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1

Which of the following features is not unique to either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells?

a) a nucleoid

b) a mitochondriona

c) cell wall

d) a nucleus

c

2

A gene that has two alleles, A and a, is located on the same chromosome as a second gene that also has two alleles, B and b. Suppose a diploid individual has alleles AB on one copy of this chromosome and alleles ab on the other copy of this chromosome. For this individual, select the pair of recombinant genotypes that could result if crossing over occurs between these two chromosomes.

a) Ab and ab

b) AB and aB

c) AB and ab

d) Ab and aB

d

3

The predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus drills into a prey bacterium and, once inside, digests it. In an attack upon a gram-negative bacterium that has a slimy cell covering, what is the correct sequence of structures penetrated byB. bacteriophorus on its way to the prey's cytoplasm?

a) lipopolysaccharide membrane, capsule, peptidoglycan, phospholipid membrane

b) phospholipid membrane, capsule, peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide membrane

c) capsule, lipopolysaccharide membrane, peptidoglycan, phospholipid membrane

d) lipopolysaccharide membrane, peptidoglycan, capsule, phospholipid membrane

c

4

Jams, jellies, preserves, honey, and other foods with high sugar content hardly ever become contaminated by bacteria, even when the food containers are left open at room temperature. This is because bacteria that encounter such an environment ____.

a) are unable to metabolize the glucose or fructose, and thus starve to death

b) undergo death as a result of water loss from the cell

c) are obligate anaerobes

d) are unable to swim through these thick and viscous materials

b

5

A hypothetical bacterium swims among human intestinal contents until it finds a suitable location on the intestinal lining. It adheres to the intestinal lining using a feature that also protects it from phagocytes, bacteriophages, and dehydration. Fecal matter from a human in whose intestine this bacterium lives can spread the bacterium, even after being mixed with water and boiled. The bacterium is not susceptible to the penicillin family of antibiotics. It contains no plasmids and relatively little peptidoglycan.

This bacterium's ability to survive in a human who is taking penicillin pills may be due to the presence of ________.

a) peptidoglycan in the cell wall

b) long polypeptides in the cell wall

c) lipopolysaccharides in the cytoplasm

d) gram-negative cell wall

d

6

A hypothetical bacterium swims among human intestinal contents until it finds a suitable location on the intestinal lining. It adheres to the intestinal lining using a feature that also protects it from phagocytes, bacteriophages, and dehydration. Fecal matter from a human in whose intestine this bacterium lives can spread the bacterium, even after being mixed with water and boiled. The bacterium is not susceptible to the penicillin family of antibiotics. It contains no plasmids and relatively little peptidoglycan.

Adherence to the intestinal lining by this bacterium is due to its possession of _____.

a) fimbriaea

b) flagelluma

c) capsule

d) pili

c

7

A hypothetical bacterium swims among human intestinal contents until it finds a suitable location on the intestinal lining. It adheres to the intestinal lining using a feature that also protects it from phagocytes, bacteriophages, and dehydration. Fecal matter from a human in whose intestine this bacterium lives can spread the bacterium, even after being mixed with water and boiled. The bacterium is not susceptible to the penicillin family of antibiotics. It contains no plasmids and relatively little peptidoglycan.

In which feature should one be able to locate a complete chromosome of this bacterium?

a) nucleoid

b) nucleus

c) plasmid

d) mitochondrion

a

8

Which of the following observations about flagella is accurate and is consistent with the scientific conclusion that the flagella from eukaryotes and bacteria evolved independently?

a) The mechanics of movement and protein structure are the same in these flagella, but there are significant genetic differences.

b) Although the mechanism of movement in both flagella is the same, the protein that accomplishes the movement is different.

c) The protein structure and the mechanism of movement in eukaryotes flagella are different from those of bacteria flagella.

d) The flagella of both eukaryotes and bacteria are made of the same protein, but the configuration is different.

c

9

Which of the following observations about flagella is accurate and is consistent with the scientific conclusion that the flagella from archaea and bacteria evolved independently?

a) The mechanisms of rotation are similar.

b) The flagella of the two groups differ in size.

c) The protein structures in the flagella are different.

