chapter 10 biology Flashcards


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1

A bacterial chromosome consists of:

a circular DNA molecule many times larger than the cell

2

Eukaryotic chromosomes consists of:

Linear DNA molecules complexed with positively charged his tone proteins

3

Nucleosomes are best described as:

eukaryotic DNA associated with histone proteins

4

What is the function of nucleosomes?

To prevent DNA strands from tangling

5

Nucleosomes are organized into large coiled loops help together by:

scaffolding proteins

6

The cell cycle of a typical somatic cell consists of _____ and M phase

interphase

7

The M phase of the cell cycle involves two main processes:

mitosis and cytokinesis

8

One nerve cells become mature, they don't usually undergo cell division. Based on your knowledge of the cell cycle, you would predict that mature nerve cells become arrested in the ______ of the cell cycle.

Go phase

9

Chromosomes are duplicated during_______ of the cell cycle.

S phase

10

Which of the following represents the overall sequence of events during mitosis?

Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase,anaphase,telophase

11

If a cell is in G2:

it Has twice has much DNA found than in telophase nucleus

12

During prophase,____ is(are) compacted into visible chromosomes.

chromatin

13

The ______ is responsible for the separation of the chromosomes during_____ of mitosis.

mitotic spindle; anaphase

14

_______contain identical DNA sequences and are held together by ________ during mitosis

Sister chromatids: centromeres

15

The mitotic spindle is made of:

microtubules

16

The kinetochore serves which of the following functions?

Kinetochores attach to microtubules during mitosis

17

All of the following events occur during pro metaphase EXCEPT

the duplicated chromosomes become visible with the light microscope

18

A cell is in metaphase if:

the chromosomes are aligned at the mid plane of the cell

19

Duplicated centrioles move to opposite poles of a dividing _____ cell during ____ of the cell cycle

animal;prophase

20

The chromosome makeup of an individual organism is called a:

karyotype

21

Chromosomes are condensed to their greatest extent during_____ of mitosis

metaphase

22

Cytokinesis in animal cells involves contraction of a ring of ______ microfilaments

actin plus myosin

23

Cytokinesis in plant cels occurs via the formation of a(n):

Cell plate

24

If a cell is dividing by binary fission then you know that:

The cell is prokaryotic

25

To prevent disastrous consequences, the eukaryotic cell cycle is controlled by:

a series of cell cycle checkpoints

26

Which of the following statements concerning the cell cycle is FALSE?

M-Cdk inhibits mitosis

27

The correct number of chromosomes is maintained during sexual reproduction by:

meiosis, which reduces the chromosome number by half

28

Animal cells are stimulated to divided by mitosis by:

growth factors

29

If meiosis did not occur in sexually reproducing organisms, then:

chromosome number would double in each generation

30

What evolutionary advantage is provided by sexual reproduction?

increased genetic diversity

31

Plant hormones known as_______ stimulate mitosis

cytokinins

32

Homologous chromsomes undergo synapsis during:

Prophase 1

33

A maternal homologue and a paternal homologue synapse to form:

a tetrad

34

During which phase does crossing-over occur?

prophase 1

35

A zygote contains the _______ number of chromosomes

diploid

36

In a human cell at prophase 1, there are_______ tetrads.

23

37

An animal with a diploid number of 36 chromosomes will have ______ chromosomes in its gametes and _______ chromosomes in its somatic cells

18:36

38

During prophase 1, each chiasma represents:

a site of crossing over

39

During which of the following stages of meiosis do the sister chromatids separate?

anaphase 2

40

Which of the following events does not occur in prophase 2?

Formation of chiastma

41

The sources of genetic variation during meiosis are:

crossing over and the random assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes

42

Which of the following events does not occur during meiosis 1?

separation of sister chromatids

43

Refer to Figure 10-1. Which of the following combinations of letters accurately represents two sister chromatids?

A and C

44

Refer to Figure 10-1. Which of the following combinations of letters accurately represents two homologous chromatids?

A and D

45

The formation of female gametes is termed:

Oogenesis

46

which of the following are NOT produced by meiosis?

Zygotes

47

Refer to figure 10-2. The chromosome complement of item 6 in the life cycle is:

haploid

48

Figure 10-2. The process occurring at arrow 3 in the associated figure is:

meiosis

49

Gametophyte plants produce gametes using:

mitosis

50

Sporophyte plants produce spores using:

meiosis