Human Growth and Development

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Life Span Development
Chapters 5-7
Exam 2 Chapter 5-6-7 Dr. Victoria Wagner
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1

Piaget argued that infants acquire knowledge through
a) sensation.
b) perception.
c) facts communicated by others.
d) direct motor behavior.

d) direct motor behavior.

2

Who was the Swiss developmental researcher whose theory of developmental stages
highly influenced a considerable amount of work on cognitive development?
a) Skinner
b) Watson
c) Piaget
d) Erikson

c) Piaget

3

Piaget’s theory of development assumed that all children pass through a series of
____ universal stages in a fixed order from birth to adolescence. These are __________.
a) 5; sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational concrete operational, and
maturation
b) 4; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
c) 3; preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
d) 6; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational,
assimilation, and accommodation

b) 4; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

4

A _____ is a cognitive structure, a network of associations that guides an individual's perceptions.

A. format

B. schema

C. subset

D. system

B. schema

5

What is the term for an organized pattern of functioning that adapts and changes with
mental development?
a) assimilation
b) scheme
c) accommodation
d) skill

b) scheme

6

Jean Piaget believed that children:

A. actively construct their own cognitive world.

B. passively react to their environments.

C. absorb their knowledge from the environment.

D. gain their view of the world from their parents.

A. actively construct their own cognitive world.

7

Piaget believed that the basic building blocks of the way children understand the world are mental structures called
a) assimilation.
b) accommodation.
c) schemes.
d) memory.

c) schemes.

8

Schemes refer to:

A. actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

B. the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.

C. groups of behaviors.

D. knowledge that has been adjusted to fit new experiences.

A. actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

9

Mark and Amanda just purchased some new toys for their 4-month-old son, and as
soon as they put them in the baby’s crib, the baby immediately tried to put the toys in his
mouth, pick up and shake the toys. Piaget would say that this is an example of
a) a scheme.
b) assimilation.
c) playing.
d) accommodation

a) a scheme.

10

Define schemes. What are the processes of accommodation and assimilation? How are they related to schemes?

Schemes are actions or mental representations that organize knowledge. According to Piaget, as the infant or child seeks to construct an understanding of the world, the developing brain creates schemes. To explain how children use and adapt their schemes, Piaget offered two concepts: assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation occurs when children use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences. Accommodation occurs when children adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account.

11

According to Piaget, physical activities such as sucking, grasping, and walking are examples of:

A. mental schemes.

B. mental adaptations.

C. behavioral adaptations.

D. behavioral schemes.

D. behavioral schemes.

12

Benji starts calling his father "dad," but he also calls all men that he sees "dad." According to Piaget, this error is due to _____.

A. amalgamation

B. accommodation

C. assimilation

D. application

C. assimilation

13

While being dressed for bed, 7-month-old Darnell picked up new baby’s comb that
his mother just bought for him. Darnell had never seen this before and didn’t know how it was used, so he tried to put it in his mouth. Piaget might say that Darnell was
a) assimilating the comb into his existing schemes.
b) accommodating the comb into his existing schemes.
c) adapting the comb into his exiting schemes.
d) adapting the comb with secondary circular reactions

a) assimilating the comb into his existing schemes.

14

What is the term that Piaget used to explain the process in which people understand
an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of
thinking?
a) scheme
b) assimilation
c) accommodation
d) operational stage

b) assimilation

15

Piaget thought that ________ occurs when a stimulus or event is acted upon,
perceived, and understood in accordance with existing patterns of thought.
a) assimilation
b) scheme
c) accommodation
d) learning

a) assimilation

16

Four-year-old Alex and his mother visited the zoo. While they were there, Alex’s
mother took him to see the squirrel exhibit. Alex saw many different types of squirrels,
but when he saw a flying squirrel glide from one branch to the next he pointed and said,
“A bird.” Considering Piaget’s work, Alex is demonstrating an example of
a) scheme.
b) accommodation.
c) object permanence.
d) assimilation.

d) assimilation.

17

Two-year-old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now, Anita says the word "dog" when she sees any animal. Anita has _____ these animals into her existing scheme.

A. amalgamated

B. accommodated

C. assimilated

D. applied

C. assimilated

18

Baby Elise has developed a sucking scheme. She knows that to get food she must suck on her mother's breast. Now, her mother has begun to introduce solid foods with a spoon. Elise immediately sucks on the spoon. This is an example of _____.

A. accommodation

B. assimilation

C. amalgamation

D. application

B. assimilation

19

_____ occurs when children adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account.

A. Adaptation

B. Accommodation

C. Assimilation

D. Application

B. Accommodation

20

Three-year-old Jesse used to call all moving vehicles "car." He now accurately categorizes moving vehicles into trucks, cars, motorcycles, and buses. Jesse has _____ to fit new information into his existing scheme.

A. accommodated

B. assimilated

C. amalgamated

D. applied

A. accommodated

21

Piaget used the term _______ to describe changes in existing ways of thinking that
occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.
a) accommodation
b) scheme
c) preoperational
d) assimilation

a) accommodation

22

Five-year-old Alex and his mother visited the zoo. While they were there, Alex’s
mother took him to see the squirrel exhibit. Alex saw many different types of squirrels,
but when he saw a flying squirrel glide from one branch to the next he pointed and said,
“A bird with a tail.” Considering Piaget’s work, Alex is demonstrating an example of
a) scheme.
b) accommodation.
c) object permanence.
d) assimilation.

b) accommodation.

23

Baby Alexander makes minor changes in his schemes each time his environment
provides him with a new experience. This is the process of
a) accommodation.
b) simple reflexes.
c) assimilation.
d) secondary circular reactions.

a) accommodation.

24

Piaget believed that the earliest schemes are limited to ________ that we have
when we are born.
a) inherited abilities
b) senses
c) neuron and synapse development
d) reflexes

d) reflexes

25

Trenton was playing in a sandbox. He was pouring sand from a short and wide fat container into a tall and narrow container. When he poured the sand into the tall and narrow container, it appeared as if it had more sand in it. Trenton could not figure out where the extra sand came from, and how it got into his container. As Trenton continues to try to solve this puzzle, he experiences considerable movement between states of cognitive _____ and _____ to produce cognitive change.

A. equilibrium; disequilibrium

B. adaptation; organization

C. classification; modification

D. equilibration; categorization

A. equilibrium; disequilibrium

26

When children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world, they shift from one stage of thought to the next. The mechanism through which this shift occurs is called _____.

