chapter 4 biology Flashcards


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1

Evidence that all living cells have a common origin is provided by:

basic similarities in cell structure and chemistry

2

It is advantageous for cells to be small because:

a small cell has a small volume relative to surface area, thereby increasing efficient transport

3

Which of the following statements about Figure 4-1 is true?

Figure B has a smaller surface area to volume ratio that Figure A.

4

Based on your knowledge of basic geometric relationships, the actual surface area to volume ratio for Figure B in Figure 4-2 is:

0.06

5

One strategy that allows larger cells to have effective surface area to volume ratio is:

having thin, finger-like projections.

6

Which of the following descriptions of structures does NOT match the cell type?

Smallest cell are egg cells

7

Which scientist first viewed living cells

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

8

The ratio of the size of the image seen with the microscope to the actual size of the object is called:

magnification

9

You want to determine the location of a specific protein in a cell using a colored stain. Which of the following is the best technique for this purpose?

fluorescence microscopy

10

Electron microscopes have a much higher resolution that either the human eye or any light microscope because:

the Very short wavelengths of the electrons

11

The scanning electron microscope differs from the transmission electron microscope in that the scanning electron microscope:

gives a three dimensional image of the being studied

12

The accompanying figure is the product of a:

scanning electron microscope

13

Differential centrifugation is a process that:

separates components of the cell that have different densities

14

A eukaryotic cell:

has a variety of membranous organelles

15

Membrane-bounded organelles facilitate faster chemical reactions because:

reactants are within close proximity to each other

16

which of the following structures of activities is NOT directly part of the endomembrane system?

Vesicles

17

DNA is associated with proteins, forming a complex called:

chromatin

18

Nucleoli contain chromosomal regions that specialize in making:

RNA

19

A single cell in a smoker's lung has become cancerous. It doubles its DNA and divides much faster that a normal lung cell. The most likely change that would have caused this condition took place in the:

nucleus

20

The largest and most complex assembly of proteins in the eukaryotic cell, consisting of 30 different proteins, is the

nuclear pore

21

If a toxin, such as a bacterial toxin, destroys ribosomes, what cellular activity will be affected first?

protein synthesis

22

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum:

synthesizes lipids

23

Refer to Figure 4-2. The rough ER indicated by the arrow is responsible for:

protein synthesis

24

Which of the following functions would most likely be occurring in the lumen of the rough ER in Figure 4-2.

molecular chaperone activity

25

Proteins made on ribosomes may be further modified within the:

Golgi complex

26

The cis face of the Golgi complex is most directly involved in which of the following?

accepting vesicles from the ER

27

A glycoprotein is destined for secretion from the cell would move through the Golgi complex in this sequence:

cis face to medial region to trans face

28

The _______ can be considered a sorting, processing and packaging center.

Golgi complex

29

Some white blood cells can engulf bacteria. The engulfed bacteria are encased in a vesicle formed the plasma membrane. This vesicle fuses with a primary lysosome. The new combined vesicle is now called a secondary lysosome. The reason for forming a secondary lysosome is:

the mix the pathogens with strong hydrolytic enzymes and destroy them.

30

All the following functions are performed by plant vacuoles EXCEPT:

storage of nucleic acids

31

One function of peroxisomes involves the process of:

detoxification

32

The theory that chloroplasts and mitochondria has their evolutionary beginnings in eukaryotic cells as endosymbionts is supported by all of the following EXCEPT:

chloroplasts and mitochondria do NOT interact with or depend on any of the other cellular components

33

The organelle feature in Figure 4-3:

plays a central role in energy metabolism

34

The structures indicated by the arrows in Figure 4-3 are:

cristae

35

The main process that occurs at the site of the structures marked by arrows in Figure 4-3 is:

conversion of food molecules to ATP

36

Which of the following organelles plays an important role in apoptosis, of programmed cell death?

mitochondria

37

A cellular structure found in plant but not animal cells is the:

chloroplast

38

An individual flattened membrane within the chloroplast is called the:

Thylakoid

39

The formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water occurs in the portion of the chloroplast called the:

stroma

40

Which of the following structures would not be found in cells of a plant's roots?

chloroplasts

41

Which of the following is a key component of the cytoskeleton?

microtubules

42

You isolate a cellular structure and determine that it is composed of a-tubulin and b-tublin. Based on this evidence, you correctly identify this structure as:

a microtubule

43

Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?

centrosome-cell division

44

The force necessary to cause microtubules of cilia and flagella to slide alongside one another is provided through the action of ______ proteins, which derive the energy to perform their work directly from ______ molecules.

dynein;ATP

45

Which of the following statements concerning centrioles is FALSE?

They have a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules

46

As a result of testing an experimental drip on a vertebrate cell, you notice that the cell cortex becomes more fluid, and although the cell remains strong, it loses its ability to move. Based on this evidence, you correctly conclude that the drug most directly affected:

Actin filaments

47

The structures in the micrograph are:

both cilia and flagella

48

Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?

fibronectins-wood

49

Which of the following is NOT a cell covering of part of a cell covering?

cristae

50

Which of the following is (are) composed of a gluelike polysaccharide called pectin and is located between the primary walls of adjacent plant cells?

middle lamella