Principle of Living Systems CH. 14 Flashcards


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1

The work of Gregor Mendel provided an answer to two prevailing hypotheses popular at the time. What were these two hypotheses?

The two major hypotheses of the time were blending inheritance and inheritance of acquired characteristics.

2

Mendel studies seven different traits in the garden pea. What genetic term is used to describe an observable trait, such as those studied by Mendel?

phenotype

3

In tigers, a recessive allele causes a white tiger (absence of fur pigmentation). If one phenotypically normal tiger that is heterozygous is mated to another that is phenotypically white, what percentage of their offspring is expected to be white?

50%

4

A man has extra digits (six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot). His wife and their daughter have a normal number of digits. Having extra digits is a dominant trait. The couple's second child has extra digits. What is the probability that their next (third) child will have extra digits?

1/2

5

Different ratios occur in crosses with single gene pairs or two gene pairs. What types of ratios are likely to occur in crosses dealing with a single gene pair?

3:1, 1:1, 1:2:1

6

A black guinea pig crossed with an albino guinea pig produced twelve black offspring. When the albino was crossed with a second black animal, six blacks and six albinos were obtained. What is the best explanation for this genetic situation?

Albino is recessive; black is dominant.

7

Gray seed color in peas is dominant to white. Assume that Mendel conducted a series of experiments where plants with gray seeds were crossed among themselves, and the following progeny were produced: 302 gray and 98 white.
(a) What is the most probable genotype of each parent?
(b) Based on your answer in (a) above, what genotypic and phenotypic ratios are expected in these progeny? (Assume the following symbols: G = gray and g = white.)

(a) Gg × Gg; (b) genotypic = 1:2:1, phenotypic = 3:1

8

When Mendel crossed yellow-seeded and green-seeded pea plants, all the offspring were yellow seeded. When he took these F1 yellow-seeded plants and crossed them to green-seeded plants, what genotypic ratio was expected?

1:1

9

Use the figure and the following description to answer the question(s) below.

In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding, dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in the figure, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square.

Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants with dark leaves?

1, 2, and 3

10

In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding, dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in the figure, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square.

Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants with a heterozygous genotype?

2 and 3

11

In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding, dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in the figure, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square.

Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants that will be true-breeding?

1 and 4 only

12

In certain plants, tall is dominant to short. If a heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous tall plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be short?

0

13

Why did the F1 offspring of Mendel's classic pea cross always look like one of the two parental varieties?

One allele was dominant

14

In humans, male-pattern baldness may be assumed to be controlled by an autosomal gene that occurs in two allelic forms. Allele B determines nonbaldness, and allele b determines pattern baldness. In males, because of the presence of testosterone, allele b is dominant over B. If a man and woman both with genotype Bb have a son, what is the chance that he will eventually be bald?

75%

15

Two plants are crossed, resulting in offspring with a 3:1 ratio for a particular trait. This ratio suggests that _____.

the parents were both heterozygous for the particular trait

16

A sexually reproducing animal has two unlinked genes, one for head shape (H) and one for tail length (T). Its genotype is HhTt. Which of the following genotypes is possible in a gamete from this organism?

HT

17

When crossing an organism that is homozygous recessive for a single trait with a heterozygote, what is the chance of producing an offspring with the homozygous recessive phenotype?

50%

18

Mendel accounted for the observation that traits that had disappeared in the F1 generation reappeared in the F2 generation by proposing that _____.

traits can be dominant or recessive, and the recessive traits were obscured by the dominant ones in the F1

19

Albinism is an autosomal (not sex-linked) recessive trait. A man and woman are both of normal pigmentation, but both have one parent who is albino (without melanin pigmentation). What is the probability that their first child will be an albino?

1/4

20

Albinism is an autosomal (not sex-linked) recessive trait. A man and woman are both of normal pigmentation, but both have one parent who is albino (without melanin pigmentation). What is the probability that their first female child will have albinism?

1/4

21

Albinism is an autosomal (not sex-linked) recessive trait. A man and woman are both of normal pigmentation and have one child out of three who is albino (without melanin pigmentation). What are the genotypes of the albino's parents?

Both parents must be heterozygous.

22

What do we mean when we use the terms monohybrid cross and dihybrid cross?

A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters that are being studied, and a monohybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for only one character being studied.

