chapter 25 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by locotezz
2,290 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

1) Chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones are called:

  1. a) Metabolism
  2. b) Anabolism
  3. c) Catabolism
  4. d) Metatheses
  5. e) Oxidation reactions

c

2

2) Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures are known as

  1. a) Metabolism
  2. b) Anabolism
  3. c) Catabolism
  4. d) Metatheses
  5. e) None of these choices

b

3

3) When the terminal phosphate is cut off of ATP what is formed?

  1. a) Adenosine diphosphate
  2. b) GTP
  3. c) Adenosine monophosphate
  4. d) Metabolic water
  5. e) Glucose

a

4

4) Oxidation is

  1. a) The removal of protons
  2. b) The removal of electrons
  3. c) The addition of protons
  4. d) The addition of electrons
  5. e) None of these choices

b

5

5) Reduction is the

  1. a) The removal of protons
  2. b) The removal of electrons
  3. c) The addition of protons
  4. d) The addition of electrons
  5. e) None of these choices

d

6

6) Which of the following is a derivative of riboflavin?

  1. a) NAD
  2. b) FAD
  3. c) Lactic acid
  4. d) Pyruvic acid
  5. e) ADP

b

7

7) Which of the following is NOT a form of phosphorylation?

  1. a) Reduction phosphorylation
  2. b) Substrate level phosphorylation
  3. c) Oxidative phosphorylation
  4. d) Photophosphorylation

e) None of these choices

a

8

8) Glycogenesis is NOT

  1. a) performed by the hepatocytes
  2. b) performed by muscle fibers
  3. c) one way to make glycogen
  4. d) one way to make glucose

e) only seen in the liver

d

9

9) Which process describes the synthesis of triglycerides?

  1. a) Gluconeogenesis
  2. b) Lipogenesis
  3. c) Phosphorylation
  4. d) Glycolysis
  5. e) Lipolysis

b

10

10) Which reaction describes the oxidization of acetyl CoA to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH + H+ and FADH2?

  1. a) Glycolysis
  2. b) Formation of acetyl co-A
  3. c) Krebs cycle
  4. d) Electron transport chain

e) Phosphorylation

c

11

11) Glycolysis, formation of acetyl CoA, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain are all involved in:

  1. a) Lipogensis
  2. b) Gluconeogenesis
  3. c) Glucose catabolism
  4. d) Formation of Glycogen
  5. e) Formation of vitamin C

c

12

12) Which of the following is the key regulator of the rate of glycolysis?

  1. a) ATP
  2. b) NADH
  3. c) Phosphofructokinase
  4. d) Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
  5. e) FAD

c

13

13) Where can pyruvate dehydrogenase be found?

  1. a) Cytosol of the cell
  2. b) Plasma membrane
  3. c) Lysozyme
  4. d) Mitochondria
  5. e) Interstitial fluid

d

14

14) The most important product of the reactions of the Krebs cycle is

  1. a) Carbon dioxide
  2. b) GTP
  3. c) Reduced coenzymes
  4. d) pyruvate
  5. e) water

c

15

15) The net result of the complete oxidation of glucose does NOT include:

  1. a) water
  2. b) carbon dioxide
  3. c) ATP
  4. d) oxygen
  5. e) waste heat

d

16

16) How many reactions take place during the Krebs cycle?

  1. a) 4
  2. b) 6
  3. c) 8
  4. d) 10
  5. e) 12

c

17

17) Accumulation of a large amount of H+ between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, is described as

  1. a) Proton pump
  2. b) Chemiosmosis
  3. c) Krebs cycle
  4. d) ATP synthesis
  5. e) Glycolysis

b

18

18) How many ATPs can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?

  1. a) 0
  2. b) 1
  3. c) 2
  4. d) 3
  5. e) 4

c

19

19) Which hormone stimulates glycogenesis?

  1. a) Insulin
  2. b) Glucase
  3. c) Estrogen
  4. d) Lactic acid
  5. e) Protease

a

20

20) Which hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?

  1. a) Insulin
  2. b) Human Growth hormone
  3. c) Epinephrine
  4. d) Thyroid hormone
  5. e) Cortisol

e

21

21) Glycogenolysis is [dropdown 1] and stimulated by [dropdown 2].

