We research personalities to:
B. Describe their use for real-world problems
Identify a true statement about an individual's personality
D. All of the above
Which of the following is true of the assumptions made by early personality theorists?
A. Personality theories were valid for all people, regardless of gender and race.
Identify a cultural difference between individualism and collectivism
B. The levels of anxiety and depression have been found to be lower in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic ones.
Which of the following approaches to personality assessment involves asking people to give an account of and answer questions about their behaviors and feelings in various situations?
C. Self-report personality tests.
Projective techniques are used to assess personality by:
A. Having individuals associate personal needs, fears, and values onto an ambiguous stimulus.
The Rorschach Inkblot Technique:
D. is rated lower than MMPI in validity research.
Which of the following is true of the problems regarding the cross-cultural application of personality assessment techniques?
A. Responding to questions in a tre-fals format or multiple-choice format, which is natural to American college students, may be an awkward or alien way of answering in other cultures.
In the context of the clinical method used in personality research, a _______ refers to a detailed history of an individual that contains data from a variety of sources.
D. Case study
The primary limitation of the correlation method deals with:
C. Determining cause and effect.
Freud regarded ____ as our primary motivation.
The _____ includes all the sensations and experiences of which we are aware at any given moment.
Of the three levels of personality, the _____ strives for immediate satisfaction of its needs and does not tolerate delay or postponement of satisfaction for any reason,
Freud made _____ an important part of his personality theory asserting that is is fundamental to the development of all neurotic and psychotic behavior.
The purpose of Freud's techniques of dream analysis and free association:
A. is to evaluate, assess, or find the unconscious.
Freud used the case study method for his psychological research. One of the disadvantages of this method is that:
A. he used a small and unrepresentative sample of those he studied.
Which of the following Freudian ideas has not been supported by research?
A. The personality being subject to little change after age five.
Childhood sexual abuse:
A. Is more widespread than Freud envisioned.
Anna Freud's analytic work was with:
All the following are valid criticisms of Freudian psychoanalysis except that:
A. Freud failed to consider the impact of biological forces.
Jung applied the principle of ______ to psychic energy by proposing that there is a tendency toward maintaining a balance or equilibrium in the personality.
According to Jung, all of the following are functions of the psyche except:
According to Jung, a ______ is a core or pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions, and wishes in one's personal conscious organized around a common theme.
According to Jung's belief, which of the following is responsible for the formation of complexes in the personal unconscious of an individual?
D. All these are correct.
According to Jung's view on personality development, the ego begins to develop in:
A. Early Childhood
In Jung's view, which of the following is true of individuation?
A. It involves fulfilling one's capacities and developing one's self.
Which of the following steps in Jung's theory of individuation involves one's acceptance of his or her genuine self that is generally covered by a public face?
C. Dethroning the persona
Jung used all the following assessment techniques to evaluate personality except:
A. IQ tests
Jung used the method of ____ to analyze his patients' dreams.
Jung's use of _____ and ______ is the source of most of the criticism directed at his theory.
D. the occult; the supernatural
In Adler's view, the process of overcoming inferiority feelings:
C. begins in infancy
Demosthenes overcame is stuffer to become a great orator, and Teddy Roosevelt was sickly but later became a model of physical fitness. These are two good examples of
C. overcoming organic inferiority
Overcompensating for normal inferiority feelings can lead to a
B. superiority complex
Each of the following is one of Adler's four basic styles of life except the:
C. hurting type
Adler proposed the concept of social interest to define:
C. the innate potential to cooperate with others
In Adler's view, a mother's influence:
D. can foster or thwart the development of social interest
In the context of Adler's idea of the order of birth, the child most likely to develop at a remarkably fast rate is:
C. youngest child
Adler believed that dreams:
D. involve feelings about current problems
On which of the following ideas proposed by Adler has research been conducted?
D. All of these are correct
Identify an accurate statement in the context of the study conducted by Schachter on the first-borns and later-borns
B. First born tend to be more dependent on other people than later-borns
Which statement does not reflect Horney's views about childhood?
B. Biological forces are more important than social forces in shaping personality.
The four self-protective mechanisms that were proposed by Horney:
B. defend against basic anxiety
Horney believed that a self-image is constructed by a _____ person built on a realistic appraisal of their own abilities, potentials, and weaknesses.
The idealized self-image of the neurotic person leads to a problem Horney called the:
D. tyranny of the shoulds
According to Horney, a woman's sense of inferiority is:
D. socially and culturally based.
In context of defining roles, Horney believe that modern women experience psychological conflict between:
B. love and work
Horney used _____ to assess the functioning of the human personality.
D. free association and dream analysis
Horney's actual research approach related mainly on
C. behavioral assessment through case studies.
A valid criticism of Horney's personality theory by Freudians is that her theory:
C. denies the importance of biological instinct.
MMPI stands for?
Minnesota Mutiphasic Personality Inventory
What killed Freud?
Nicotine- lung cancer
Yoda represented _____ to Luke in the movie
Which of the first 4 theories was born in the USA?