A. equilibration

B. assimilation

C. organization

D. amalgamation

A. equilibration

27

What is the term for Piaget’s initial major stage of cognitive development, which
can be broken down into six substages?
a) concrete operational
b) preoperational
c) sensorimotor
d) formal operational

c) sensorimotor

28

Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage of development into _____ substages.

A. two

B. three

C. five

D. six

D. six

29

In Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, the first substage is called
a) first habits and primary circular reactions.
b) schemes.
c) assimilation.
d) simple reflexes.

d) simple reflexes.

30

Alice who is three weeks old is in the _____ substage of Piaget's sensorimotor development; she will latch on to and suck anything that is touched to her lips.

A. simple reflexes

B. first habits

C. secondary circular reactions

D. primary circular reactions

A. simple reflexes

31

Beth normally breastfeeds her baby; however, during the workday Beth’s mother
watches her baby, and the baby must be fed with a bottle. Beth has noticed that her
baby’s approach to being bottle-fed is somewhat different than when the baby is being
breast-fed. Piaget would say that this is an example of
a) scheme.
b) Substage 1: Simple reflexes of the sensorimotor stage.
c) accommodation.
d) assimilation.

b) Substage 1: Simple reflexes of the sensorimotor stage.

32

The _____ substage of sensorimotor development corresponds to the first month after birth.

A. first habits and primary circular reactions

B. simple reflexes

C. secondary circular reactions

D. internalization of schemes

B. simple reflexes

33

Which of the following substages of sensorimotor development is characterized by coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors?

A. Conditioned reflexes

B. First habits and primary circular reactions

C. Simple reflexes

D. Coordination of secondary circular reactions

C. Simple reflexes

34

Piaget’s Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions occurs for infants in
the age range of ____ to _____ months of age.
a) 1; 6
b) 2; 8
c) 1; 4
d) 4; 8

c) 1; 4

35

Josh is three months old. In which of Jean Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development is Josh?

A. Simple reflexes

B. First habits and primary circular reactions

C. tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

D. Secondary circular reactions

B. First habits and primary circular reactions

36

In which of the following substages of sensorimotor development does the infant's main focus remain on his or her own body?

A. Coordination of secondary circular reactions

B. First habits and primary circular reactions

C. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

D. Secondary circular reactions

B. First habits and primary circular reactions

37

Piaget believed that __________ are schemes reflecting an infant’s repetition of
interesting or enjoyable actions that focus on the infant’s own body.
a) primary circular reactions
b) circular reactions
c) secondary circular reactions
d) tertiary circular reactions

a) primary circular reactions

38

The sensorimotor stage of development lasts from birth to about:

A. six months of age.

B. eight months of age.

C. one year of age.

D. two years of age.

D. two years of age.

39

Piaget thought that the repetition of a chance motor event that helps the baby start
building cognitive schemes is a process called
a) first habits.
b) assimilation.
c) a circular reaction.
d) accommodation.

c) a circular reaction.

40

Piaget’s Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions stage occurs for infants in the age
range of ____ months.
a) 1–6
b) 1–8
c) 1–4
d) 4–8

d) 4–8

41

In which substage of sensorimotor development do infants start repeating actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results?

A. First habits and primary circular reactions

B. Simple reflexes

C. Secondary circular reactions

D. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

C. Secondary circular reactions

42

Baby Jimmy’s parent places a brand new rattle in his crib, and Jimmy immediately
picks it up and tries to mouth the rattle. When it shakes, it makes noise. Jimmy
immediately tries shaking the rattle in different ways to see how the sound changes. He
seems to enjoy this activity. Piaget would say that this is an example of
a) Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions.
b) Substage 1: Simple reflexes.
c) Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions.
d) Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions

c) Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions.

43

In which sensorimotor substage does an infant's actions become more object-oriented?

A. Simple reflexes

B. First habits and primary circular reactions

C. Secondary circular reactions

D. Coordination of secondary circular reactions

C. Secondary circular reactions

44

According to the substages of Piaget's sensorimotor stage of development, which of the following statements about the coordination of secondary circular reactions is NOT true?
A. It develops between 8 and 12 months of age.

B. The infant must be able to coordinate vision and touch, hand and eye.

C. It develops between 12 and 18 months of age.

D. It is marked by intentionality.

C. It develops between 12 and 18 months of age.

45

Piaget’s Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions occurs for infants in the age range of _____ months.
a) 6 to 8
b) 8 to 12
c) 4 to 8
d) 5 to 8

b) 8 to 12

46

Sixteen-month-old Akel plays endlessly with a ball, rolling it, throwing it, using it to knock over other toys, standing on it, and trying to ride on it. Which of Jean Piaget's substages of the sensorimotor stage is represented by Akel's behavior?

A. Primary circular reactions

B. Secondary circular reactions

C. Coordination of secondary circular reactions

D. Tertiary circular reactions

D. Tertiary circular reactions

47

Piaget’s Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions stage occurs for infants in the age
range of _______ months of age.
a) 12–18
b) 8–12
c) 6–8
d) 12–14

a) 12–18

48

What is the term in Piaget’s sensorimotor stage where an infant develops schemes
that include deliberate variations of actions that bring about desirable consequences?
a) Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions
b) Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions
c) Substage 4: Coordination of circular reactions
d) Substage 3: Secondary circular reaction

b) Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions

49

“Piaget observed his son Laurent dropping a toy swan repeatedly, varying the
position from which he dropped it, [and] carefully observing each time to see where it
fell.” This is an example of
a) Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions.
b) Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions.
c) Substage 4: Coordination of circular reactions.
d) Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions.

d) Substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions.