Dropdown 1 choices:

a)anabolic

b)catabolic

c)synthetic

d)dynamic

Dropdown 2 choices:

a)epinephrine

b)insulin

c)thyroid hormone

d)vitamins

b,a

22

22) Thyroid hormones:

  1. a) Aid in glycogenesis
  2. b) Inhibit gluconeogenesis
  3. c) Inhibit lipogenesis
  4. d) Promote glycolysis

e) Promote gluconeogenesis

e

23

23) Which of the following transports dietary lipids to adipose tissue?

  1. a) Apoproteins
  2. b) Low density lipoproteins
  3. c) Chylomicrons
  4. d) Very low density lipoproteins
  5. e) High density lipoproteins

c

24

24) Most cholesterol medications are designed to:

  1. a) Inhibit excretion of bile in the feces
  2. b) Promote the absorption of cholesterol
  3. c) Decrease the filtration of cholesterol
  4. d) Inhibit glucose absorption
  5. e) None of these choices

e

25

25) Where does glycolysis take place?

  1. a) Cytosol
  2. b) Plasma membrane
  3. c) Nucleus
  4. d) Mitochondria
  5. e) Golgi Apparatus

a

26

26) Where does the Krebs cycle take place?

  1. a) Cytosol
  2. b) Plasma membrane
  3. c) Nucleus
  4. d) Mitochondria
  5. e) Golgi Apparatus

d

27

27) Lipogenesis occurs when

  1. a) More calories are consumed than required for ATP need
  2. b) Fewer calories are consumed than required for ATP need
  3. c) More cholesterol is consumed than required for ATP need
  4. d) Less cholesterol is consumed than required for ATP need
  5. e) Gluconeogenesis fails

a

28

28) Excess amino acids in the body are

  1. a) Excreted in urine
  2. b) Excreted in feces
  3. c) Converted into glucose
  4. d) Stored as ATP
  5. e) Converted into proteins

c

29

29) Liver cells convert:

  1. a) Urea into ammonia
  2. b) Ammonia into lactic acid
  3. c) Lactic acid into urea
  4. d) Pyruvic acid into urea
  5. e) Ammonia into urea

e

30

30) Glucose-6-phosphate

  1. a) Can be used to make ribose-5-phosphate
  2. b) Can be dephosphorylated to glucose
  3. c) Can be used to synthesize glycogen
  4. d) Can be converted to pyruvic acid
  5. e) All of these choices

e

31

31) Which of the following is used in “metabolic crossroads”?

  1. a) Pyruvic acid
  2. b) Glycogen
  3. c) Ribose
  4. d) ATP
  5. e) Lipase

a

32

32) In the absorptive state

  1. a) Storage of energy is important
  2. b) Filtration is important
  3. c) Reabsorption is important
  4. d) Synthesis is important
  5. e) Production of heat is important

a

33

33) In the absorptive state, most glucose that enters the liver is converted to

  1. a) Pyruvic acid
  2. b) Glycogen
  3. c) Amino acids
  4. d) Insulin
  5. e) Glucase

b

34

34) Keto acids

  1. a) Can enter the Krebs cycle
  2. b) Are used for ATP production
  3. c) Can be used to make lipids
  4. d) Can enter the Krebs cycle or be used for ATP production
  5. e) Convert into aldehydes in the liver

d

35

35) Which of the following is NOT a postabsorptive state reaction?

  1. a) Breakdown of liver glycogen
  2. b) Lipogenesis
  3. c) Gluconeogenesis using lactic acid
  4. d) Gluconeogenesis using amino acids
  5. e) Protein catabolism

b

36

36) Cardiac muscles can produce ATP from

  1. a) Lactic acid
  2. b) Pyruvic acid
  3. c) Glucose-6-phosphate
  4. d) Proteins
  5. e) Lipids

a

37

37) The most dramatic metabolic change that occurs with fasting is

  1. a) Decrease in the formation of ketone bodies
  2. b) Increase in ATP production
  3. c) Inhibition of insulin
  4. d) Decrease in heart rate and blood pressure
  5. e) Increase in lipolysis

e

38

38) Why is Calorie sometimes spelled with a capital “C”?

  1. a) It is named after Dr. Calorie
  2. b) It is named for the country where it was discovered
  3. c) It is named after the province where it was discovered
  4. d) To distinguish it from the chemistry term calorie
  5. e) Because, at times, it represents a kilocalorie

e

39

39) Which of the following is a factor that does NOT affect heat production?

  1. a) Exercise
  2. b) Hormones
  3. c) Nervous system
  4. d) Ingestion of food
  5. e) Blood volume

e

40

40) Which of the following is a mechanism of heat transfer that involves direct contact?