d) Both groups have flagella like those found in eukaryotes.

c

10

In a bacterium that possesses antibiotic resistance and the potential to persist through very adverse conditions, such as freezing, drying, or high temperatures, DNA should be located within, or be part of, which structures?

a) fimbriae, nucleoid, and endospore

b) plasmids, nucleoid, and endospore

c) nucleoid, fimbriae, and plasmids

d) endospore, fimbriae, and plasmids

b

11

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that targets prokaryotic (70S) ribosomes, but not eukaryotic (80S) ribosomes. Which of these questions stems from this observation, plus an understanding of eukaryotic origins?

a) Can chloramphenicol also be used to control human diseases that are caused by archaeans?

b) If chloramphenicol inhibits prokaryotic ribosomes, should it not also inhibit mitochondrial ribosomes?

c) Why aren't prokaryotic ribosomes identical to eukaryotic ribosomes?

d) Can chloramphenicol pass through the capsules possessed by many cyanobacteria?

b

12

What is the difference between an F+ donor and an Hfr donor?
a) The F+ donor has an F factor, but the Hfr donor does not.

b) The Hfr donor has an F plasmid, but the F+ donor does not.

c) The Hfr donor has an F factor integrated into its main chromosome, but the F+ donor does not.

d) The Hfr donor has an F factor, but the F+ donor does not.

c

13

What usually happens to the recipient cell following conjugation with an Hfr cell?
a) The recipient cell becomes an Hfr cell.

b) The recipient cell remains an F+cell.

c) The recipient cell remains an F- cell.

d) The recipient cell may become either an F+ or an Hfr cell.

c

14

Which of the following typically produces a recombinant F+ recipient cell?

a) conjugation between an F+ cell and an F- cell

b) conjugation between an Hfr cell and an F- cell

c) conjugation between two Hfr cells

d) conjugation between two F- cells

a

15

Which of the following could cause DNA from the main chromosome of a donor cell to be incorporated into the main chromosome of the recipient cell?

a) conjugation between an F+ cell and an F- cell

b) conjugation between two F+ cells

c) conjugation between an Hfr cell and an F- cell

d) conjugation between two F- cells

c

16

Suppose conjugation occurs between an Hfr cell and an F- cell. Although not typical, what would have to occur for the recipient cell to become an Hfr cell?

a) The entire F factor would have to be incorporated into the recipient cell’s chromosome.

b) The entire F factor would have to be transferred to the recipient cell.

c) A portion of the F plasmid would have to be transferred to the recipient cell.

d) A portion of the F factor would have to be incorporated into the recipient cell’s chromosome.

a

17

How does the large amount of genetic variation observed in prokaryotes arise? See Concept 27.2

a) The mutation rate in prokaryotes is much higher than in eukaryotes.

b) They have extremely short generation times and large populations.

c) They can exchange DNA with many types of prokaryotes by way of horizontal gene transfer.

d) They have a relatively small genome.

e) The second and third answers are correct.

e

18

Genes for the resistance of antibiotics are usually located __________. See Concept 27.2 (Page 576) View Available Hint(s)

a) in eukaryotic cells

b) on the outside of the cell wall

c) in mitochondria

d) on plasmids

e) on the main chromosome

d

19

If a bacterium regenerates from an endospore that did not possess any of the plasmids that were contained in its original parent cell, the regenerated bacterium will probably also lack ________.

a) water in its cytoplasma

b) chromosome

c) antibiotic-resistant genes

d) a cell wall

c

20

In a hypothetical situation, the genes for sex pilus construction and for tetracycline resistance are located on the same plasmid within a particular bacterium. If this bacterium readily performs conjugation involving a copy of this plasmid, then the result should be the _____.

a) production of endospores among the bacterium's progeny

b) subsequent loss of tetracycline resistance from this bacterium

c) temporary possession by this bacterium of a completely diploid genome

d) rapid spread of tetracycline resistance to other bacteria in that habitat

d

21

Which of the following is LEAST associated with the others?