50

Piaget’s Substage 6: Beginnings of thought stage occurs for children in the age
range of _____ months.
a) 12–18
b) 18–24
c) 8–14
d) 12–14

b) 18–24

51

According to Piaget, what is the major accomplishment of Substage 6?
a) children understand that a person or object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen
b) children are able to show purposeful acts with deliberate variety
c) children employ goal-directed behavior
d) children exhibit the capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought

a) children understand that a person or object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen

52

Piaget believed that the _______ fit entirely in a single stage of cognitive
development called the ___________ stage.
a) preschool years; operational
b) preschool years; preoperational
c) school years; concrete
d) school years; operational

b) preschool years; preoperational

53

Piaget believed that children from _______ years of age fall into the _________
stage.
a) 5 to 7; preoperational
b) 2 to 7; concrete operational
c) 5 to 7; concrete operational
d) 2 to 7; preoperational

d) 2 to 7; preoperational

54

According to Piaget, what is the key aspect of preoperational stage?
a) symbolic function
b) organized, formal, logical mental processes
c) increased memory for objects
d) increased fine motor skill development

a) symbolic function

55

Which of the following is the best description of Piaget’s “symbolic function”?
a) a child is able to understand that symbols on a page (letters or numbers) mean something
b) a child is able to use a mental symbol, a word, or object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present
c) a child is able to use organized, formal, logical mental processes
d) a child is able to use his/her imagination

b) a child is able to use a mental symbol, a word, or object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present

56

Concrete operational thought involves applying _____ to solve problems.
a) intuitive reasoning
b) intuition or hunches
c) logical operations
d) acquired knowledge

c) logical operations

57

Piaget proposed that children reach the formal operational stage of development around ____ years of age.
a) 8
b) 12
c) 10
d) 16

b) 12

58

According to Piaget, the stage at which people develop the ability to think
abstractly is called the
a) concrete operational stage.
b) preoperational stage.
c) formal operational stage.
d) theory of mind stage.

c) formal operational stage.

59

Piaget believed that _________ appears in Substage 4, which enables the infant to
realize that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen.
a) accommodation
b) object permanence
c) assimilation
d) goal-directed behavior

b) object permanence

60

Baby Nicholas watches as his mother leaves the room, but he does not cry because he understands that his mother still exists even though he cannot see her. This is an example of which reaction concept?
a) primary circular reactions
b) reflexes
c) secondary circular reactions
d) object permanence

d) object permanence

61

What is the term for the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen?
a) magic
b) illusion
c) imagination
d) object permanence

d) object permanence

62

The understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched is called:

A. object containment.

B. object permanence.

C. object availability.

D. object continuance

B. object permanence.

63

Heather is shown a teddy bear. The teddy bear is then hidden from her, and she searches for it. This shows that Heather has developed a sense of _____.

A. symbolic manipulation

B. infinite generativity

C. telegraphic thinking

D. object permanence

D. object permanence

64

According to Piaget, what is the major accomplishment of Substage 6?
a) children understand that a person or object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen
b) children are able to show purposeful acts with deliberate variety
c) children employ goal-directed behavior
d) children exhibit the capacity for mental representation or symbolic though

d) children exhibit the capacity for mental representation or symbolic though

65

Thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others is called
a) conservation.
b) centration.
c) intuitive thought.
d) egocentric thought.

d) egocentric thought.

66

On Christmas morning, 3-year-old Billy opens one of his gifts from his mother and
finds a new sweater. Disappointed that it is not a toy, Billy frowns and throws the sweater aside in front of his mother with no regard for her feelings. In this example, Billy is demonstrating
a) centration.
b) egocentric thought.
c) conservation.
d) intuitive thought.

b) egocentric thought.

67

3-year-old Randy occasionally talks to himself in front of others, and ignores his mother’s instructions to come to the table and eat with his family. In this example, Randy
is demonstrating
a) childhood schizophrenia.
b) conservation of thought.
c) intuitive thought.
d) egocentric thought.

d) egocentric thought.

68

3-year-old Randy occasionally talks to himself in front of others, and ignores his
mother’s instructions to come to the table and eat with his family. In this example, Randy
is demonstrating
a) childhood schizophrenia.
b) conservation of thought.
c) intuitive thought.
d) egocentric thought.

d) egocentric thought.

69

What is the term for the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects?
a) symbolic functioning
b) language acquisition
c) centration
d) concrete operations

c) centration

70

Madeline is working to teach her 4-year-old daughter, Eliza, how to count. Sheplaces 10 buttons in one row with very little space between the buttons, and 8 buttons in another row with more space between the buttons; therefore, the second row is longer than the first. Then Madeline asks her daughter which row has more buttons. Inevitably,
Eliza chooses the second row, even though she knows that 10 is more than 8. What is this an example of?
a) symbolic functioning
b) concrete operations
c) preoperational functioning
d) centration

d) centration

71

At what age does Centration occurs?

a) 1,3

b) 3,4

c) 6,7

d) 2, 3

b) 3,4

72

What is the term that means the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects?

a) concrete operations
b) conservation
c) centration
d) preoperational operations

b) conservation

73

The knowledge that develops in the preschool years that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects is called ____________.

a) object permanence
b) conservation
c) intuitive thought
d) centration

b) conservation

74

What is the term that Piaget used for the process in which one state is changed into another?

a) transformation
b) conservation
c) centration
d) concrete operations

a) transformation

75

If a 4 ½-year-old child is asked to draw a person who is first standing upright and then has fallen down, the child is likely to draw the figure in the vertical position, and then the figure lying in the horizontal position, with no other pictures in between to demonstrate the person falling. This child would be demonstrating a lack of

a) egocentric thought.
b) intuitive thought.
c) conservation.
d) transformation.

d) transformation.

76

According to Piaget, what is the major accomplishment of Substage 6?

a) children understand that a person or object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen
b) children are able to show purposeful acts with deliberate variety
c) children employ goal-directed behavior
d) children exhibit the capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought

d) children exhibit the capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought

77

Piaget calls an internal image of a past event or object a(n)

a) mental representation.
b) memory.
c) scheme.
d) pretending.

a) mental representation.

78

Baby Luke is playing with a bouncing ball in his playpen, and accidentally the ball bounces out of the playpen and rolls under a nearby chair. Luke tries to get his mother to retrieve his ball by pointing in the direction of where the ball went under the chair. Piaget would say this is an example of a(n)

a) mental manipulation.
b) attention.
c) mental representation.
d) scheme.

c) mental representation.

79

Which developmental psychologist believed that the nature of the partnership of children, adults, and peers is determined through cultural and societal factors such as preschools, play groups, and the emphasis on certain tasks that are valued by the culture and society—that even the toys that children play with reflect the nature of the society in which the child lives?

a) Piaget
b) Vygotsky
c) Watson
d) Skinner

b) Vygotsky

80

Which developmental psychologist believed that cognitive development is a result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation and working with mentors to solve problems?

a) Skinner
b) Piaget
c) Watson
d) Vygotsky

d) Vygotsky

81

Briefly describe criticism of Vygotsky’s theories.