  1. a) Conduction
  2. b) Convection
  3. c) Radiation
  4. d) Evaporation
  5. e) Metabolic rate

a

41

41) The higher the relative humidity

  1. a) The higher the rate of radiation
  2. b) The lower the rate of conduction
  3. c) The higher the rate of convection
  4. d) The lower the rate of thermoregulation
  5. e) The lower the rate of evaporation

e

42

42) The heat promoting center stimulates parts of the brain that

  1. a) Decrease smooth muscle tone
  2. b) Increase blood glucose
  3. c) Stimulate skeletal muscle activity (shivering)
  4. d) Inhibit the sympathetic division
  5. e) None of these choices are correct.

c

43

43) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the

  1. a) Anterior pituitary
  2. b) Hypothalamus
  3. c) Cerebral cortex
  4. d) Liver
  5. e) Kidney

b

44

44) Food induced thermogenesis

  1. a) accounts for 30% of total energy expended
  2. b) is known as insensible loss
  3. c) is inhibited by the hypothalamus
  4. d) is the opposite of ketosis
  5. e) None of these choices

e

45

45) Neuropeptide Y stimulates

  1. a) Release of insulin
  2. b) Inhibition of glucagons
  3. c) Thirst centers
  4. d) Thermogenesis
  5. e) Food intake

e

46

46) Which of the following is not a major nutrient the body needs?

  1. a) Carbohydrates
  2. b) Glycogen
  3. c) Proteins
  4. d) Minerals
  5. e) Vitamins

b

47

47) Provitamins are

  1. a) Building blocks of vitamins
  2. b) Broken down glucose molecules
  3. c) Derivatives of minerals
  4. d) Found only in the blood
  5. e) Not stored in the body

a

48

48) Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?

  1. a) Vitamin B
  2. b) Vitamin E
  3. c) Vitamin C
  4. d) Vitamin O
  5. e) None of these choices

b

49

49) Antioxidant vitamins

  1. a) Are found in plasma membranes
  2. b) Are vitamin derivatives
  3. c) Can inactivate oxygen free radicals
  4. d) Are all excreted in feces
  5. e) Are all stored in adipose cells

c

50

50) Briefly outline the possible fates of glucose in the body.

1) immediate oxidation for ATP production
2) synthesis of amino acids for protein synthesis
3) synthesis of glycogen for storage in liver and skeletal muscle
4) formation of triglycerides via lipogenesis for long term storage after glycogen stores are full
all of the above

e

51

57) Which of the following is NOT a fate that awaits glucose 6-phophate after it is formed in a cell?

  1. a) Synthesis of glycogen
  2. b) Release of glucose into the blood stream
  3. c) Synthesis of nucleic acids
  4. d) Glycolysis
  5. e) Gluconeogenesis

e

52

58) Which hormone(s) dominate(s) the absorptive state?

  1. a) Insulin
  2. b) Glucagon
  3. c) HGH
  4. d) All of these
  5. e) None of these

a

53

59) Which hormone is the primary hormone involved in protein breakdown in the postabsorptive state?

  1. a) Glucagon
  2. b) Epinephrine
  3. c) Cortisol
  4. d) Glucagon
  5. e) Thyroid Hormone

c

54

60) Which of the following helps the core temperature to increase?

  1. a) Constriction of blood vessels of the skin.
  2. b) Increase in cellular respiration.
  3. c) Shivering.
  4. d) Thyroid hormone induced increase in metabolic rate.
  5. e) All of these are methods for core temperature increase.

e

55

61) Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects the metabolic rate and the rate of heat production?

  1. a) Hormones
  2. b) Nervous system
  3. c) Food ingestion
  4. d) Age
  5. e) All of these are factors

e

56

62) Where is the body’s thermostat located?

  1. a) Cerebral cortex
  2. b) Preoptic area of the hypothalamus
  3. c) Postoptic area of the hypothalamus
  4. d) Thalamus
  5. e) Cerebellum

b

57

63) Which mineral is the most abundant mineral in the body?

  1. a) Calcium
  2. b) Sodium
  3. c) Magnesium
  4. d) Phosphorus
  5. e) Iron

a

58

64) Which nutrient is required by the thyroid gland to synthesize thyroid hormones?

  1. a) Calcium
  2. b) Magnesium
  3. c) Iodide
  4. d) Manganese
  5. e) Sodium

c

59

65) A patient is on a diuretic (water pill) to help combat hypertension. The medication is not potassium sparing. What side effects might the patient suffer?

