Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: The Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards

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The brain

  1. is the center of both motor and sensory processing.
  2. is the center of emotion, intellect, memory and behavior.
  3. is composed of trillions of neurons and thousands of neuroglia.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Which part of the embryonic brain ultimately becomes the cerebrum and lateral ventricles?

  1. telencephalon
  2. mesencephalon
  3. diencephalon
  4. rhombencephalon
  5. metencephalon



Each of the following is considered a major part of the brain EXCEPT the:

  1. brain stem
  2. cerebellum
  3. cerebrum
  4. diencephalon
  5. hypothalamus



How do the cranial meninges differ from the spinal meninges?

  1. The cranial meninges have one layer instead of two.
  2. There no epidural space between the dura and the bones of the skull.
  3. The cranial meninges do not enclose vascular sinuses, but the spinal meninges do.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Which blood vessels supply the brain with blood?

  1. vertebral arteries
  2. internal carotid arteries
  3. external carotid arteries
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Which is true of the adult brain?

  1. It uses about 2% of the body’s O2 at rest.
  2. It is dependent on fatty acid metabolism for energy.
  3. Its functions are impaired by even transient interruptions of blood flow.
  4. It represents about 20% of the body’s mass.
  5. It functions well when glucose levels are low.



The blood-brain barrier

  1. lets lipid-soluble substances, such as O2, CO2 and many anesthetic agents enter the brain.
  2. is formed by oligodendrocytes.
  3. allows creatinine, urea and most ions to pass more quickly than water and glucose.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Cerebrospinal fluid

  1. is an opaque, yellowish liquid.
  2. provides some mechanical protection for the brain.
  3. contains red blood cells.
  4. is found in the blood vessels of the CNS.
  5. is made by microglia.



How does cerebrospinal fluid pass from the 3rd ventricle into the 4th ventricle?

  1. through the interventricular foramen
  2. through the median aperture
  3. through the cerebral aqueduct
  4. through the median aperture
  5. through the central canal



The brain stem includes all of the following EXCEPT the:

  1. medulla oblongata
  2. pons
  3. midbrain
  4. diencephalon
  5. reticular formation



The medulla oblongata

  1. is the site decussation of many motor tracts.
  2. is involved in the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure.
  3. contains the nuclei for cranial nerves VII through XII.
  4. sets the basic rhythm of respiration.
  5. All of the above are correct.



The pons

  1. contains the nuclei for cranial nerves IV through VII.
  2. lies posterior the medulla oblongata and superior to the cerebellum.
  3. contains axons that link the left and right sides of the cerebrum.
  4. contains apneustic and pneumotaxic centers that help control breathing.
  5. includes the pyramids and the olives of the brain stem.



Which of the following is (are) NOT part of the midbrain?

  1. superior and inferior colliculi
  2. nuclei of cranial nerves V and VI
  3. substantia nigra
  4. red nuclei
  5. nuclei of cranial nerves III and IV



The reticular formation

  1. consists of large clusters of nuclei punctuating wide bands of white matter.
  2. extends from the superior end of the diencephalon into the cerebrum.
  3. contains sensory axons that help maintain consciousness.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



The cerebellum

  1. is located posterior to the brain stem and inferior to the cerebrum.
  2. initiates voluntary skeletal muscle contractions.
  3. communicates with the cerebrum through three pairs of cerebellar peduncles.
  4. has a superficial layer of white matter.
  5. All of the above are correct.



Which of the following are functions of the cerebellum?

  1. appears to be involved in cognition
  2. helps maintain posture and balance
  3. helps coordinate actual with intended contractions of skeletal muscles
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Which symptom might a patient with a tumor on an inferior cerebellar peduncle experience?

  1. loss of vision
  2. loss of balance
  3. loss of voluntary movement
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



The thalamus does all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. serves as a major sensory relay station
  2. contributes to motor functions
  3. relays information from one area of the cerebral cortex to another
  4. gives precise location information for sensations of pain and touch
  5. helps regulate autonomic activities



Which thalamic nuclei are involved in emotion?

  1. anterior
  2. medial
  3. lateral
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



A patient reports loss of vision from one eye. Neurological examination reveals no dysfunction of the retina, optic nerve or visual cortex. The neurologist would then suspect disorder of the __ nucleus of the thalamus.

  1. lateral geniculate
  2. interlaminar
  3. reticular
  4. midline
  5. ventral posterior



Which of the following is NOT part of the hypothalamus?

  1. infundibulum
  2. supraoptic region
  3. mammillary body
  4. pulvinar nucleus
  5. preoptic region



The hypothalamus

  1. initiates voluntary movements.
  2. produces the hormone melatonin.
  3. controls and integrates autonomic nervous system activity.
  4. is regulated by the pituitary gland.
  5. plays a minor role in the maintenance of homeostasis



The hypothalamus

  1. communicates with the anterior pituitary gland via axons.
  2. regulates appetite and thirst.
  3. cannot detect glucose levels.
  4. communicates with the posterior pituitary gland via release of hormones.
  5. cannot process olfactory or visual information.



Which of the following involve the hypothalamus?

  1. sexual arousal
  2. feelings of rage, aggression, pain and pleasure
  3. sleep and wake cycles
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Which of the following is NOT true of the epithalamus?

  1. It lies inferior and anterior to the thalamus.
  2. It includes the pineal gland and habenular nuclei.
  3. It produces a hormone associated with sleep.
  4. It is involved in emotional responses to olfaction.
  5. It contains tissue that functions as an endocrine gland.



The subthalamus

  1. is an area immediately superior to the thalamus.
  2. contains only white matter.
  3. connects to the midbrain and to the cerebral motor cortex.
  4. primarily controls visceral smooth muscle contractions.
  5. All of the above are correct.