Answer: Critics point to the lack of precision in his conceptualization of cognitive growth, such as the zone of proximal development. Vygotsky’s theories do not lend themselves to experimental tests. Vygotsky did not provide information regarding how basic cognitive processes, such as attention and memory, unfold in children, and he did not focus on how individual bits of information are processed and synthesized.

82

The main differences between Piagets theory and Vygotsky.

1. Piaget insisted that learning happens after development while Vygotsky pointed out that learning takes place before development can occur.

2. Piaget did not believe in the significance of inputs that can be acquired from the environment but Vygotsky was confident that kids do acknowledge the inputs from their environment.

3. Piaget’s cognitive development theory has four evident phases. Vygotsky assumed that there are no set of stages at all but only 3 components.

4.Vygotsky believed that development can’t be detached from social context unlike Piaget.

5.Vygotsky claimed that language plays an important role in cognitive development. Piaget only viewed language as a plain milestone in development.

83

The development of the sociocultural theory is attributed to
a) Skinner.
b) Bandura.
c) Vygotsky.
d) Bronfenbrenner.

c) Vygotsky.

84

Who proposed the sociocultural theory and was one of the first to recognize, acknowledge the importance of, and help us understand the varied influences that shape
development?
a) Rogers
b) Bandura
c) Vygotsky
d) Bronfenbrenner

c) Vygotsky

85

The concept of “reciprocal transaction” is attributed to what developmentalist and
theory?
a) Vygotsky; sociocultural
b) Freud; psychoanalytic
c) Skinner; behavioral
d) Rogers; humanistic

a) Vygotsky; sociocultural

86

Why has Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory become increasingly influential?

Answer: The reason is the growing acknowledgment of the importance of cultural factors in development. Children do not develop in a cultural vacuum, and their attention is
directed by society to certain areas that affect what particular skills they develop.

87

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a
result of ____________ between members of a culture.
a) behavior modifications
b) operant conditioning
c) social interactions
d) classical conditioning

c) social interactions

88

Which perspective contains the two major theories of Bronfenbrenner’s
bioecological approach and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory?
a) cognitive
b) humanistic
c) behavioral
d) contextual

d) contextual

89

Vygotsky believed that that actual physical items that a child uses to learn (pencils, books, computers, etc.) as well as the intellectual and conceptual framework that the child uses to learn (language, alphabet, number/math systems, religious systems, etc.) are called

a) memory aids.
b) definition aids.
c) cultural tools.
d) learning aids.

c) cultural tools.

90

When young children are using speech that is spoken and directed to themselves,
this is called
a) egocentric speech.
b) syntax.
c) fast mapping.
d) private speech.

d) private speech.

91

True or False

Private speech is the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others.

False

92

According to the three-system model, the ______________ is the initial process by which
information is very briefly held before further processing.
a) working memory
b) short-term memory
c) sensory store
d) photographic memory

c) sensory store

93

According to the three-system model, it is in the ______________ that thoughtful,
deliberate information processing first takes place.
a) sensory store
b) short-term memory
c) memory span
d) long-term memory

b) short-term memory

94

When information in memory is held for 15 to 25 seconds, it is called
a) short-term memory.
b) sequential memory.
c) sensory storage.
d) long-term memory.

a) short-term memory.

95

Mary looks at the phone number of her favorite pizza restaurant for a few seconds, and then walks into the other room to call to order. Mary remembers the phone number in its correct sequence. Mary is taking advantage of __________ memory.
a) short-term
b) sequential
c) sensory
d) long-term

a) short-term

96

When a middle school student is able to demonstrate that he/she is able to hear a
string of digits (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) and then repeat the string in reverse order several seconds
later, the child is indicating that he/she is developing
a) long-term memory skills.
b) working memory.
c) rehearsal strategies.
d) recall.

b) working memory.

97

_____ develop(s) more rapidly during early childhood, and _____ develop(s) more rapidly during middle and late childhood.

A. Long-term memory; short-term memory

B. Short-term memory; long-term memory

C. Knowledge; expertise

D. Expertise; knowledge

B. Short-term memory; long-term memory

98

Compared with other approaches, the information processing approach pays more
attention to ______________.
a) social and cultural factors in development
b) drawing a comprehensive picture of child development
c) the workings of memory, attention, and other mental activities
d) interior human processes, such as hopes and aspirations

c) the workings of memory, attention, and other mental activities

99

When information in memory is rehearsed and stored on a relatively permanent
basis, it is called __________ memory.
a) short-term
b) sequential
c) sensory
d) long-term

d) long-term

100

Infantile amnesia is defined as the lack of memory for experience that occurred
prior to
a) six months of age.
b) 12 months of age.
c) 3 years of age.
d) 2 years of age.

c) 3 years of age.

101

What are the following brain regions associated with?

Medial Temporal Lobe

Long term memory , hearing

102

What are the following brain regions associated with?

Hippocampus

Memory (long and short term) , emotions

103

A key brain structure that is often damaged in patients with anterograde amnesia is the

This is the correct answer.
A) hippocampus

B) cerebral cortex

C) hypothalamus

D) amygdala

A) hippocampus

104

What are the following brain regions associated with?

Prefrontal Cortex

Think, evaluate, make judgement

105

Your memory of Civil War history is an example of what type of memory?
A) working memory
B) episodic memory
C) semantic memory
D) short-term memory

C) semantic memory

106

Which type of memory is retrieved unconsciously?Example :How to walk
A) explicit memory
B) implicit memory
C) semantic memory
D) episodic memory

B) implicit memory

107

Your ability to use the mouse on computer is an example of what type of memory?Example :Talking
A) episodic memory
B) explicit memory
C) priming
D) procedural memory

D) procedural memory

108

Which type of memory requires conscious thought? Example: naming animals that live in the rain forest.
A) explicit memory
B) implicit memory
C) semantic memory
D) episodic memory

A) explicit memory

109

Which type of memory call facts or events that can be consciously recall? Example: Name you pet growing up.
A) explicit memory
B) implicit memory
C) declarative memory
D) episodic memory

C) declarative memory

110

Which type of memory call facts or events that can be consciously recall? Example: Name you pet growing up.
A) explicit memory
B) implicit memory
C) declarative memory
D) episodic memory

