structure in the figure represents the only potential pathway for conducting action potentials from the atria to the ventricles?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

C

76
card image

Which labeled structure in the figure carries the cardiac action potential directly into the contractile fibers of the ventricular myocardium?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E

E

77

Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the _____________ ventricle into the _____________ each minute.

  1. left, aorta
  2. right, aorta
  3. left or right, aorta or pulmonary trunk
  4. right, pulmonary trunk
  5. both left and right aorta are correct

C

78

The difference between a person’s maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the

  1. stroke volume.
  2. peripheral resistance.
  3. afterload.
  4. cardiac reserve.
  5. venous return.

D

79

What is the function of foramen ovale during fetal life?

  1. Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium.
  2. Allowing blood to flow directly from the right ventricle into the left ventricle.
  3. Serves as a valve in the vena cava to regulate venous blood flow.
  4. Prevents back flow of blood from aorta into the left ventricle.
  5. Prevents back flow of blood from pulmonary trunk into the right ventricle.

A

80

Isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cardiac cycle in which

  1. the semilunar valves are open.
  2. ventricular repolarization occurs.
  3. atrial depolarization occurs.
  4. oxygenated blood leaves the heart into the systemic circulation.
  5. ventricular pressure increases and ventricular volume remains the same.

E

81

Which of the following chambers of the heart is surrounded by the thickest layer of myocardium?

  1. right atrium
  2. left atrium
  3. right ventricle
  4. left ventricle
  5. right auricle

D

82

The process of listening to heart sounds using a stethoscope is referred to as

  1. palpitation.
  2. palpation.
  3. auscultation.
  4. fibrillation.
  5. echocardiography.

C

83

Heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the of the heart.

  1. valves
  2. myocardium
  3. SA node
  4. AV node
  5. endocardium

A

84

Which of the following conditions would lead to an increase in the afterload for the ventricles thus lowering stroke volume and cardiac output?

  1. hypotension
  2. hypertension
  3. increased venous return
  4. decreased venous return
  5. positive inotropic agents

B

85

In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all the following characteristics EXCEPT

  1. a higher cardiac reserve.
  2. a higher resting cardiac output.
  3. a higher stroke volume.
  4. hypertrophy of the heart.
  5. resting bradycardia.

B

86

During heart transplants, the nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant.

  1. glossopharyngeal
  2. cardiac accelerator
  3. vagus
  4. phrenic
  5. cervical spinal

C

87

A corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patient’s own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart.

  1. myocardial infarction
  2. tetrology of Fallot
  3. cardiomyopathy
  4. cardiomegaly
  5. cardiomyoplasty

E