The birth process occurs in stages
The stage of the birth process is the longest one
Which of the following is a feature of the first stage of birth?
Contractions causing the cervix to stretch and dilate to about 4 inches
At which stage of the birth process is the amniotic sac most likely to rupture?
The second stage of birth begins when the:
baby’s head starts to move through the cervix and the birth canal
The___________birth stage terminates when baby completely emerges from the mother’s
The major activity of the third birth stage is the:
expulsion of the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes
Which of the following statements is true about the third stage of birth?
It lasts only 10 min
Compared with physicians, certified nurse-midwives generally:
provide more emotional support
are drugs that are used to relieve pain
Katy, who is expecting her first baby, is in the 42nd week of her pregnancy. Her doctor has recommended that she be given _______to induce
Katy, who is expecting her first baby, is in the 42nd week of her pregnancy. Her doctor has recommended that she be given to induce
Which of the following is true with regard to anesthesia?
General anesthesia can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta.
Keesha is very keen on staying alert and conscious throughout the delivery process but she is experiencing a lot of pain during her labor. Her doctor suggests that the best option for her would be to receive a(n) to relieve her pain and retain awareness throughout the
Oxytocin is a synthetic hormone that
Which of the following is a current trend seen in the use of medication for childbirth in the United States?
- There is a widespread used of general anesthesia as it is medically
- There is moderate use of medication combined with techniques of natural or prepared
Which of the following is a current trend seen in the use of medication for childbirth in the United States?
There is moderate use of medication combined with techniques of natural or prepared
Natural childbirth is a method that was developed in 1914 by
Natural childbirth aims to reduce the mother’s pain by:
reducing her fears and increasing her ability to relax
The prepared childbirth method, which involves a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor, was developed by:
Natural childbirth and prepared childbirth are different from each other in that:
prepared childbirth focuses more on anatomy and physiology
Which of the following factors is not emphasized by prepared childbirth methods?
(Virtually all of the prepared childbirth methods emphasize education, relaxation and breathing exercises, and support)
Carlotta has just been told that her baby is in a breech position. This means that:
the baby’s potential respiratory problems need to be considered
The obstetrician has suggested that Whitney opt for a cesarean section to deliver her baby. Which of the following would be a good reason for Whitney’s doctor to recommend a cesarean section?
Whitney was experiencing severe vaginal bleeding
If the delivery takes too long, the baby can develop .
During the birth process, the baby’s body secretes large quantities of to help the baby withstand the stress of birth.
adrenaline and noradrenaline
When babies are born, they are covered with a protective skin grease called:
Which of the following is thought to help protect the baby’s skin against heat loss before and during birth?
The Apgar Scale rates infants’ responses in the areas of heart rate, respiratory effort,__________
muscle tone, reflex irritability, and body color
Which of the following is used to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth?
The Apgar Scale
The Apgar Scale involves newborns receiving a score of 0, 1, or 2 on five health signs, with a score of at least required to assume that the newborn’s condition is good
A total Apgar score of indicates there may be developmental difficulties.
A total Apgar score of signals an emergency and indicates that the baby might not survive.
Which of the following measures of neonatal health and responsiveness is typically performed within 24 to 36 hours after birth?
Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (NBAS) is used as a sensitive index of neurological competence up to one month after birth for typical infants and in many studies as a measure of infant development.
The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale is primarily used to determine a newborn’s:
neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people
The Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale is typically performed:
within 24 to 36 hours after birth.
By the time Taylor reached the hospital toward the end of the 38th week of conception, her baby had already moved down the birth canal and a cesarean section could not be conducted. Taylor had an extremely difficult and prolonged labor as her baby was in breech position. After doctors had successfully delivered her baby, they had to wait a bit before the baby cried. The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was conducted the next day and her baby obtained a very low score. Which of the following is true with regard to Taylor’s baby?
Taylor’s baby is highly likely to have experienced anoxia and related brain damage.
Which of the following instruments provides the most comprehensive analysis of the newborn’s behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities?
The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale
(NNNS) provides a more comprehensive analysis of the newborn’s behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities. Whereas the NBAS was developed to assess normal, healthy, full-term infants, the NNNS was developed by T. Berry Brazelton, along with Barry Lester and Edward Tronick, to assess the “at- risk” infant
Which of the following differentiates between the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)?
The NBAS was developed to assess normal, healthy, full-term infants, while the NNNS was developed to assess the “at-risk” infant.
A low birth weight infant weighs less than pounds at birth.