C) declarative memory

111

Conditioning

a)behavioral process whereby a response becomes more frequent as a result of a desired stimulus

b) the process of representing in memory specific features of objects and events

c) the maintenance of material saved in memory

d) material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used

a) behavioral process whereby a response becomes more frequent as a result of a desired stimulus

112

Storage

a)behavioral process whereby a response becomes more frequent as a result of a desired stimulus

b) the process of representing in memory specific features of objects and events

c) the maintenance of material saved in memory

d) material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used

c) the maintenance of material saved in memory

113

Encoding

a)behavioral process whereby a response becomes more frequent as a result of a desired stimulus

b) the process of representing in memory specific features of objects and events

c) the maintenance of material saved in memory

d) material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used

b) the process of representing in memory specific features of objects and events

114

Retrieval

a)behavioral process whereby a response becomes more frequent as a result of a desired stimulus

b) the process of representing in memory specific features of objects and events

c) the maintenance of material saved in memory

d) material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used

d) material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used

115

processing speed

a) the speed at which children execute basic processes increases greatly
b) another source of learning and memory
c) repeating info over and over to aid in memory

a) the speed at which children execute basic processes increases greatly

116

mental strategies

a) the speed at which children execute basic processes increases greatly
b) another source of learning and memory
c) repeating info over and over to aid in memory

b) another source of learning and memory

117

Rehearsal

a) the speed at which children execute basic processes increases greatly
b)mental strategies - another source of learning and memory
c) repeating info over and over to aid in memory

c) repeating info over and over to aid in memory

118

selective attention

a)intentionally focusing on info that is relevant to a certain goal

b) the ability to allocate attentional resources on the basis of goals that one wishes to achieve

c) pervasive emphasis on how children’s specific actions shape their development

d) grab and explore objects

a)intentionally focusing on info that is relevant to a certain goal

119

velcro experience

a)intentionally focusing on info that is relevant to a certain goal

b) the ability to allocate attentional resources on the basis of goals that one wishes to achieve

c) pervasive emphasis on how children’s specific actions shape their development

d) grab and explore objects

d) grab and explore objects

120

dynamic systems theory

a)intentionally focusing on info that is relevant to a certain goal

b) the ability to allocate attentional resources on the basis of goals that one wishes to achieve

c) pervasive emphasis on how children’s specific actions shape their development

d) grab and explore objects

c) pervasive emphasis on how children’s specific actions shape their development

121

Planning

a)intentionally focusing on info that is relevant to a certain goal

b) the ability to allocate attentional resources on the basis of goals that one wishes to achieve

c) pervasive emphasis on how children’s specific actions shape their development

d) grab and explore objects

b) the ability to allocate attentional resources on the basis of goals that one wishes to achieve

122

Self-organization

a) bringing together components as needed to adapt to a continuously changing environment
b) the components and their organization change from moment to moment and situation to situation
c) thinking that makes use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the likelihood of solving problems, forming inferences, and making decisions appropriately and successfully
d) understanding about the processes that underlie memory which emerges and improves during middle childhood

a) bringing together components as needed to adapt to a continuously changing environment

123

Metamemory

a) bringing together components as needed to adapt to a continuously changing environment
b) the components and their organization change from moment to moment and situation to situation
c) thinking that makes use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the likelihood of solving problems, forming inferences, and making decisions appropriately and successfully
d) understanding about the processes that underlie memory which emerges and improves during middle childhood

d) understanding about the processes that underlie memory which emerges and improves during middle childhood

124

critical thinking

a) bringing together components as needed to adapt to a continuously changing environment
b) the components and their organization change from moment to moment and situation to situation
c) thinking that makes use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the likelihood of solving problems, forming inferences, and making decisions appropriately and successfully
d) understanding about the processes that underlie memory which emerges and improves during middle childhood

c) thinking that makes use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the likelihood of solving problems, forming inferences, and making decisions appropriately and successfully

125

soft assembly

a) bringing together components as needed to adapt to a continuously changing environment
b) the components and their organization change from moment to moment and situation to situation
c) thinking that makes use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the likelihood of solving problems, forming inferences, and making decisions appropriately and successfully
d) understanding about the processes that underlie memory which emerges and improves during middle childhood

b) the components and their organization change from moment to moment and situation to situation

126

Mnemonics -

formal strategies for organizing material in ways that make it more likely to be remembered

127

Scripts -

general representation in memory of a sequence or series of events

128

The systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, which provides the basis for
communication, is called
a) sign language.
b) talking or speaking.
c) language.
d) expressiveness.

c) language

129

What is the term for the smallest language unit that has meaning?
a) morpheme
b) phonology
c) letter
d) symbol

a) morpheme

130

Alexander is 6-years-old, and although he pronounces most words clearly, he has difficulty pronouncing “j,” “v,” “th,” and “zh” sounds, which are examples of
a) metalinguistics.
b) phonemes.
c) word blends.
d) enunciation.

b) phonemes.

131

What term refers to the basic sounds of language that can be combined to produce
words and sentences?
a) symbols
b) letters
c) alphabet
d) phonemes

d) phonemes

132

The sound system of a language is referred to as:

A) phonology.

B) pragmatics.

C) semantics.

D) syntax.

A) phonology

133

Mary has difficulty sounding out words like "though" and "calendar." Her difficulties lie in which of the following aspects of language?

A) phonology

B) pragmatics

C) semantics

D) syntax

A) phonology

134

__________ are the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences.
a) Semantics
b) Extensions
c) Phonetics
d) Morphemes

a) Semantics

135

Which aspect of language deals with the meaning of words and sentences?

A) phonology

B) pragmatics

C) semantics

D) syntax

C) semantics

136

When middle-school-age children understand the rules of language that indicate how words and phrases can be combined to form sentences, this is called understanding
a) metalinguistic skills.
b) metacognition.
c) syntax.
d) phonemes.

c) syntax.

137

Edward said to his mother, "The mouse the cat the farmer chased killed at the cheese." After puzzling over this for a bit, Edward's mother said, "Do you mean 'The farmer chased the cat that killed the mouse that ate the cheese?'" "Yes," he replied. Edward was having a problem with:

A) semantics.

B) pragmatics.

C) syntax.

D) morphology

C) syntax.