From his early work, and analysis with Anna Freud, Erikson developed an interest in:
A. psychoanalytic work with children.
Erikson's epigenetic principle of maturation:
C. asserts that development is determined by both biological and social factors.
In the context of Erikson's psychosocial stages of development, identify a true statement about the personal conflicts in the developmental stages.
D. All of these are correct.
According to Erikson, when middle-aged people cannot or will not find an outlet for generatively, they:
B. may become overwhelmed by stagnation and regress to a star of pseudo-intimacy
The basic strength associated with the final stage of psychosocial development is:
According to Erikson, _____ are motivating characteristics that derive from the unsatisfactory resolution of developmental crises
D. basic weaknesses
Identify the assessment technique Erikson used in his analysis of emotionally disturbed children.
D. Play therapy
Research on Erikson's psychosocial stages demonstrated:
B. a relationship between happiness and adaptive development in the first six stages.
Each of the following is a psychological type, or status, in the adolescent stage of development except:
B. identity competence
In the adolescence stage of psychosocial development, the status of _____ describes adolescents who are committed to occupational and ideological choices.
A. Identity achievement
Which of the following was Allport's argument against Freud's psychoanalysis?
D. Neurotics, children, and animals, should not be compared with normal adults.
To Allport, _____ are measured on a continuum and are subject to social, environmental, and cultural influences.
C. personality traits
Allport's concept of functional autonomy proposes that:
A. forces that motivated us early in life become unrelated to their original circumstances.
Allort chose the term "proprium" for that:
C. ego or self
All of the following are principles of propriety functional autonomy except:
C. expressive behavior.
When is the final stage in the development of the proprium accomplished?
B. when young people begin to formulate long-range goals and plans.
Allport's concept of adulthood differs from the views of other personality theorists in describing people as:
B. no longer dominated by childhood drives.
Allport suggested all of the following as criteria for a mature, emotionally healthy personality except:
A. a resilient id.
Allport believed that emotionally healthy adults were:
A. no longer victimized by what happened to them in their early years.
Allport believed the best way to obtain reliable information on adult personalty is through:
Cattel was interested in:
D. studying the personality of normal people.
Spearman used factor analysis to measure mental abilities, whereas Catell resolved to apply the method to the structure of:
According to Cattle, which of the following statements is true of traits?
D. All of these are correct
in the context of Cattell's classification of traits, characteristics such as intelligence and gregariousness are examples of _____ traits.
Which of the following is true about the basic factors of personality?
D. All of these are correct
Cattle used the term "objective" to describe tests in which:
C. the subjects cannot distort responses to conceal their traits.
All of the following are personality dimensions identified by Hans Eysenck except:
C. shyness versus social rejection.
Eysenck believed that personality dimensions, such as introversion:
A. are stable throughout the life span.
All of the following are personality factors identified by McCrae and Costa except
The factors of McCrae and Costa that have a similarity to the dimensions proposed by Eysenck are:
D. neuroticism and extraversion
All of the following are personality factors identified by Ashton and Lee's HEXACO model except:
According to the Dark Triad of Personality by Paulhus and Williams, which of the following is a characteristic of narcissism?
D. Inflated sense of one's abilities
Maslow believed that the needs for safety and security are important drives for ____
A. infants and neurotic adults.
The needs to know and to understand, as proposed by Maslow, are:
A. innate and do not have to be taught
As stated by Maslow, which of the following is true of the cognitive needs?
B. Failure to satisfy the cognitive needs is harmful and hampers the full development of the personality.
According to Maslow, failure to satisfy meta needs is harmful and produces a kind of ____, which thwarts the full development of the personality.
As described by Maslow, which of the following is a characteristic of self-actualizers.
A. They accept their strengths and weaknesses.
According to Maslow, which of the following is a reason why people fail to self-actualize?
D. All of these are correct.
Which of the following statements is true of Maslow's views on human nature?
B. He argued that human nature is basically good, decent, and kind.
Which of the following statements is true of Maslow's research methodology for studying self-actualizers?
D. none of these are correct
The three basic needs specified by the self-determination theory are:
D. competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
The approach to psychotherapy used by Carl Rogers came to be known as person-centered therapy because:
C. it is the person himself and not the therapist who directs the change and improvement in personality.
According to Rogers, which of the following is part of actualization tendency of people?
D. All of these are correct.
In which of the following cases is approval, love, or acceptance grated only when a person expresses desirable behaviors and attitudes?
A. Conditional positive regard.
Rogers believed that childhood experiences:
D. have less impact on personality development the do experiences later in life.
The only predetermined belief of the person-centered therapist is:
D. the client's inherent value and worth.
Identify the techniques used by Rogers to determine how closely a client's self-image or perceived self corresponded to the ideal self.
A. Q-sort technique
According to recent researches, which of the following characteristics of therapists, as perceived by the clients, is more likely to be successful in a person-centered therapy?
D. All of these are correct.
Rogers believed that failure to realize our innate ____ can lead to maladjustment.
D. actualization tendency.
House Instructor was sorted?
Native American Tribe Erikson researched
Before psychology, Eysenck studied ____
Which of the following is a difference between Kelly's cognitive theory and the cognitive theory and the cognitive movement that began around 1960?