A very low birth weight infant weighs less than pounds at birth
An extremely low birth weight infant weighs less than pounds at birth
Kyle was born 34 weeks after conception and weighed about six pounds. He was a:
(Preterm infants are those born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached its full term—in other words, before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation (the time between fertilization and birth). Since Kyle was born 34 weeks after conception, he will be classified as a preterm infant.)
Babies are considered preterm if they are born:
before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation
In the developing world, low birth weight stems mainly from:
the mother’s poor health and nutrition
In developed countries, low birth weight stems mainly from:
cigarette smoking during pregnancy
Very preterm infants are those born:
between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation
Which of the following statements is true?
Low birth weight and preterm birth are associated with higher levels of brain injury
Two increasingly used interventions to nurture preterm babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are:
kangaroo care and massage therapy
Which of the following is true with regard to the postpartum period?
Primary caregiver experiences can result in a major loss of sleep in this period
Hyeree had a baby girl over a month ago. Hank, her husband has noticed that Hyeree cries and worries a lot nowadays. He has also noted that she is unable to sleep well and has been eating lesser than she normally does. She has been making many mistakes, forgetting routine tasks, and is having trouble coping with her daily tasks. Which of the following is true with regard to Hyeree’s current condition?
Hyeree should seek professional counseling as her depressive symptoms are strong and prolonged.
Emotional fluctuations in the first few weeks after childbirth most often:
abate on their own as they are common
When is postpartum depression most likely to occur?
About four weeks after delivery
Which of the following is true about postpartum depression?
Without treatment, postpartum depression may last for many months
Which of the following is an example of postpartum depression?
Dora told her doctor that she has been feeling extremely low and helpless ever since she had her baby two months back and often feels incapable of nurturing her baby well
Which of the following statements about bonding is accurate?
Drugs given to mothers during childbirth can negatively affect the bonding experience right after birth.
Brenda is very tired after the birth of her baby and wants the baby to stay in the nursery to allow her to recover from the birth. If the baby does spend this time away from Brenda, then:
Brenda will still be able to bond with her baby
The sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth and differentiation of features gradually working their way down from top to bottom is known as the pattern
The sensory and motor developments in infants generally proceed according to the principle
During pregnancy, the size of the head is half the size of the total body length when the fetus is:
In a new born baby, the size of the head is approximately the proportion of the total body length.
Proximodistal pattern of growth refers to:
the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the
Which of the following is an example of proximodistal pattern of growth?
Polly learning to grab the objects with her whole hands before learning to pick them up with her fingers
Which of the following is a syndrome that affects large number of babies in the United States, causes severe brain damage, and includes symptoms such as brain swelling and hemorrhaging?
Shaken baby syndrome
Which of the following brain imaging techniques has been successfully used by researchers to learn about the brain’s development in infancy?
he newborn’s brain is about 25 percent of its adult weight by birth; by the second birthday, the brain is about percent of its adult weight.
(However, the brain’s areas do not mature uniformly.)
Which of the following areas of the brain is farthest from the spinal cord and includes cerebral cortex?
The cerebral cortex covers the forebrain like a wrinkled cap.
The tissue that covers the forebrain like a wrinkled cap and includes two halves or hemispheres is called the .
The parietal lobes play an important role in:
registering spatial location, maintaining attention, and administering motor control
- The specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other is called
Which of the following functions is lateralized to the left hemisphere of the cortex in most human brains?
Speech and grammar
Which of the following functions is an outcome of communication between both hemispheres of the brain in normal people?
The________lobes of the cerebral cortex are involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, emotion, memory, sustained attention, and intentionality or
Which of the following is a dramatic change in the brain in infants in the first two years of life?
(increases the connections between neurons. Whereas myelination speeds up neural transmissions, the expansion of dendritic connections facilitates the spreading of neural pathways in infant development. The adult density of synapses is not achieved until middle to late adolescence)
The_______lobes of the cerebral cortex are involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, emotion, memory, sustained attention, and intentionality or
The unused synaptic connections will be replaced by other pathways or they disappear. In the language of neuroscience, these connections are said to be .
Myelination for visual pathways:
is completed in the first six months after
(Auditory myelination is not completed until 4 or 5 years of age)
In infants, in which of the following areas of brain, the peak of synaptic overproduction occurs at about the fourth postnatal month?
The region of the frontal lobe has the most prolonged development of any brain region, with changes detectable at least into emerging adulthood
Infants of 0 to 2 years of age sleep an average of hours a day.
Based on the studies conducted on infant sleep-related problems, which of the following factors will be linked to fewer infant sleep problems?