138

What is the term for the system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be
expressed?
a) egocentric speech
b) fast mapping
c) private speech
d) grammar

d) grammar

139

At approximately what age can a child follow the principles of grammar most of the time?
a) 5 years
b) 3 years
c) 4 years
d) 6 years

b) 3 years

140

Which researcher developed the “nativist approach” and the concept of “universal grammar” to explain how children learn their language skills?
a) Skinner
b) Bandura
c) Chomsky
d) Bayley

c) Chomsky

141

The concept that all of the world’s languages share a similar underlying structure was created by ________ and is called ________.
a) Chomsky; universal grammar
b) Chomsky; the nativist approach
c) Skinner; the learning theory approach
d) Skinner; language-acquisition theory

a) Chomsky; universal grammar

142

True or False

Grammar is the system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed.

Answer: True

143

When middle-school-age children become more competent with the rules governing the use of language to communicate in a given social setting, they are demonstrating knowledge of
a) pragmatics.
b) syntax.
c) phonemes.
d) metalinguistic awareness

a) pragmatics.

144

When a young child begins to learn how to take turns in conversation, stay on topic, and give appropriate responses such as “please” and “thank you,” the child is demonstrating knowledge of
a) egocentric speech.
b) pragmatics.
c) social speech.
d) fast mapping.

b) pragmatics.

145

___________ is the aspect of language relating to communicating effectively and
appropriately with other.
a) Mapping
b) Comprehension
c) Dynamics
d) Pragmatics

d) Pragmatics

146

What is the term for the smallest language unit that has meaning?
a) morpheme
b) phonology
c) letter
d) symbol

a) morpheme

147

___________ is a universal phenomenon in which infants spontaneously produce all of
the sounds from every language.
a) Phonemic speech
b) Babbling
c) Telegraphic speech
d) Symbolism

b) Babbling

148

holophrastic speech

  1. cultural similarities, deaf children can babble too; making speech like but meaningless sounds; can distinguish it from other languages babbling
  2. one word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine meaning
  3. speech in which words not critical to the message are left out
  4. words used too restrictively

b. one word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine meaning

149

Babbling

  1. cultural similarities, deaf children can babble too; making speech like but meaningless sounds; can distinguish it from other languages babbling
  2. one word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine meaning
  3. speech in which words not critical to the message are left out
  4. words used too restrictively

a) cultural similarities, deaf children can babble too; making speech like but meaningless sounds; can distinguish it from other languages babbling

150

Identify the correct sequence of vocalization in infants.

A. Crying, babbling, cooing

B. Crying, cooing, babbling

C. Babbling, crying, cooing

D. Cooing, crying, babbling

B. Crying, cooing, babbling

151

Kevin loves to say "da, da, da, da" over and over again. What type of communication is Kevin using?

A. Crying

B. Cooing

C. Babbling

D. Gesturing

C. Babbling

152

telegraphic speech

  1. cultural similarities, deaf children can babble too; making speech like but meaningless sounds; can distinguish it from other languages babbling
  2. one word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine meaning
  3. speech in which words not critical to the message are left out
  4. words used too restrictively

c) speech in which words not critical to the message are left out

153

"Want ice cream", "Fall down", and "Mommy give cookie" are all examples of:

A. holophrases.

B. repetitive speech patterns.

C. telegraphic speech.

D. reflexive speech patterns.

C. telegraphic speech.

154

underextension

  1. cultural similarities, deaf children can babble too; making speech like but meaningless sounds; can distinguish it from other languages babbling
  2. one word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine meaning
  3. speech in which words not critical to the message are left out
  4. words used too restrictively

d) words used too restrictively

155

Two-year-old Sarai uses the word "doll" to refer to her own Cabbage Patch doll but does not use the word to refer to her sister's Barbie doll. Sarai's error is known as:

A. underextension.

B. telegraphic speech.

C. private speech.

D. overextension.

A. underextension.

156

fast mapping

  1. words used too broadly
  2. speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular
  3. the process in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter; by age 6 the average child has vocabulary of around 14,000 words; vocab acquired at rate of nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day
  4. the assumption that only one label can be applied to each object in early word learning.

c) the process in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter; by age 6 the average child has vocabulary of around 14,000 words; vocab acquired at rate of nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day

157

Overextension

  1. words used too broadly
  2. speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular
  3. the process in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter; by age 6 the average child has vocabulary of around 14,000 words; vocab acquired at rate of nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day
  4. the assumption that only one label can be applied to each object in early word learning.

a) words used too broadly

158

When Baby Sarah is riding in the car with her parents, she occasionally points at passing vehicles and calls out “see cars,” even though some of the vehicles are buses and
trucks. This is an example of _________ speech.
a) overextension
b) rehearsal
c) holophrases
d) telegraphic

a) overextension

159

What is the term for the overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning?
a) referential style
b) overextension
c) expressive style
d) telegraphic speech

b) overextension

160

Two-year-old Max says the word "bunny" for a large hamster and a white rat. Max's error is known as:

A. telegraphic speech.

B. underextension.

C. aphasia.

D. overextension.

D. overextension.

161

Overregularization

  1. words used too broadly
  2. speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular
  3. the process in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter; by age 6 the average child has vocabulary of around 14,000 words; vocab acquired at rate of nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day
  4. the assumption that only one label can be applied to each object in early word learning.

b) speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular

162

mutual exclusivity principle

  1. words used too broadly
  2. speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular
  3. the process in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter; by age 6 the average child has vocabulary of around 14,000 words; vocab acquired at rate of nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day
  4. the assumption that only one label can be applied to each object in early word learning.

d) the assumption that only one label can be applied to each object in early word learning.

163

the Wug study

  1. two _____ they were asked to finish the sentence; “there are two_____” the children knew the rules about plural nouns they also understood possessive forms of nouns and third-person singular and past-tense
  2. speech that is spoken and directed to oneself; serves to try out ideas, facilitates children’s behavior, serves a social function
  3. before the age 3; speak only for their own entertainment, unaware if anyone else can understand; before preschool years; direct their speech to others, want others to listen, frustrated when they are not understood, adapt their speech to others through pragmatics
  4. one of the most significant developments in middle childhood is children’s increasing understanding of their own use of language

a) two _____ they were asked to finish the sentence; “there are two_____” the children knew the rules about plural nouns they also understood possessive forms of nouns and third-person singular and past-tense

164

social speech

  1. two _____ they were asked to finish the sentence; “there are two_____” the children knew the rules about plural nouns they also understood possessive forms of nouns and third-person singular and past-tense
  2. speech that is spoken and directed to oneself; serves to try out ideas, facilitates children’s behavior, serves a social function
  3. before the age 3; speak only for their own entertainment, unaware if anyone else can understand; before preschool years; direct their speech to others, want others to listen, frustrated when they are not understood, adapt their speech to others through pragmatics
  4. one of the most significant developments in middle childhood is children’s increasing understanding of their own use of language

c) before the age 3; speak only for their own entertainment, unaware if anyone else can understand; before preschool years; direct their speech to others, want others to listen, frustrated when they are not understood, adapt their speech to others through pragmatics

165

What is the term for speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person?
a) social speech
b) pragmatics
c) syntax
d) private speech

a) social speech

166

True or False

Social speech is the term for speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person.