A. Cognitive psychologists studied their subjects in an experimental setting, whereas Kelly developed his theory in a clinical setting.
Which of the following statements best describes a construct?
D. It is an intellectual hypotheses to explain or interpret life events.
Kelly's theory is based on the idea that
D. themes from the past will reappear in the future.
According to Kelly's construction corollary, _____
B. People can predict how they will experience a repeated event in the future.
The dichotomy corollary states that:
B. an individual must also account for dissimilarities among people or events.
Which of the following is likely to happen if one's construct system is permeable?
D. A person is more open to new experiences.
The Role Construct Repertory (REP) Test is used to:
D. uncover the constructs people apply to the important people in their lives.
Adults high in cognitive complexity are likely to have had:
A. diverse experiences during childhood.
Skinner's treatment of personality is unusual because:
A. he did not look for the causes, motives, and drives within people.
In Skinner's research, food-deprived rats pressed a lever to receive a food pellet. The rat will eventually press the lever.
C. because its behavior is under the control of the reinforcers
An employee paid on a weekly basis operates under a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
Slot machines operate on a _____ reinforcement schedule.
The shaping of behavior is accomplished by:
B. reinforcing only successive approximations of the final behavior desired.
Which of the following statements is true of superstitious behavior?
C. It is the result of a behavior being reinforced accidentally.
Behaviors modified in a token economy:
A. usually revert to their original state when tokens are no longer provided.
For changing behavior from undesirable to desirable, Skinner believed that punishment is:
D. often ineffective.
Each of the following is a factor in Skinner's functional analysis except:
D. the motivation behind the behavior.
According to Albert Bandura's approach to psychology, _____
A. learning can occur without direct reinforcement.
According to the studies on modeling conducted by Bandura, which of the following statements is true?
C. Children model their behavior on examples provided by their parents.
In the context of modeling, which of the following is more likely to be imitated?
D. All of these are correct
Which of the following statements is true about the characteristics of observers that influence modeling?
D. the probability of imitation of a modeled behavior is inversely proportional to self-esteem of the observer.
According to Bandura, attentional processes:
B. can be influenced by the model's attractiveness and confidence
According to Bandura, reinforcement:
A. is experienced vicariously during our observation of a model.
______ is our feeling of adequacy, efficiency, and competence in coping with life.
In the context of the developmental stages of self-efficacy, in old age:
D. low self-efficacy can further affect physical and mental functioning.
Research of self-efficacy shows that it:
A. differs as a function of gender and age.
Bandura's approach to behavior modification is based on the belief that:
A. socially undesirable or abnormal behaviors are learned.
Bandura applied modeling techniques:
C. to eliminate fears and other intense emotional reactions.
According to research conducted on Bandura's theory, which of the following statements is true of the factors influenced by self-efficacy?
D. All of these are correct.
The proportion of phenotypic variance that is attributable to genotypic variance is known as:
The fact that selective breeding has been so successful with dogs suggests that:
A. heredity must be a factor in personality traits.
If ____ are substantially more similar to each other than are ____ on a given characteristic, then this provides evidence that is compatible with a heritability interpretation.
B. monozygotic twins: dyzygotic twins
______ traits show moderate to high heritability.
The number of books in a child's home is an example of:
C. a shared environment
_____ refers to the differential response of individuals with different genotypes to the same environments.
B. Genotype-environment interaction
When individuals respond to a person based on that person's genotype, _____ genotype-environment correlation occurs.
Barbara is a renowned naturalist. Her parents worked as park rangers, and she primarily grew up in national parks. Barbara;s inclination to become a naturalist is most likely due to ______ genotype-environment correlation occurs.
Which of the following statements is true about active genotype-environment correlation?
D. Individuals with a particular genotype seek out a particular environment.
Compared with individuals with so-called short repeat versions of the DRD4 gene, individuals with so-called long repeat versions of this gene were found to:
A. be higher on novelty seeking.
According to a dimensional view of personality disorders, each disorder:
B. is seen as a continuum, ranging from normality at one end to severe disability or disturbance at the other.
Antisocial personality disorder is associated with:
B. Aggression and cruelty, in childhood.
Which of the following is a key characteristic of antisocial personality disorder?
C. Lack of remorse and guilt feelings.
Many researchers believe that borderline personality disorder is caused by:
C. an early loss of love from parents.
Which of the following are the hallmarks of histrionic personality disorder?
B. Excessive attention seeking and emotionality.
Which of the following statements best describes the narcissistic paradox?
B. Although narcissist have high self-esteem, their grandiose self-esteem is actually quite fragile.
Francis believes in ghosts and spends most of his time reading about ghosts and visiting haunted houses, He feels that other people are looking at him and hears murmurs that sound like his name. Francis is most likely to be diagnosed with _____ personality disorder.
Linda has trouble working independently and is willing to tolerate abuse and submit to unreasonable demands of her colleagues. She avoids disagreements at all costs. Linda most likely has _____ personality disorder.
A person who is preoccupied with order and strives to be perfect most likely has ______ personality disorder.
In the context of the prevalence rates of personality disorders, _____ personality disorders is the most common disorder.
D. obsessive- compulsive.
Which theorist is still alive?