- Infant TV viewing
- Non-involvement of fathers in infant care
- Mother’s emotional availability
Early introduction of solid foods to infants
- In adulthood, individuals spend about of their night in REM
- Which of the following statements regarding the REM sleep is true?
In adults, REM sleep usually appears after non-REM
Adults spend about one-fifth of their night in REM sleep, and REM sleep usually appears about one hour after non-REM sleep. Infants often begin their sleep cycle with REM sleep rather than non-REM sleep. By the time infants reach 3 months of age, REM sleep no longer begins their sleep cycle. A much greater amount of time is taken up by REM sleep in infancy than at any other point in the life span
Which of the following is a high-risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?
Prone sleeping (lying flat, especially face downward)
Who among the following infants is more likely to suffer from SIDS?
Noah, who uses a pacifier when she goes to sleep
Ethan, who is suffering from sleep apnea
The nutrient need for infants recommended by nutritionists is approximately calories per day for each pound they
Which of the following conclusions is true based on the research conducted on benefits of breast feeding for the child?
It reduces gastrointestinal infections in infants
is a condition caused by severe protein-calorie deficiency and results in wasting away of body tissues in the infant’s first year
Which of the following conditions resulting from malnutrition can cause a child’s vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body of them?
Kwashiorkor, which occurs due to severe protein deficiency, causes a child’s vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body of them. The child’s hair becomes thin, brittle, and colorless, and the child’s behavior often becomes listless.
Ana, a two-year old baby girl appears to be well-fed but is deficient of certain important proteins. Her hair is thin, colorless, and brittle. Based on these symptoms, the doctor examining Ana, is likely to relate her condition to the disorder of .
Which of the following vaccinations is given to infants at birth?
The first dose of vaccination for influenza is given to infants at the age of
The immunization for polio is given till the age of:
полиомиелит - детский паралич
4 to 6 years
The “dynamic systems theory” was proposed by .
The dynamic systems view on motor development
According to the “ theory,” to develop motor skills, infants must perceive something in the environment that motivates them to act and use their perceptions to fine-tune their
John, a two-month old baby boy, turns his head toward the side, when his cheek is stroked in an effort to find something to suck. The type of reflex exhibited by John is known as the
Which of the following reflexes has a survival value for newborns as it enables them to get nourishment before they have associated a nipple with food?
- Sucking reflex
it also serves as a self-soothing or self-regulating mechanism.
When an infant is placed on back, it forms fists with both hands and usually turns head to the right. This reflex is known as the
Which of the following motor skills is achieved in the second year of life in infants?
- Climbing the steps
- Walking alone easily
Nathan, who is 10 months old, picks up small blocks using his thumb and forefinger. The type of grasp used by Nathan is called the
Which of the following is an example of a fine motor skill in infants?
Fine motor skills involve finely tuned movements. Grasping a toy, using a spoon, buttoning a shirt, or accomplishing anything that requires finger dexterity demonstrates fine motor skills.
The perceptual system used by infants to coordinate grasping varies with age. Four-month old infants rely greatly on to determine how they will grip an
The rays of light focused on the eyes are converted into electrical impulses by the
Which of the following views states that perception brings us into contact with the environment in order to interact with and adapt to it?
The ecological view
According to the Gibsons’ ecological view, we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us. Perception brings us into contact with the environment in order to interact with and adapt to it.
The method used to determine whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli is known as the method.
- visual preference (example happy faces)
Which of the following methods uses a sound generating system to assess an infant’s attention to sound?
High-amplitude sucking method
Alex was being a shown a sequence of objects which were of the same size and they all resembled a square. After sometime Alex lost interest in those objects. When they showed him a triangular object it suddenly caught his attention and he started looking at those objects again. This change in response in Alex is referred to as
- The recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation is known as_____________
- is a tendency in which sensory stimulation is changing but perception of the physical world remains
- Donna would perceive the chair as a different object, each time when the distance or the orientation of the chair was changed. This shows that Donna has not developed:
- perception of occluded
- perceptual constancy
4. generalized response.
- Which of the following tendencies, when developed by infants helps them recognize that an object remains the same even when the retinal image of the object changes when they move toward or away from the object?
- Shape constancy
- Orientation response
- Distance perception
4. Size constancy
Ethan was able to recognize the ice-cream cone to be cone shaped even when the orientation of the cone was changed a number of times. This shows that Ethan has achieved .
- is the perception of the frequency of a
Which of the following perceptions involves integrating information from two or more senses like vision and hearing?