Answer: True

167

When four-year-old Jared plays, he often talks to himself. This form is self-talk is used for self-regulation. Developmentalists call this:

A. mindstream.

B. drawling.

C. lisping.

D. private speech.

D. private speech.

168

private speech

  1. two _____ they were asked to finish the sentence; “there are two_____” the children knew the rules about plural nouns they also understood possessive forms of nouns and third-person singular and past-tense
  2. speech that is spoken and directed to oneself; serves to try out ideas, facilitates children’s behavior, serves a social function
  3. before the age 3; speak only for their own entertainment, unaware if anyone else can understand; before preschool years; direct their speech to others, want others to listen, frustrated when they are not understood, adapt their speech to others through pragmatics
  4. one of the most significant developments in middle childhood is children’s increasing understanding of their own use of language

b) speech that is spoken and directed to oneself; serves to try out ideas, facilitates children’s behavior, serves a social function

169

True or False

Private speech is the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others.

Answer: False

170

When young children are using speech that is spoken and directed to themselves,
this is called
a) egocentric speech.
b) syntax.
c) fast mapping.
d) private speech.

d) private speech.

171

metalinguistic awareness

  1. two _____ they were asked to finish the sentence; “there are two_____” the children knew the rules about plural nouns they also understood possessive forms of nouns and third-person singular and past-tense
  2. speech that is spoken and directed to oneself; serves to try out ideas, facilitates children’s behavior, serves a social function
  3. before the age 3; speak only for their own entertainment, unaware if anyone else can understand; before preschool years; direct their speech to others, want others to listen, frustrated when they are not understood, adapt their speech to others through pragmatics
  4. one of the most significant developments in middle childhood is children’s increasing understanding of their own use of language

d) one of the most significant developments in middle childhood is children’s increasing understanding of their own use of language

172

What is the term for an understanding of one’s own use of language?
a) metamemory
b) comprehension
c) metalinguistic awareness
d) expressive/receptive communication

c) metalinguistic awareness

173

Almost every time Baby Will articulates the word “da,” his father picks him up
with joy, smiles, and praises his son for trying to say “dad.” The father’s behavior reinforces Will’s behavior, and this is an example of
a) the learning theory approach.
b) universal grammar.
c) the nativist approach.
d) infant-directed speech.

a) the learning theory approach.

174

Which researcher developed the “nativist approach” and the concept of “universal grammar” to explain how children learn their language skills?
a) Skinner
b) Bandura
c) Chomsky
d) Bayley

c) Chomsky

175

What is the term for the theory that a genetically-determined, innate mechanism
directs language development?
a) the learning theory approach
b) referential style
c) universal grammar
d) the nativist approach

d) the nativist approach

176

Which theory of language acquisition combines several schools of thought to
hypothesize that language development is produced through a combination of genetic
predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language?
a) universal grammar
b) interactionist approach
c) learning theory approach
d) language-acquisition device

b) interactionist approach

177

According to the __________________, language development comes about through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances.
a) environmental hypothesis
b) behavioral perspective
c) relativity hypothesis
d) interactionist approach

d) interactionist approach

178

Which researcher developed the “nativist approach” and the concept of “universal
grammar” to explain how children learn their language skills?
a) Skinner
b) Bandura
c) Chomsky
d) Bayley

c) Chomsky

179

The concept that all of the world’s languages share a similar underlying structure was created by ________ and is called ________.
a) Chomsky; universal grammar
b) Chomsky; the nativist approach
c) Skinner; the learning theory approach
d) Skinner; language-acquisition theory

a) Chomsky; universal grammar

180

Language

a)a similar underlying structure shared by all the world’s languages according to linguist Noam Chomsky

b) requires a human brain and human environment; full fledged language is achieved only by humans, but only if they have experience with other humans using language for communication.

c) nonhuman primates have been trained to use signs or other symbols after concentrated effort by humans, there appears to be little evidence that they have acquired syntax

b) requires a human brain and human environment; full fledged language is achieved only by humans, but only if they have experience with other humans using language for communication.

181

Universal Grammar

a) a similar underlying structure shared by all the world’s languages according to linguist Noam Chomsky

b) requires a human brain and human environment; full fledged language is achieved only by humans, but only if they have experience with other humans using language for communication.

c) nonhuman primates have been trained to use signs or other symbols after concentrated effort by humans, there appears to be little evidence that they have acquired syntax

a) a similar underlying structure shared by all the world’s languages according to linguist Noam Chomsky

182

language species

a) a similar underlying structure shared by all the world’s languages according to linguist Noam Chomsky

b) requires a human brain and human environment; full fledged language is achieved only by humans, but only if they have experience with other humans using language for communication.

c) nonhuman primates have been trained to use signs or other symbols after concentrated effort by humans, there appears to be little evidence that they have acquired syntax

c) nonhuman primates have been trained to use signs or other symbols after concentrated effort by humans, there appears to be little evidence that they have acquired syntax

183

What is the linguistic relativity hypothesis and who was an early researcher associated with it?

Language shapes and may even determine the way people of a certain culture perceive and understand the world (Worf 1958

184

A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called _____.

A. dysphagia

B. aphasia

C. autism

D. mutism

B. aphasia

185

_____ is an area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in speech production.

A. Broca's area

B. Wernicke's area

C. Morton's area

D. SMA area

A. Broca's area

186

_____ is an area in the left temporal lobe of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of speech.

A. Broca's area

B. SMA area

C. Morton's area

D. Wernicke's area

D. Wernicke's area

187

Your ability to process language in the left hemisphere and spatial thinking in the right hemisphere is called _____.