a) horizontal gene transfer

b) binary fission

c) conjugation

d) transformation

b

22

Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes increases genetic variation. In prokaryotes, transformation, transduction, and conjugation are mechanisms that increase genetic variation. A fundamental difference between the generations of genetic variation in the two domains is:

a) Crossing over is a major mechanism in creating genetic variation in prokaryotes while independent assortment is a major mechanism is eukaryotes.

b) Eukaryotic genetic variation occurs with vertical gene transfer while prokaryotic genetic variation occurs with horizontal gene transfer.

c) Eukaryotes are able to generate mutations in response to environmental stress while prokaryotes only generate random variation.

d) Eukaryotic variation occurs primarily within a single generation while prokaryotic variation occurs over many generations.

b

23

In prokaryotes new mutations accumulate quickly in populations, while in eukaryotes new mutations accumulate much more slowly. The primary reasons for this are

a) Prokaryotes have short generation times and large population sizes.

b) Prokaryotes have random mutations while eukaryotes can target genes for mutations; thus mutations may not accumulate as quickly in eukaryotes but they are more useful to the organism.

c) The DNA in prokaryotes is not as stable as eukaryotic DNA and is thus more likely to mutate.

d) Prokaryote mutations are less effective than eukaryote mutations in providing variation for evolution.

a

24

Compared to eukaryotes, prokaryotes are ________.

a) more complex morphologically and more primitive

b) simpler morphologically and more evolutionarily primitive

c) less sensitive to the physical environment

d) simpler morphologically, but not more evolutionarily primitive

d

25

Which of the following is true of generalized bacteriophage transduction?

a) The bacteriophage packages fragments of bacterial DNA into new phage particles.

b) The bacteriophage must enter the lysogenic cycle.

c) The bacteriophage chromosome has a region homologous to the bacterial chromosome.

a

26

Bacteria that live around deep-sea, hot-water vents obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic hydrogen sulfide belched out by the vents. They use this energy to build organic molecules from carbon obtained from the carbon dioxide in seawater. These bacteria are _____. See Concept 27.3 (Page 579) View Available Hint(s)

a)chemoheterotrophs

b)photoautotrophs

c) photoheterotrophs

d) chemoautotrophs

d

27

Which statement is true about obligate anaerobes? See Concept 27.3 (Page 579) View Available Hint(s)

a) They obtain energy by oxidizing ferrous ions.

b)They are poisoned by O2.

c) They use O2 for cellular respiration and cannot grow without it.

d) They will use O2 if it is present, but can obtain energy by fermentation if needed.

e) They live exclusively by cellular respiration or by anaerobic respiration.

b

28

Biologists sometimes divide living organisms into two groups: autotrophs and heterotrophs. These two groups differ in ________.

a) the way that they generate ATP

b) their electron acceptors

c) their mode of inheritance

d) their sources of carbon

d

29

If plaque on teeth is actually a biofilm, which of the following characteristics would you expect to find in plaque?

a) single species of bacteria, production of chemicals that attract other bacteria, and production of chemicals that allow the bacteria to adhere to enamel

b) multiple species of bacteria, production of chemicals that attract other bacteria, and production of chemicals that allow the bacteria to adhere to enamel

c) single species of bacteria, production of antibiotics, and mechanisms in the biofilm that allow inner cells to expel wastes

d) multiple species of bacteria, production of antibiotics, and mechanisms in the biofilm that allow inner cells to expel wastes

b

30

For several decades now, amphibian species worldwide have been in decline. A significant proportion of the decline seems to be due to the spread of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Chytrid sporangia reside within the epidermal cells of infected animals, animals that consequently show areas of sloughed skin. They can also be lethargic, which is expressed through failure to hide and failure to flee. The infection cycle typically takes four to five days, at the end of which zoospores are released from sporangia into the environment. In some amphibian species, mortality rates approach 100%; other species seem able to survive the infection.

