microbiology chapter 7 Flashcards


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1

1. If a strand of mRNA is being copied by more than one ribosome at a time it forms a(n)

b. polysome

2

2. Genetic engineering

e. all of the above

3

3. A type of control mechanism where the product produced in the pathway inhibits its own
production at the enzyme level is called

e. negative feedback inhibition

4

4. If the sequence of ATCGCACCT is copied from DNA to DNA what would the sequence be?

a. TAGCGTGGA

5

5. A set of genes under the control of the same regulatory elements defines a(n)

c. operon

6

6. The process where genetic information is carried to a new cell via a bacteriophage is

e. transduction

7

7. Which of the following is not true of bacterial DNA replication?

d. occurs within the membrane-bound nucleus

8

8. The cell component that processes the information on mRNA is the

b. ribosome

9

9. A self-replicating piece of extrachromosomal DNA defines a

d. plasmid

10

10. The process where DNA molecules are copied to RNA is

d. transcription

11

11. Damaged DNA can be repaired by

d. all of these

12

12. A term meaning genetic change is

d. mutation

13

13. Plasmids

e. all of the above

14

14. DNA polymerase reads DNA

b. in a 3' to 5' direction only

15

15. Mutations

e. all of the above

16

16. Resistance genes located on transposons

e. all of these

17

17. The nucleotides of RNA are

c. A,U,G,C

18

18. Mutations can occur

e. all of the above

19

19. In repressible operons

b. the substrate and the repressor molecule combine and prevent transcription or
production of the product thus causing the operon to normally be ON

20

20. In DNA replication, the enzyme that is used to unwind the helix is

b. Helicase

21

21. The enzyme that copies DNA is called

a. DNA Polymerase 3

22

22. An enzyme that is only produced when its substrate is present is a/an

b. inducible enzyme

23

23. The ability of living bacterial cells to incorporate DNA fragments from outside the cell into their
own genome is

a. transformation

24

24. The process where the information on mRNA is used to synthesize protein is

b. translation

25

25. What would be the mRNA complementary sequence for the following DNA sequence?
AATTAGGCC

a. UUAAUCCGG

26

26. The anti-codon is found on the

d. tRNA

27

27. In a DNA molecule, opposite strands are

b. complements of one another and are antiparallel

28

28. The transfer of DNA by direct contact between cells is

b. conjugation

29

29. In bacteria, RNA synthesis is initiated at specific sites called

c. promoters

30

30. Which of the following is not true of transposons?

a. are self-replicating

31

31. Transduction occurs when

b. when the phage genome is incorporated into the host genome

32

32. A phage often establishes a state of ______ in which a portion of the viral nucleic acid is
incorporated into the bacterial chromosome or a bacterial plasmid.

a. lysogeny

33

33. Viruses that transform cells and cause cancerous growth are called __________.

b. oncogenic viruses

34

34. Pallindromes are

a. repreated inverted DNA sequences within a chromosome or plasmid.

35

35. Transcription begins at a site called

b. promoter

36

36. If nucleotides are added/inserted into an organisms’s DNA sequence,

c. a frame shite mutation has occured

37

37. Match the following: DNA strand configuration

c. anti-parallel

38

38. Match the following: site where RNA synthesis begins on DNA

d. promoter

39

39. Transfer of DNA by competent cells

a. Transformation

40

40. Match the following: a gene which is continually expressed

e. constitutive

41

41. Match the following: Discontinuous replication

b. Okasaki fragments

42

42. Match the following: enzyme that joins DNA fragments during replication

c. Ligase

43

43. Match the following: RNA that contains information for more than one protein

d. polycistronic

44

44. Match the following: Enzyme that copies during DNA replication

b. DNA Polymerase III

45

45. Match the following: Transfer of genetic material via a virus

a. transduction

46

46. Match the following: Jumping genes

c. transposons

47

47. Match the following: requires binding site called pallindromes

b. insertion sequences

48

48. Match the following: insertion or deletion of DNA base

a. frame shift mutation

49

49. Match the following: Self-replicating extra-chromosomal DNA

d. plasmid

50

50. Match the following: Tranfer of genetic material via a sex pilus

e. conjugation

51

51. Match the following: genetic material that may act as a promoter

b. insertion sequences

52

52. Match the following: genetic material that may move from plasmid to chromosome

c. transposons

53

53. Eukaryotic chromosomes differ from prokaryotic chromosomes because only eukaryotes have

e. All of the choices are correct.

54

54. The DNA of microorganisms is made up of subunits called

c. nucleotides.

55

55. Which is incorrect about purines?

a. only found in DNA, not in RNA

56

56. The antiparallel arrangement within DNA molecules refers to

c. one helix strand that runs from the 5' to 3' direction and the other strand runs from the
3' to 5' direction.

57

57. Semiconservative replication refers to

d. an original parent DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand comprising a
new DNA molecule

58

58. The duplication of a cell's DNA is called

b. replication.

59

59. DNA polymerase III

b. synthesizes new DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction.

60

60. Which enzyme fills in the spaces between the Okazaki fragments with the correct
nucleotides?

a. DNA ligases

61

61. The enzymes that help pack DNA into the cell by coiling the DNA into a tight bundle are

d. DNA gyrases.

62

62. The enzymes that can proofread replicating DNA, detect incorrect bases, excise them, and
correctly replace them are

b. DNA polymerases

63

63. The site where the old DNA strands separate and new DNA strands will be synthesized is
called the

e. replication fork

64

64. Which enzyme is mismatched with its function in DNA replication?

RNA polymerase - synthesizes RNA primers

65

65. Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one

c. amino acid.

66

66. RNA molecules differ from DNA molecules because only RNA

e. All of the choices are correct.

67

67. All of the following pertain to transcription except it

a. occurs on a ribosome in the cytoplasm.

68

68. Which of the following is incorrect about transfer RNA?

e. the initiator tRNA in bacteria carries tryptophan

69

69. If a codon for alanine is GCA, then the anticodon is

d. CGU.

70

70. A sequence of bases on a gene that does not code for protein is called a/an

e. intron.

71

71. The following pertain to ribosomes during protein synthesis except they

a. contain codons within their rRNA molecules.

72

72. Which is incorrect about inducible operons?

a. they have genes turned off by a buildup of end product

73

73. The operon segment composed of the gene that codes for a protein repressor is called the

c. regulator.

74

74. Synthesis of an inducible enzyme requires

b. substrate bound to repressor.

75

75. Much of what was previously thought to be "junk" DNA has been found to have which
purpose?

c. It codes for RNA regulatory molecules.

76

76. A mutation that changes a normal codon to a stop codon is called a

e. nonsense mutation.

77

77. The development of virulent, toxin-producing bacterial strains due to the presence of a
temperate phage can occur in

d. specialized transduction.

78

78. Which is incorrect about pyrimidines?

a. are only found in DNA, not in RNA

79

79. The Ames test is designed to

e. detect chemicals with carcinogenic potential.

80

80. Individuals with xeroderma pigmentosa lack a functioning

a. photolyase.

81

81. All of the following are products of transcription except

c. DNA.

82

82. All of the following are true about mutations except

a. they are always detrimental to the organism they occur in.