  1. a) interference with ATP production
  2. b) weak bones
  3. c) interference with action potential generation
  4. d) anemia
  5. e) low levels of hydrochloric acid in the stomach

c

60

66) Which of the following is needed for the synthesis of thyroid hormones?

  1. a) Zinc
  2. b) Chromium
  3. c) Selenium
  4. d) Cobalt
  5. e) Copper

c

61

67) Which vitamin is essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the GI tract?

  1. a) A
  2. b) D
  3. c) E
  4. d) K
  5. e) C

b

62

68) An individual suffers from easily fractured bones. Which vitamin deficiency is he most likely experiencing?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

d

63

69) Which vitamin deficiency can result in hemolytic anemia?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

e

64

70) Which of the following disorders is a disorder in which protein intake is deficient despite normal or nearly normal caloric intake?

  1. a) Marasmus
  2. b) Kwashiorkor
  3. c) Bulimia
  4. d) Malnutrition
  5. e) None of these

b

65

71) An individual is living on a tropical island during a period where temperatures are much higher than normal. He decides to begin vigorous exercise. He is at serious risk of

  1. a) heat cramps
  2. b) heat exhaustion
  3. c) heat prostration
  4. d) heatstroke
  5. e) None of these choices are correct.

d

66

72) Which of the following is a protein-calorie under-nutrition that results in retarded growth, low weight, muscle wasting, emaciation, and dry skin?

  1. a) Marasmus
  2. b) Kwashiorkor
  3. c) Malnutrition
  4. d) Both Marasmus and Kwashiorkor
  5. e) Both Kwashiorkor and Malnutrition

a

67

73) Which of the following is a potential cause of hypothermia?

  1. a) Overwhelming cold stress
  2. b) Metabolic diseases
  3. c) Drugs
  4. d) All of these
  5. e) None of these

d

68

74) Which hormones are the main stimulating hormones in the postabsorptive state process of glycogenolysis?

  1. a) Epinephrine
  2. b) Glucagon
  3. c) Cortisol
  4. d) Epinephrine and Glucagon
  5. e) Glucagon and Cortisol

d

69

75) Which of the following would be an end product at the “metabolic crossroads”?

  1. a) Glucose 6-phosphate
  2. b) Pyruvic acid
  3. c) Acetyl coenzyme a
  4. d) Glycogen
  5. e) All of these are molecules at the “metabolic crossroads”

d

70

78) An excess intake of vitamin A is called [dropdown 1] and is characterized by several different symptoms, including [dropdown 2].

Dropdown 1 choices:

a)hypovitaminosis A

b)kwashiorkor

c)marasmus

d)hypervitaminosis A

e)bulimia

Dropdown 2 choices:

a)ringing in the ears

b)fever

c)diabetes

d)coma and death

e)blindness

d,d

71

79) A deficiency of vitamin B1 may cause

  1. a) pellagra
  2. b) pernicious anemia
  3. c) beriberi
  4. d) polyneuritis
  5. e) scurvy

c,d

72

80) A deficiency of chloride in the diet may cause

  1. a) difficulty digesting food
  2. b) water imbalance
  3. c) acid-base imbalance in the blood
  4. d) fragile bones and teeth
  5. e) deficient erythropoiesis

a,b,c

73

81) A diabetic who is not producing any insulin will suffer from impaired

  1. a) facilitated diffusion of glucose into cells
  2. b) active transport of amino acids into cells
  3. c) glycogenesis
  4. d) lipogenesis
  5. e) ketogenesis

a,b,c,d,

74

82) Certain individuals must avoid consuming diet foods that contain the artificial sweetener Aspartame. These individuals suffer from

e

75

83) A runner preparing for a marathon will practice carbohydrate loading prior to the event. This will help to

  1. a) reduce ketone production
  2. b) increase available glycogen
  3. c) maintain blood pH at normal levels
  4. d) increase endurance
  5. e) all of these

b

76

84) The deposition of cholesterol around smooth muscle fibers in arteries leads to fatty plaques that can cause serious damage or even death. Dietary changes should be employed to reduce the blood levels of

  1. a) high-density lipoproteins
  2. b) chylomicrons
  3. c) low-density lipoproteins
  4. d) essential fatty acids
  5. e) apoproteins

c

77

85) ATP production inside of cells is DIRECTLY affected by which disease?

  1. a) marasmus
  2. b) kwashiorkor
  3. c) diabetes mellitus
  4. d) phenylketonuria
  5. e) scurvy

c