If infection primarily involves the outermost layers of adult amphibian skin, and if the chytrids use the skin as their sole source of nutrition, then which term best applies to the chytrids?

a) anaerobic chemoautotroph

b) aerobic chemoheterotroph

c) anaerobic chemoheterotroph

d) aerobic chemoautotroph

b

31

The prokaryotic cells that built stromatolites are classified as _____.

a) proteobacteria

b) chlamydias

c) spirochetes

d) gram-positive bacteria

e) cyanobacteria

e

32

The prokaryotic cells that were the first to add significant quantities of oxygen to Earth's atmosphere are classified as _____.

a)proteobacteria

b) chlamydias

c) spirochetes

d) gram-positive bacteria

e) cyanobacteria

e

33

Streptococcus pyogenes is classified with _____.

a) proteobacteria

b) chlamydias

c) spirochetes

d) gram-positive bacteria

e) cyanobacteria

d

34

Organisms that can cause nongonococcal urethritis are classified with _____.

a)proteobacteria

b) chlamydias

c) spirochetes

d) gram-positive bacteria

e) cyanobacteria

b

35

The chemoheterotroph Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped bacterium classified with _____.

a)proteobacteria

b) chlamydias

c) spirochetes

d) gram-positive bacteria

e) cyanobacteria

a

36

Spiral-shaped bacteria are likely to be placed with _____.

a)proteobacteria

b) chlamydias

c) spirochetes

d) gram-positive bacteria

e) cyanobacteria

c

37

The prokaryotic organisms most likely to be found living in salt ponds are the _____. See Concept 27.4 (Page 581) View Available Hint(s)

a)Korarchaeota

b)thermophiles

c) halophiles

d) extremophiles

e) methanogens

c

38

How are archaeans most similar to bacteria? See Concept 27.4 (Page 584) View Available Hint(s)

a) the occurrence of introns in their chromosomesthe

b) structure of their cell walls

c) methanogenesis

d) nucleotide sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA

e) the shape of their chromosomes and plasmids

e

39

While examining a rock surface, you have discovered an interesting new organism. Which of the following criteria will allow you to classify the organism as belonging to Bacteria but not Archaea or Eukarya?

a) Cell walls are made primarily of peptidoglycan.

b) It can survive at a temperature over 100°C.

c) The organism does not have a nucleus.

d) The lipids in its plasma membrane consist of glycerol bonded to straight-chain fatty acids.

a

40

Which of the following describe all existing bacteria?

a) morphologically diverse, metabolically diverse, extremophiles

b) extremophiles, tiny, abundant

c) tiny, ubiquitous, metabolically diverse

d) pathogenic, omnipresent, morphologically diverse

c

41

You have found a new prokaryote. What line of evidence would support your hypothesis that the organism is a cyanobacterium?

a) It is able to form colonies and produce oxygen.

b) It lacks cell walls.

c) It forms chains called mycelia.

d) It is an endosymbiont.

a

42

Which statement about the domain Archaea is accurate?

a) The genomes of archaeans are unique, containing no genes that originated within bacteria.

b) Genetic prospecting has recently revealed the existence of many previously unknown archaean species.

c) No archaeans can inhabit solutions that are nearly 30% salt.

d) No archaeans are adapted to waters with temperatures above the boiling point.

b

43

Which of the following traits do archaeans and bacteria share?

a) composition of the cell wall

b) presence of plasma membrane and composition of the cell wall

c) lack of a nuclear envelope and presence of plasma membrane

d) composition of the cell wall and lack of a nuclear envelope

c

44

A fish that has been salt-cured subsequently develops a reddish color. You suspect that the fish has been contaminated by the extreme halophile Halobacterium. Which of these features of cells removed from the surface of the fish, if confirmed, would support your suspicion?

a) cell walls that lack peptidoglycan and are isotonic to conditions on the surface of the fish

b) the presence of the same photosynthetic pigments found in cyanobacteria and cells that are isotonic to conditions on the surface of the fish

c) cells unable to survive salt concentrations lower than 9% and cells containing many ion pumps on the plasma membrane

d) the presence of the same photosynthetic pigments found in cyanobacteria and cell walls that lack peptidoglycan

a

45

Mitochondria are thought to be the descendants of certain alpha proteobacteria. They are, however, no longer able to lead independent lives because most genes originally present on their chromosomes have moved to the nuclear genome. Which phenomenon accounts for the movement of these genes?

a) horizontal gene transfer

b) conjugation

c) translation

d) plasmolysis

a

46

An ecological relationship between organisms of different species that are in direct contact can best be described as _____. See Concept 27.5 (Page 586) View Available Hint(s)

a)commensal

b) taxis

c) symbiotic

d) parasitic

e) mutualistic

c

47

If all prokaryotes on Earth suddenly vanished, which of the following would be the most likely and most direct result?