23

How many unique gametes could be produced through independent assortment by an individual with the genotype AaBbCCDdEE?

8

24

The individual with genotype AaBbCCDdEE can make many kinds of gametes. Which of the following is the major reason?

different possible assortment of chromosomes into gametes

25

Which of the following statements about independent assortment and segregation is correct?

The law of independent assortment requires describing two or more genes relative to one another.

26

Mendel crossed yellow-seeded and green-seeded pea plants and then allowed the offspring to self-pollinate to produce an F2 generation. The results were as follows: 6022 yellow and 2001 green (8023 total). The allele for green seeds has what relationship to the allele for yellow seeds?

Recessive

27

Assuming independent assortment for all gene pairs, what is the probability that the following parents, AABbCc × AaBbCc, will produce an AaBbCc offspring?

1/8

28

Suppose two AaBbCc individuals are mated. Assuming that the genes are not linked, what fraction of the offspring are expected to be homozygous recessive for the three traits?

1/64

29

In rabbits, the homozygous CC is normal, Cc results in deformed legs, and cc results in very short legs. The genotype BB produces black fur, Bb brown fur, and bb white fur. If a cross is made between brown rabbits with deformed legs and white rabbits with deformed legs, what percentage of the offspring would be expected to have deformed legs and white fur?

25%

30

The fact that all seven of the pea plant traits studied by Mendel obeyed the principle of independent assortment most probably indicates which of the following?

All of the genes controlling the traits behaved as if they were on different chromosomes

31

In the cross AaBbCc × AaBbCc, what is the probability of producing the genotype AABBCC?

1/64

32

Given the parents AABBCc × AabbCc, assume simple dominance for each trait and independent assortment. What proportion of the progeny will be expected to phenotypically resemble the first parent with genotype AABBCc?

3/4

33

Two true-breeding stocks of pea plants are crossed. One parent has red, axial flowers and the other has white, terminal flowers; all F1 individuals have red, axial flowers. The genes for flower color and location assort independently. If 1000 F2 offspring resulted from the cross, approximately how many of them would you expect to have red, terminal flowers?

190

34

Two true-breeding stocks of pea plants are crossed. One parent has red, axial flowers and the other has white, terminal flowers; all F1 individuals have red, axial flowers. The genes for flower color and location assort independently. Among the F2 offspring, what is the probability of plants with white axial flowers?

3/16

35

Radish flowers may be red, purple, or white. A cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant yields all-purple offspring. The part of the radish we eat may be oval or long, with long being the dominant trait. If true-breeding red long radishes are crossed with true-breeding white oval radishes, the F1 will be expected to be which of the following?

purple and long

36

Gene S controls the sharpness of spines in a type of cactus. Cactuses with the dominant allele, S, have sharp spines, whereas homozygous recessive ss cactuses have dull spines. At the same time, a second gene, N, determines whether or not cactuses have spines. Homozygous recessive nncactuses have no spines at all. A cross between a true-breeding sharp-spined cactus and a spineless cactus would produce_____.

all sharp-spined, 50% dull-spined, 25% spineless progeny

37

Gene S controls the sharpness of spines in a type of cactus. Cactuses with the dominant allele, S, have sharp spines, whereas homozygous recessive ss cactuses have dull spines. At the same time, a second gene, N, determines whether or not cactuses have spines. Homozygous recessive nncactuses have no spines at all. If doubly heterozygous SsNn cactuses were allowed to self-pollinate, the F2 would segregate in which of the following ratios?

9 sharp-spined:3 dull-spined: 4 spineless

38

Feather color in budgies is determined by two different genes, Y and B, one for pigment on the outside and one for the inside of the feather. YYBB, YyBB, or YYBb is green; yyBB or yyBb is blue; YYbb or Yybb is yellow; and yybb is white. A blue budgie is crossed with a white budgie. Which of the following results is NOT possible?

green and yellow offspring

39

Mendel's observation of the segregation of alleles in gamete formation has its basis in which of the following phases of cell division?

anaphase I of meiosis

40

When Thomas Hunt Morgan crossed his red-eyed F1 generation flies to each other, the F2 generation included both red- and white-eyed flies. Remarkably, all the white-eyed flies were male. What was the explanation for this result?

The gene involved is on the X chromosome.

41

Which of the following is the meaning of the chromosome theory of inheritance as expressed in the early twentieth century?

