chapter 4 biology Flashcards
Evidence that all living cells have a common origin is provided by:
basic similarities in cell structure and chemistry
It is advantageous for cells to be small because:
a small cell has a small volume relative to surface area, thereby increasing efficient transport
Which of the following statements about Figure 4-1 is true?
Figure B has a smaller surface area to volume ratio that Figure A.
Based on your knowledge of basic geometric relationships, the actual surface area to volume ratio for Figure B in Figure 4-2 is:
One strategy that allows larger cells to have effective surface area to volume ratio is:
having thin, finger-like projections.
Which of the following descriptions of structures does NOT match the cell type?
Smallest cell are egg cells
Which scientist first viewed living cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
The ratio of the size of the image seen with the microscope to the actual size of the object is called:
You want to determine the location of a specific protein in a cell using a colored stain. Which of the following is the best technique for this purpose?
Electron microscopes have a much higher resolution that either the human eye or any light microscope because:
the Very short wavelengths of the electrons
The scanning electron microscope differs from the transmission electron microscope in that the scanning electron microscope:
gives a three dimensional image of the being studied
The accompanying figure is the product of a:
scanning electron microscope
Differential centrifugation is a process that:
separates components of the cell that have different densities
A eukaryotic cell:
has a variety of membranous organelles
Membrane-bounded organelles facilitate faster chemical reactions because:
reactants are within close proximity to each other
which of the following structures of activities is NOT directly part of the endomembrane system?
DNA is associated with proteins, forming a complex called:
Nucleoli contain chromosomal regions that specialize in making:
A single cell in a smoker's lung has become cancerous. It doubles its DNA and divides much faster that a normal lung cell. The most likely change that would have caused this condition took place in the:
The largest and most complex assembly of proteins in the eukaryotic cell, consisting of 30 different proteins, is the
If a toxin, such as a bacterial toxin, destroys ribosomes, what cellular activity will be affected first?
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum:
Refer to Figure 4-2. The rough ER indicated by the arrow is responsible for:
Which of the following functions would most likely be occurring in the lumen of the rough ER in Figure 4-2.
molecular chaperone activity
Proteins made on ribosomes may be further modified within the:
The cis face of the Golgi complex is most directly involved in which of the following?
accepting vesicles from the ER
A glycoprotein is destined for secretion from the cell would move through the Golgi complex in this sequence:
cis face to medial region to trans face
The _______ can be considered a sorting, processing and packaging center.
Some white blood cells can engulf bacteria. The engulfed bacteria are encased in a vesicle formed the plasma membrane. This vesicle fuses with a primary lysosome. The new combined vesicle is now called a secondary lysosome. The reason for forming a secondary lysosome is:
the mix the pathogens with strong hydrolytic enzymes and destroy them.
All the following functions are performed by plant vacuoles EXCEPT:
storage of nucleic acids
One function of peroxisomes involves the process of:
The theory that chloroplasts and mitochondria has their evolutionary beginnings in eukaryotic cells as endosymbionts is supported by all of the following EXCEPT:
chloroplasts and mitochondria do NOT interact with or depend on any of the other cellular components
The organelle feature in Figure 4-3:
plays a central role in energy metabolism
The structures indicated by the arrows in Figure 4-3 are:
The main process that occurs at the site of the structures marked by arrows in Figure 4-3 is:
conversion of food molecules to ATP
Which of the following organelles plays an important role in apoptosis, of programmed cell death?
A cellular structure found in plant but not animal cells is the:
An individual flattened membrane within the chloroplast is called the:
The formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water occurs in the portion of the chloroplast called the:
Which of the following structures would not be found in cells of a plant's roots?
Which of the following is a key component of the cytoskeleton?
You isolate a cellular structure and determine that it is composed of a-tubulin and b-tublin. Based on this evidence, you correctly identify this structure as:
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?
The force necessary to cause microtubules of cilia and flagella to slide alongside one another is provided through the action of ______ proteins, which derive the energy to perform their work directly from ______ molecules.
Which of the following statements concerning centrioles is FALSE?
They have a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules
As a result of testing an experimental drip on a vertebrate cell, you notice that the cell cortex becomes more fluid, and although the cell remains strong, it loses its ability to move. Based on this evidence, you correctly conclude that the drug most directly affected:
The structures in the micrograph are:
both cilia and flagella
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?
Which of the following is NOT a cell covering of part of a cell covering?
Which of the following is (are) composed of a gluelike polysaccharide called pectin and is located between the primary walls of adjacent plant cells?