a)Human populations would thrive in the absence of disease.

b) The recycling of nutrients would be greatly reduced, at least initially.

c) There would be no more pathogens on Earth.

d) Bacteriophage numbers would dramatically increase.

b

48

Which statement about endotoxins is true? See Concept 27.6 (Page 586) View Available Hint(s)

a) Endotoxins are proteins secreted by prokaryotes.

b) Endotoxins are components of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria.

c) Endotoxins are released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down.

d) The source of endotoxins is endospores.

e) An example of a prokaryote that produces endotoxins is Clostridium botulinum.

c

49

Bioremediation is _____. See Concept 27.6 (Page 587) View Available Hint(s)

a) the use of prokaryotes in producing pharmaceutical products

b) the use of biological processes to remedy diseases

c) the modification of prokaryotes for industrial purposes

d) the use of organisms to remove pollutants from the environment

e) the use of prokaryotes in producing transgenic organisms

d

50

What is the goal of bioremediation?

a) to clean up areas polluted with toxic compounds by using bacteria

b) to improve bacteria for production of useful chemicals

c) to improve human health with the help of living organisms such as bacteria

d) to improve soil quality for plant growth by using bacteria

a

51

Foods can be preserved in many ways by slowing or preventing bacterial growth. Which of these methods should be least effective at inhibiting bacterial growth?

a)refrigeration: slows bacterial metabolism and growth

b) pickling: creates a pH at which most bacterial enzymes cannot function

c) closing previously opened containers: prevents more bacteria from entering, and excludes oxygen

d) canning in heavy sugar syrup: creates osmotic conditions that remove water from most bacterial cells

c

52

Genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from

a) meiosis.

b)mutation.

c) transformation.

d) conjugation.

e) transduction.

a

53

Photoautotrophs use

a) light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source.

b) N2 as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source.

c) light as an energy source and methane as a carbon source.

d) CO2 as both an energy source and a carbon source.

e) H2S as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source.

a

54

Which of the following statements is not true?

a) Archaea and bacteria have different membrane lipids.

b) Only some archaea use CO2 to oxidize H2, releasing methane.

c) Both archaea and bacteria generally lack membrane-enclosed organelles.

d) Only bacteria have histones associated with DNA.

e) The cell walls of archaea lack peptidoglycan.

d

55

Which of the following involves metabolic cooperation among prokaryotic cells?

a)photoautotrophy

b) endospore formation

c) endotoxin release

d) biofilms

e) binary fission

d

56

Plantlike photosynthesis that releases O2 occurs in

a)chemoautotrophic bacteria.

b)actinomycetes.

c) cyanobacteria.

d) archaea.

e) chlamydias.

c

57

Select the correct statement about bacteria.

a) Certain bacteria live within rocks kilometers below the Earth’s surface.

b) The majority of bacteria cause human disease.

c) All organisms with cells containing a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles are eukaryotes, whereas all organisms with cells lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles are bacteria.

a

58

Approximately how many prokaryotic cells live in 5 mL of fertile soil?

a) About 10 million prokaryotic cells

b) About 10,000 prokaryotic cells

c) About 100 million prokaryotic cells

c

59

Select the valid comparison between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

a) Eukaryotes are far more metabolically diverse than prokaryotes.

b) Prokaryote cells have simpler internal structure and genomic organization than eukaryotic cells.

c) The total biomass of eukaryotes is approximately ten times the total biomass of prokaryotes.

b

60

Identify the thylakoid membrane of the cyanobacterium shown here.
a) The thylakoid membrane of the cyanobacterium is a nucleoid membrane.

b) The thylakoid membrane of the cyanobacterium is a chloroplast membrane.

c) The thylakoid membrane of the cyanobacterium is an infolded plasma membrane.

c

61

Which of the following processes contributes to genetic recombination in prokaryotes?

a) Transduction

b) Mutation

c) Meiosis

a

62

Which of the following domains consists of all the organisms whose cells have true nuclei?