A. linearity

B. mastery

C. lateralization

D. learning

C. lateralization

188

Your ability to see faces and patterns with the right hemisphere of the brain and understand language with the left hemisphere is due to _____.

lateralization

189

Imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This period of time is called the:

A. receptive period.

B. sensitive period.

C. critical period.

D. bonding period.

C. critical period.

190

Vygotsky's theory emphasizes how _____ guides cognitive development.

A. culture and social interaction

B. biology

C. the unconscious mind

D. genetic makeup

A. culture and social interaction

191

Which theory of language acquisition combines several schools of thought to hypothesize that language development is produced through a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language?

a) universal grammar
b) interactionist perspective
c) learning theory approach
d) language-acquisition device

b) interactionist perspective

192

According to Schaie's stages of cognitive development, young adults' focus shifts from the future to the here-and-now as they enter the __________ stage.

a) responsible

b) achieving

c) reintegrative

d)acquisitive

b) achieving

193

According to the __________________, language development comes about through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances.

a) environmental hypothesis
b) behavioral perspective
c) relativity hypothesis
d) interactionist perspective

d) interactionist perspective

194

Affluent parents spend significantly more time ___________ their children than do parents who live in poverty.

a) lecturing
b) interacting with
c) prohibiting
d) shopping with

b) interacting with

195

As they grow older, children begin to recall memories in terms of ______________, which are general representations in memory of a sequence or series of events.

a) scripts
b) control strategies
c) metamemories
d) chunks

a) scripts

196

Bilingual speakers show _______________ than students who speak only one language.

a) more language confusion and poor grammar skills
b) greater cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic awareness
c) more emotional problems and lack of self-control
d) greater musical ability and telegraphic understanding

b) greater cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic awareness

197

Children's understanding of their own use of language, referred to as _____________, is one of the most significant developments in middle childhood.

a) linguistic comprehension
b) metalinguistic awareness
c) ongoing self-assessment
d) social pragmatics

b) metalinguistic awareness

198

Compared with other approaches, the information processing approach pays more attention to ______________.

a) social and cultural factors in development
b) drawing a comprehensive picture of child development
c) the workings of memory, attention, and other mental activities
d) interior human processes, such as hopes and aspirations

c) the workings of memory, attention, and other mental activities

199

Critics of Piaget note that his theory of cognitive development overlooks the _________________ systems that are present from early infancy.

a) intuitive and sequencing
b) motor and permanence
c) sensory and perceptual
d) memory and conservation

c) sensory and perceptual

200

In general, researchers believe that, compared to memory processing in adults, memory processing in young children is ______________.

a) more efficient for short-term, but less efficient for long-term, memory
b) generally similar
c) reliant on different components of memory
d) qualitatively different

b) generally similar

201

In infant-directed speech, parents tend to use twice as many _____________ with their daughters than with their sons.

a) diminutives
b) simple sentences
c) prohibitions
d) proper nouns

a) diminutives

202

In middle childhood, the use of both _________ and _________ increases.

a) gesturing; overextension
b) phonology; prohibitions
c) telegraphic speech; holophrases
d) passive voice; conditional sentences

d) passive voice; conditional sentences

203

In the months spanning their third birthday, the number of ways children combine words and phrases to form sentences, known as ________, doubles each month.

a) extension
b) semantics
c) syntax
d) expansion

c) syntax

204

One-word utterances, called _____________, stand for a whole phrase and derive their meaning from the context in which they are used.

a) holophrases
b) morphemes
c) semantics
d) underextensions

a) holophrases

205

Research suggests Piaget may have erred in asserting that preschoolers have little understanding of ___________, as shown by their inability to grasp conservation and reversibility.

a) the alphabet
b) numbers
c) object permanence
d) transformation

c) object permanence

206

Scaffolding involves helping children to __________________ appropriately.

a) think about and frame a task
b) read passages and answer questions
c) review and correct their work
d) work with peers in cooperative groups

a) think about and frame a task

207

The four stages of cognitive development, according to Piaget, are ____________.

a) sensorimotor, secondary circular, intuitive thought, and formal operational
b) primary, assimilation, concrete operational, and egocentric thought
c) simple reflex, preoperational, symbolic functional, and intuitive thought
d) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

d) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

208

The key difference between information processing and Piagetian approaches is that information processing approaches focus on ______________.

a) a smaller and less distinct number of stages
b) lifelong rather than infant development
c) permanent rather than temporary changes
d) quantitative rather than qualitative changes

c) permanent rather than temporary changes

209

The proposition that language shapes and may even determine the ways people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world is known as the

a) nativist-acquisition hypothesis.
b) universal-linguistic theory.
c) linguistic-relativity hypothesis.
d) learning theory approach.

c) linguistic-relativity hypothesis.

210

Vygotsky refers to the assistance or structuring provided by parents, teachers, or skilled peers as ____________.

a) scaffolding
b) modeling
c) nurturing
d) cooperation

a) scaffolding

211

Vygotsky viewed children as ______________ who learn cognitive strategies and other skills from adults and peer mentors.

a) blank slates
b) junior scientists
c) assimilators
d) apprentices

d) apprentices

212

Vygotsky's theory that children's comprehension of the world flows from their _________ is increasingly well-supported by research.

a) continual advance in motor skills
b) mental representations and schemes
c) interactions with adults and peers
d) concrete operational thinking

c) interactions with adults and peers

213

Which of the following summarizes the key principle of information processing theories of development?

a) Cognitive development in children is linked to distinct stages.
b) The quality of children's thinking changes significantly and suddenly as they develop.
c) With age and practice, children's thinking gradually becomes more sophisticated.
d) Developmental changes in children are more qualitative than quantitative.

c) With age and practice, children's thinking gradually becomes more sophisticated.

214

__________ are the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences.

a) Semantics
b) Extensions
c) Phonetics
d) Morphemes

a) Semantics

215

____________ is the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used.

a) Assessment
b) Recall
c) Retrieval
d) Application

c) Retrieval

216

______________ approaches to cognitive development seek to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information.

a) Information gathering
b) Data collecting
c) Automatization processing
d) Information processing

d) Information processing

217

______________ are stimuli, such as words, images, smells, or sounds, that people use to search and locate information stored in long-term memory.

a) Retrieval cues
b) Mnemonics
c) Information chunks
d) Memory modules

a) Retrieval cues

218

______________ is the ability to allocate attentional resources based on desired goals.

a) Planning
b) Attention
c) Control
d) Strategy

a) Planning