Mendelian genes are at specific loci on the chromosome and, in turn, segregate during meiosis.

42

In cats, black fur color is caused by an X-linked allele; the other allele at this locus causes orange color. The heterozygote is tortoiseshell. What kinds of offspring would you expect from the cross of a black female and an orange male?

tortoiseshell females; black males

43

Red-green color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait in humans. Two people with normal color vision have a color-blind son. What are the genotypes of the parents?

XNXn and XNY

44

Cinnabar eyes is a sex-linked, recessive characteristic in fruit flies. If a female having cinnabar eyes is crossed with a wild-type male, what percentage of the F1 males will have cinnabar eyes?

100%

45

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a serious condition caused by a recessive allele of a gene on the human X chromosome. The patients have muscles that weaken over time because they have absent or decreased dystrophin, a muscle protein. They rarely live past their twenties. How likely is it for a woman to have this condition?

One-half of the daughters of an affected father and a carrier mother could have this condition.

46

In cattle, roan coat color (mixed red and white hairs) occurs in the heterozygous (Rr) offspring of red (RR) and white (rr) homozygotes. Which of the following crosses would produce offspring in the ratio of 1 red:2 roan:1 white?

roan × roan

47

Which of the following describes the ability of a single allele to have multiple phenotypic effects?

pleiotropy

48

Cystic fibrosis affects the lungs, the pancreas, the digestive system, and other organs, resulting in symptoms ranging from breathing difficulties to recurrent infections. Which of the following terms best describes this?

pleiotropy

49

Which of the following is an example of polygenic inheritance?

skin pigmentation in humans

50

Hydrangea plants of the same genotype are planted in a large flower garden. Some of the plants produce blue flowers and others pink flowers. This can be best explained by which of the following?

environmental factors such as soil pH

51

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a recessive human disorder in which an individual cannot appropriately metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. This amino acid is not naturally produced by humans. Therefore, the most efficient and effective treatment is which of the following?

Regulate the diet of the affected persons to severely limit the uptake of the amino acid.

52

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria is an exceedingly rare human genetic disorder in which there is very early senility and death, usually from coronary artery disease, at an average age of 13 years. Patients, who look very old even as children, do not live to reproduce. Which of the following represents the most likely assumption?

The disorder may be due to mutation in a single protein-coding gene.

53

Radish flowers may be red, purple, or white. The part of the radish we eat may be oval or long. A cross between a red-flowered long radish plant and a white-flowered oval radish plant yields all-purple long radish offspring. Then the F1 are crossed. In the resulting F2 generation, which of the following phenotypic ratios would be expected?

6:3:3:2:1:1

54

Radish flowers may be red, purple, or white. A cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant yields all-purple offspring. The flower color trait in radishes is an example of which of the following?

incomplete dominance

55

The following question refer to the pedigree chart in the figure below for a family, some of whose members exhibit the dominant trait, W. Affected individuals are indicated by a dark square or circle.

What is the genotype of individual II-5?

ww

56

What is the likelihood that the progeny of IV-3 and IV-4 will have the trait?

50%

57

What is the probability that individual III-1 is Ww?

1

58

The figure below shows the pedigree for a family. Dark-shaded symbols represent individuals with one of the two major types of colon cancer. Numbers under the symbols are the individual's age at the time of diagnosis. Males are represented by squares, females by circles.

From this pedigree, this trait seems to be inherited _____.

as an autosomal dominant

59

In humans, blue eyes are inherited as a recessive autosomal trait and color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A woman with blue eyes and normal color vision whose father was color blind marries a man who also has normal color vision. He has brown eyes, but his mother had blue eyes. Which of the following would you expect to be true for their sons?

One-fourth of their sons will be color blind and have blue eyes, 1/4 of their sons will be color blind and have brown eyes, 1/4 of their sons will have normal color vision and blue eyes, 1/4 of their sons will have normal color vision and brown eyes.

60

In humans, blue eyes are inherited as a recessive autosomal trait and color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A woman with blue eyes and normal color vision whose father was color blind marries a man who also has normal color vision. He has brown eyes but his mother had blue eyes. Which of the following would you expect to be true for their daughters?

One-half of their daughters will have normal color vision and brown eyes; 1/2 of their daughters will have normal color vision and blue eyes.