a) Bacteria

b) Eukarya

c) Archaea

d) Animalia

b

63

A diploid (2n) cell divides by meiosis, producing four daughter cells. Next, each daughter cell divides by mitosis, producing a total of eight granddaughter cells. Which of the following statements about the granddaughter cells is true?

a) Four of the granddaughter cells are genetically identical.

b) Each granddaughter cell is diploid (2n).

c) All of the granddaughter cells are genetically identical.

d) Each granddaughter cell is haploid (n).

d

64

Which of the following is true of secondary endosymbiosis? See Concept 28.1 (Page 593) View Available Hint(s)

a) It is indicated by the presence of a double membrane surrounding the endymbiont.

b) An organism containing one endosymbiont engulfs another organism, and that organism becomes an endosymbiont.

c) It is indicated by the presence of a nucleomorph.

d) An organism containing an endosymbiont is engulfed by another organism and becomes an endosymbiont.

e) It is indicated by the presence of a mixotroph.

d

65

According to the endosymbiotic theory, why was it adaptive for the larger (host) cell to keep the engulfed cell alive, rather than digesting it as food?

a) The host cell was able to survive anaerobic conditions with the engulfed cell alive.

b) The engulfed cell provided the host cell with adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

c) The engulfed cell provided the host cell with carbon dioxide.

d) The engulfed cell allowed the host cell to metabolize glucose.

b

66

The chloroplasts of land plants are thought to have been derived according to which evolutionary sequence?

a) cyanobacteria → green algae → fungi → land plants

b) red algae → brown algae → green algae land plants

c) cyanobacteria → red algae → green algae land plants

d) cyanobacteria → green algae → land plants

d

67

A particular species of protist has obtained a chloroplast via secondary endosymbiosis. You know this because the chloroplasts _____.

a) have nuclear and cyanobacterial genes

b) have only a single pigment

c) are exceptionally small

d) have three or four membranes

d

68

All protists are _____.

a)mixotrophic

b) eukaryotic

c) symbionts

d) unicellular

b

69

Consider the following data: (a) Most ancient eukaryotes are unicellular. (b) All eukaryotes alive today have a nucleus and cytoskeleton. (c) Most ancient eukaryotes lack a cell wall. Which of the following conclusions could reasonably follow the data presented? The first eukaryote may have been _____.

a) anaerobic

b) capable of phagocytosis

c) photosynthetic

d)very similar to a plant cell

b

70

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella ________.

a) contain their own DNA

b) have different structures

c) require different sources of energy

d) have the same evolutionary origin

b

71

Which of the following approaches would be most likely to cause evolution of a drug-resistant strain of Plasmodium?

a) use of a cocktail of three drugs in patients suffering from malaria

b) widespread, frequent use of a single drug in patients suffering from malaria

c) widespread use of anti-mosquito bed nets

d) widespread, frequent spraying to kill mosquitoes

b

72

Plasmodium exhibits consumption in its interactions with mosquitoes and humans. Which process is not an example of consumption?

a)Commensalism.

b) Herbivory.

c) Parasitism.

d) Predation.

a

73

Which form of Plasmodium is the immediate cause of anemia in humans?View Available Hint(s)

a)Diploid zygote.

b) Merozoites.

c) Sporozoites.

d) Gametocytes.

b

74

Which of the following statements about the Plasmodium parasite is true?

a) Plasmodium cells in the mosquito's saliva target red blood cells in a human and produce offspring that infect liver cells.

b) The diploid zygote undergoes meiosis and mitosis to produce haploid merozoites.

c) The diploid zygote moves from the infected human to the mosquito as part of the mosquito's blood meal.

d) Merozoites live off the hemoglobin and nutrients in red blood cells and divide to produce more merozoites, destroying red blood cells in the process.

d

75

How do humans combat infection by the Plasmodium parasite?View Available Hint(s)

a) Liver cells secrete the HLA-B53 protein, which binds to and inactivates Plasmodium cells in the bloodstream.

b) Plasmodium cells bind to liver cells that have the CP26 protein on their cell surface and form a complex that is targeted by cytotoxic T cells.

c) Cytotoxic T cells secrete anticoagulant to kill infected red blood cells.

d) Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected liver cells by recognizing a Plasmodium protein bound to an HLA protein on the surface of those cells.

d

76

The video describes a coevolutionary arms race between the Plasmodium parasite and its human hosts.

