Ecology Test

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1

16) Through trial and error, a rat learns to run a maze without mistakes to receive a food reward.

A. operant conditioning
B. agonistic behavior
C. innate behavior
D. imprinting
E. altruistic behavior

A

2

17) Through trial and error, a rat learns to run a maze without mistakes to receive a food reward.

A. operant conditioning
B. agonistic behavior
C. innate behavior
D. imprinting
E. altruistic behavior

C

3

18) Through trial and error, a rat learns to run a maze without mistakes to receive a food reward.

A. operant conditioning
B. agonistic behavior
C. innate behavior
D. imprinting
E. altruistic behavior

D

4

19) Through trial and error, a rat learns to run a maze without mistakes to receive a food reward.

A. operant conditioning
B. agonistic behavior
C. innate behavior
D. imprinting
E. altruistic behavior

E

5

22) Which of the following is true about imprinting?
A) It may be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli.
B) It happens to many adult animals, but not to their young.
C) It is a type of learning that does not involve innate behavior.
D) It occurs only in birds.
E) It causes behaviors that last for only a short time (the sensitive period).

A

6

37) White-crowned sparrows can only learn the "crystallized" song for their species by
A) listening to adult sparrow songs during a sensitive period as a fledgling, followed by a practice period until the juvenile matches its melody to its memorized fledgling song.
B) listening to the song of its own species during a critical period so that it will imprint to its own species song and not the songs of other songbird species.
C) practicing as a fledgling until the innate species-specific song becomes perfected.
D) performing the crystallized song as adults when they become sexually mature, as the song is programmed into the innate behavior for the species.
E) observing and practicing after receiving social confirmation from other adults at a critical period during their first episode of courtship behavior.

A

7

40) Which of the following statements about evolution of behavior is correct?
A) Natural selection will favor behavior that enhances survival and reproduction.
B) An animal may show behavior that minimizes reproductive fitness.
C) If a behavior is less than optimal, it will eventually become optimal through natural selection.
D) Innate behaviors can never be altered by natural selection.
E) All of the statements are correct.

A

8

64) Which of the following is true of innate behaviors?
A) Their expression is only weakly influenced by genes.
B) They occur with or without environmental stimuli.
C) They are limited to invertebrate animals.
D) They are expressed in most individuals in a population.
E) They occur in invertebrates and some vertebrates but not mammals.

D

9

20) A cage containing male mosquitoes has a small earphone placed on top, through which the sound of a female mosquito is played. All the males immediately fly to the earphone and go through all of the steps of copulation. What is the best explanation for this behavior?
A) The males learn to associate the sound with females.
B) Copulation is a fixed action pattern, and the female flight sound is a sign stimulus that initiates it.
C) The sound from the earphone irritates the male mosquitoes, causing them to attempt to sting it.
D) The reproductive drive is so strong that when males are deprived of females, they will attempt to mate with anything that has even the slightest female characteristic.
E) Through classical conditioning, the male mosquitoes have associated the inappropriate stimulus from the earphone with the normal response of copulation.

B

10

32) Some dogs love attention, and Frodo the beagle learns that if he barks, he gets attention. Which of the following might you use to describe this behavior?
A) The dog is displaying an instinctive fixed action pattern.
B) The dog is performing a social behavior.
C) The dog is trying to protect its territory.
D) The dog has been classically conditioned.
E) The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning.

E

11

58) The central concept of sociobiology is that
A) human behavior is rigidly predetermined.
B) the behavior of an individual cannot be modified.
C) human behavior consists mainly of fixed action patterns.
D) most aspects of our social behavior have an evolutionary basis.
E) the social behavior of humans is homologous to the social behavior of other social animals.

D

12

59) In the territorial behavior of the stickleback fish, the red belly of one male that elicits attack from another male is functioning as
A) a pheromone.
B) a sign stimulus.
C) a fixed action pattern.
D) a search image.
E) an imprint stimulus.

B

13

63) Fred and Joe, two unrelated, mature male gorillas, encounter one another. Fred is courting a female. Fred grunts as Joe comes near. As Joe continues to advance, Fred begins drumming (pounding his chest) and bares his teeth. Joe then rolls on the ground on his back, gets up, and quickly leaves. This behavioral pattern is repeated several times during the mating season. Choose the most specific behavior described by this example.
A) agonistic behavior
B) territorial behavior
C) learned behavior
D) social behavior
E) fixed action pattern

A

14

A female cat in heat urinates more often and in many places. Male cats congregate near the urine deposits and fight with each other. Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats' response to the female's urinating behavior?
A) The males have learned to recognize the specific odor of the urine of a female in heat.
B) When the males smelled the odor, various neurons in their brains were stimulated.
C) Responding to the odor means locating reproductively receptive females.
D) Male cats' hormones are triggered by the odor released by the female.
E) The odor serves as a releaser for the instinctive behavior of the males.

C

15

A chemical produced by an animal that serves as a communication to another animal of the same species is called
A) a sign stimulus.
B) an inducer.
C) a pheromone.
D) an imprinter.
E) an agonistic promoter.

C

16

21) If mayflies lay eggs on roads instead of in water, it would indicate which of the following?
A) a defective gene
B) trial-and-error learning
C) a misdirected response to a sign stimulus
D) a natural behavioral variation in the mayfly population
E) aberrant behavior due to insecticide poisoning

C

17

24) Learning in which an associated stimulus may be used to elicit the same behavioral response as the original sign stimulus is called
A) concept formation.
B) trial and error.
C) classical conditioning.
D) operant conditioning.
E) cognition.

C

18

26) A type of bird similar to a chickadee learns to peck through the cardboard tops of milk bottles left on doorsteps to obtain the desired cream from the top. What term best applies to this behavior?
A) sign stimulus
B) cognition
C) imprinting
D) classical conditioning
E) operant conditioning

E

19

27) A salmon returns to its home stream to spawn. What term best applies to this behavior?
A) sign stimulus
B) cognition
C) imprinting
D) classical conditioning
E) operant conditioning

C