Which of the following part(s) of the diencephalon has a blood-brain barrier and monitor changes in the chemical composition of the blood?

  1. thalamus
  2. circumventricular organs
  3. epithalamus
  4. hypothalamus
  5. pituitary gland



The cerebrum

  1. is the “thinking part” of the brain.
  2. is the smallest part of the brain.
  3. is characterized by a gray matter core surrounded by a thin white matter cortex.
  4. is divided into five hemispheres and two lobes.
  5. is characterized by raised areas called sulci and shallow depressions called gyri.



A cerebrovascular accident (CVA) specifically damaged a patient’s ability to transfer information from a gyrus in one cerebral hemisphere to the corresponding gyrus in the other hemisphere. Which type of tract was damaged by the CVA?

  1. association
  2. projection
  3. commissural
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



The basal ganglia

  1. are collectively called the corpus striatum.
  2. are involved in regulating the beginning and ending of a movement.
  3. are outside of the brain, as their name implies.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



All of the following are true of the basal ganglia EXCEPT that they:

  1. interact with the cerebral cortex, the thalamus and the midbrain.
  2. are uninvolved in initiating or terminating a cognitive function such as attention.
  3. communicate with the limbic system.
  4. help control subconscious muscle contractions as in laughing and yawning.
  5. help regulate skeletal muscle tone required for movements.



The limbic system

  1. includes structures on the inner wall of the cerebrum and floor of the diencephalon.
  2. is involved in memory and in the sense of smell.
  3. is involved in recognition and display of emotions.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Chronic use of marijuana results in damage to the hippocampus. Which behavior of “pot heads” could be attributed to this damage?

  1. lack of short-term memory
  2. constant desire to eat
  3. increased desire to sleep
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Association areas of the cerebral cortex are involved in each of the following EXCEPT:

  1. memorizing the cranial nerves
  2. feeling pleased after mastering a difficult concept in anatomy and physiology
  3. moving your fingers as you type your research paper
  4. judging whether the correct phrase to use is “lay the book down” or “lie the book down”
  5. establishing your basic temperament as competitive or noncompetitive



Which of the following is true of sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?

  1. Secondary sensory areas help integrate sensory information into meaningful patterns.
  2. The primary sensory areas are anterior to the central sulcus.
  3. The primary sensory association areas have the least direct contact with sensory receptors.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



If your nose itches, which primary sensory area receives that information?

  1. visual
  2. olfactory
  3. gustatory
  4. auditory
  5. somatosensory



The primary motor areas of the cerebral cortex

  1. are located anterior to the central sulcus.
  2. devoted to fine motor skills are larger than those devoted to gross motor skills.
  3. devoted to generating spoken words are usually located in the in the right hemisphere.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



A six-year-old is at the edge of the outfield watching jets take off from a nearby military base instead of paying attention to the softball game in which his older sister is playing. A strongly hit softball strikes him in the back of the head with considerable force. Which association area is most likely to be damaged in this accident?

  1. auditory
  2. visual
  3. somatosensory
  4. posterior language
  5. common integrative



Hemispheric lateralization

  1. refers to the fact that one side of the cerebrum controls the opposite side of the body.
  2. is observable in a 32 week fetus.
  3. follows general patterns but varies somewhat from individual to individual.
  4. is less pronounced in females than in males.
  5. All of the above are correct.



Which of the following is true of brain waves?

  1. Alpha waves are found predominantly in sleeping adults.
  2. Beta waves would be present in an adult doing an algebra problem.
  3. Theta waves will be present in an adult who is awake but has closed his eyes.
  4. Delta waves are normal in an adult who is awake.
  5. A recording of brain waves is called an ECG.



Cranial nerves

  1. exit or enter the brain through foramina in the skull.
  2. are numbered with Roman numerals in anterior to posterior order.
  3. are named for their distribution or function.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



Which cranial nerve is sensory and conducts the nerve impulses for the sense of smell?

  1. I
  2. II
  3. III
  4. IV
  5. V



The optic nerves

  1. are purely motor nerves.
  2. merge to form the optic chiasma.
  3. enter the brain via the foramina of the cribiform plate.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



The trigeminal nerve

  1. has six branches.
  2. is purely sensory.
  3. controls the muscles of mastication.
  4. gives rise to the optic, maxillary and mandibular nerves.
  5. All of these are correct.



Which cranial nerve stimulates the zygomaticus major causing you to smile?

  1. III
  2. IV
  3. V
  4. VI
  5. VII



Cranial nerve VIII

  1. has been called the acoustic or auditory nerve.
  2. was renamed vestibulocochlear nerve to more accurately reflect its components and functions.
  3. is involved in hearing and equilibrium.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.



A cerebrovascular accident has made it difficult for a patient to swallow. Which cranial nerve was probably damaged?

  1. IX
  2. VIII
  3. VII
  4. VI
  5. V



Autonomic motor neurons of the vagus nerve innervate each of the following EXCEPT:

  1. the heart
  2. the respiratory passages
  3. the pharynx
  4. the intestines
  5. the esophagus



Each of the following is true of the development of the nervous system EXCEPT that:

  1. the brain develops from endoderm.
  2. during the third to fourth week of development the primary brain vesicles develop.
  3. during the fifth week of development, the secondary brain vesicles develop.
  4. proper brain development requires the presence of folic acid.
  5. the cerebral hemispheres arise from the telencephalon.



Which of the following is associated with aging of the brain from early adulthood onward?

  1. increased numbers of synaptic contacts
  2. increased numbers of neurons
  3. increased reflex times
  4. increased conduction velocity
  5. All of these are correct.