True or false? One example of a coevolutionary arms race is when faster deer evolve and favor wolves and cougars that have stronger eyesight and senses of smell.

a) True

b) False

a

77

When a mosquito infected with Plasmodium first bites a human, the Plasmodium _____.

a) oocyst undergoes meiosis

b) cells cause lysing of the human red blood cells

c) gametes fuse, forming an oocyst

d) cells infect the human liver cells

d

78

A sign on the beach states, "Beach Closed. Red Tide." The organisms interfering with your use of this beach are probably _____. See Concept 28.3 (Page 602) View Available Hint(s)

a)amoebas

b)ciliates

c) diatoms

d) dinoflagellates

e) species of red algae

d

79

Green algae differ from land plants in that many green algae _____.

a) have cell walls containing cellulose

b) have alternation of generations

c) have plastids

d) are unicellular

d

80

Previously recognized similarities that seemed to connect slime molds and fungi are now considered to be ________.

a) variations of common ancestral traits

b) homologies

c) examples of convergent evolution

d) adaptations for much different functions

c

81

Branching points at the root of the eukaryotic phylogenetic tree

a) suggest that Archaeplastids were the first eukaryotes

b) strongly suggest that fungi are more closely related to plants than animals

c) are presently unclear

d) reveal that unikonts are derived from the SAR clade

c

82

_____ are eukaryotic autotrophs that float near the surface of water and are the basis of the food chain. See Concept 28.6 (Page 612) View Available Hint(s)

a) Zooplankton

b) Slime molds

c) Phytoplankton

d) Cyanobacteria

e) Symbionts

c

83

Coral bleaching, which causes high coral mortality, has been occurring widely in coral reefs. Coral bleaching actually refers to the death of symbiotic dinoflagellates living within the corals. Why does coral bleaching cause the corals to die? See Concept 28.6 (Page 612) View Available Hint(s)

a) Dinoflagellates protect the corals from UV radiation.

b) Dinoflagellates secrete the calcium carbonate that forms the "exoskeleton" of coral animals.

c) Dinoflagellates attract zooplankton and other prey that the corals eat.

d) Dinoflagellates protect the corals from pathogenic bacteria.

e) Dinoflagellates provide nutrients from the products of photosynthesis to the corals in exchange for a safe place to live.

e

84

Living diatoms contain brownish plastids. If global warming causes blooms of diatoms in the surface waters of Earth's oceans, how might this be harmful to the animals that build coral reefs?

a) The coral animals, which capture planktonic organisms, may be outcompeted by the diatoms.

b) The coral animals may die from overeating the plentiful diatoms with their cases of silica.

c) The diatoms' photosynthetic output may over-oxygenate the water.

d) The coral animals' endosymbiotic dinoflagellates may get "shaded out" by the diatoms.

d

85

Which of the following organisms is a producer?

a) kinetoplastids

b) ciliates

c) diatoms

d) apicomplexans

c

86

Which of the following results would be most likely if a layer of warm, light water caused by ocean surface warming blocks nutrient upwelling?

a) increased populations of producers because they have access to more CO2

b) reduced populations of producers because they have access to fewer nutrients

c) increased populations of producers because fewer fish are produced, and they eat fewer producers

d) reduced populations of fish because they avoid warm water

b

87

Plastids that are surrounded by more than two membranes are evidence of

a) fusion of plastids.

b) budding of the plastids from the nuclear envelope.

c) origin of the plastids from archaea.

d) secondary endosymbiosis.

e) evolution from mitochondria.

d

88

Biologists suspect that endosymbiosis gave rise to mitochondria before plastids partly because

a) all eukaryotes have mitochondria (or their remnants), whereas many eukaryotes do not have plastids.

b) mitochondrial DNA is less similar to prokaryotic DNA than is plastid DNA.

c) without mitochondrial CO2 production, photosynthesis could not occur.

d) the products of photosynthesis could not be metabolized without mitochondrial enzymes.

e) mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, whereas plastids utilize their own ribosomes.

a

89

According to the phylogeny presented in this chapter, which protists are in the same eukaryotic supergroup as plants?

a) green algae

b) dinoflagellates

c) red algae

d) both A and C

d

90

In life cycles with an alternation of generations, multicellular haploid forms alternate with

a) multicellular polyploid forms.

b) multicellular haploid forms.

c) unicellular diploid forms.

d) unicellular haploid forms.

e) multicellular diploid forms.

e

91

Select the correct statement about photosynthesis by primary producers.

a) Cyanobacteria carry out more of the world’s photosynthesis than protists do.

b) Land plants carry out over 80% of the world’s photosynthesis.

c) Photosynthetic protists and prokaryotes carry out the majority of the photosynthesis in aquatic communities.

c

92

Which of the features below are found in all protist lineages?

a) Organelles that arose by secondary endosymbiosis.

b) Plastids

c) Mitochondria

c

93

Which group of organisms (ciliates, animals, or plants) has the most complex cells?

a) Ciliates

b) Animals

c) Plants

a

94

Which of the following chemical equations summarizes the reactions in photosynthesis?

a)LightEnergy+6CO2+6H2O→C6H12O6+6O2

b)C6H12O6+6O2→LightEnergy+6CO2+6H2O

c)LightEnergy+6O2+C6H12O6→6H2O+6CO2

d)6CO2+6O2→LightEnergy+C6H12O6+6H2O

a

95

If the diploid chromosome number of a sexually-reproducing species is 58, which of the following statements is true?

a) The haploid chromosome number is 29.

b) Each gamete contains 58 chromosomes.

c) The haploid chromosome number is 116.

d) There are 58 pairs of homologous chromosomes in each cell.

a

96

Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants?

a) roots and shoots

b) pollen

c) vascular tissue

d) embryo development within gametangia

e) chloroplasts

e

97

Which term below is the proposed kingdom that would include embryophytes and charophytes? See Concept 29.1(Page 617) View Available Hint(s)

a)Bryophyta

b)Viridiplantae

c) Plantae

d) Streptophyta

e) Pteridophyta

d

98

The closest algal relatives of land plants are _____. See Concept 29.1 (Page 620) View Available Hint(s)

a)psilophytes

b)charophytes

c) bacillariophytes

d) chrysophytes

e) rhodophytes

b

99

Which of the following traits was most important in enabling the first plants to move onto land?

a) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes

b) the development of sporopollenin to prevent the desiccation of zygotes

c) apical meristems

d) peroxisome enzymes that minimize losses from photorespiration

e) alternation of generations

b

100

Which of the following could occur only after plants moved from the oceans to land?

a) Animals could also move onto land because there were opportunities for new food sources.

b) Plants in the oceans were able to evolve forms that lived in much deeper parts of the oceans.

c) Cyanobacteria could also move onto land because their host plants occurred there.

d) Animals could also move onto land because they had easier access to nitrogen.

a

101

According to the fossil record, plants colonized terrestrial habitats _____.

a) only about 150 million years ago

b) in conjunction with insects that pollinated them

c) to escape abundant herbivores in the oceans

d) in conjunction with fungi that helped provide them with nutrients from the soil

d

102

Spores and seeds have basically the same functiondispersalbut are vastly different because spores ________.

a) have a protective outer covering; seeds do not

b) have stored nutrition; seeds do not

c) are unicellular; seeds are not

d) have an embryo; seeds do not

c

103

Retaining the zygote on the living gametophyte of land plants _____.

a) allows it to be nourished by the parent plant

b) helps in dispersal of the zygote

c) evolved concurrently with pollen

d) protects the zygote from herbivores

a

104

The structural integrity of bacteria is to peptidoglycan as the structural integrity of plant spores is to _____.

a) lignin

b) sporopollenin

c) secondary compounds

d) cellulose

b

105

According to our current knowledge of plant evolution, which group of organisms should feature cell division most similar to that of land plants?

a)some red algae

b) some charophytes

c) some cyanobacteria

d) some unicellular green algae

b

106

Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?

a)Pterophyta

b) Charophycea

c) Plantae

D) Bryophyta

c