- Auditory perception
- Visual perception
- Depth perception
In the field of perceptual development people who emphasize on learning and experience are called .
empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
- According to the nativist view on perceptual development:
- the ability to perceive the world in a competent, organized way is inborn or innate
- Ogden, a child psychologist, has an empiricist approach toward perceptual development. Ogden would agree with which of the following statements?
The ability of perception in infants is not innate but develops with learning and experience.
- Which of the following views states that perceptual development in infants is dependent on the development of a sequence of cognitive stages to construct more complex perceptual tasks?
- The ecological view
- The nativist view
- The constructivist view
4. The dynamic systems view
The Piaget’s constructivist view, which reflects an empiricist approach, states that much of the perceptual development in infancy must await the development of a sequence of cognitive stages in infants to construct more complex perceptual tasks.
What are the cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns? Give examples for each.
- Cephalocaudal pattern: The sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth and feature differentiation gradually working from top to
Example: Infants see objects before they can control their torso, and they can use their hands long before they can crawl or walk.
- Proximodistal pattern: The sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the
Example: Infants control the muscles of their trunk and arms before they control their hands and fingers, and they use their whole hands before they can control several fingers.
Describe any two diseases that can occur in infants due to malnutrition
Marasmus: Marasmus is caused by a severe protein-calorie deficiency and results in a wasting away of body tissues in the infant’s first year. The infant becomes grossly underweight and his or her muscles atrophy.
Kwashiorkor: Kwashiorkor, caused by severe protein deficiency, usually appears between 1 and 3 years of age. Children with kwashiorkor sometimes appear to be well fed even though they are not because the disease can cause the child’s abdomen and feet to swell with water. Kwashiorkor causes a child’s vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body of them. The child’s hair becomes thin, brittle, and colorless, and the child’s behavior often becomes listless.
Which of the following is true with regard to Piaget’s theory of infant development?
Piaget’s theory is a general, unifying story of how biology and experience sculpt cognitive development.
Piaget stressed that:
Piaget stressed that children actively construct their own cognitive worlds; information is not just poured into their minds from the environment.
- In Piaget’s theory, mental schemes first develop in .
- Assimilation occurs when children:
use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences
- In Piaget’s theory, is defined as the tendency of children to adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into
- In trying to understand the world, the child is constantly faced with inconsistencies and counterexamples to his or her existing schemes. This phenomenon is defined as .
- For Piaget, an internal search for equilibrium is most likely to result in:
the child experiencing renewed motivation to change and adapt
- A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next is known as .
- Richard is a five-month old baby. His parents frequently sit by his side to cuddle him or to speak to him in loud and affectionate tones. Richard seems to enjoy this attention very much and makes cooing sounds in response to his parents’ warm interactions with him. Richard’s act of cooing to obtain parental attention is a function of the substage given by
secondary circular reactions
- On Dora’s first birthday, one her aunts brought a set of lego basic bricks that she absolutely loves. Dora spends hours building, breaking, and rebuilding towers from the blocks and smiles widely whenever she discovers something new she can do with them. Dora’s preoccupation with manipulating the building blocks in different ways reflects a function of the sensorimotor substage of .
- tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity
- Which of the following mistakes is common in infants who are in the coordination of secondary circular reactions substage?
- A-not-B error
- Which of the following is an example of an A-not-B error?
- Daniel always looks below the bed when he cannot find his toy because that was the first place where his father had hidden his
- Research by Renée Baillargeon found that infants as young as 3 to 4 months expect objects to be
- Which of the following states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems?
The core knowledge approach
- Which of the following is a critique of the core knowledge approach?
- Infants come into the world with "soft biases to perceive and attend to different aspects of the environment, and to learn about the world in particular ”
The focusing of mental resources on select information that improves cognitive processing on many tasks is defined as .
- allows infants to learn about and remember characteristics of a stimulus as it becomes familiar.
Sustained attention (устойчивое, длительное, непрерывное)
is defined as the increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation.
_nfants’ attention to objects is strongly governed by the ______ and habituation.
novelty of the object
- occurs when individuals focus on the same object or event and are able to track each other’s behavior; one individual directs another’s attention, and reciprocal interaction is
- Joint attention
- Which of the following is a prerequisite condition for joint attention to occur?
- Reciprocal interaction
Explanation: Joint attention requires (1) an ability to track another’s behavior, such as following someone’s gaze; (2) one person directing another’s attention; and
(3) reciprocal interaction.
- Most adults can remember little if anything from the first three years of their life. This reflects the operation of .
- infantile amnesia
- Carol was about a year and a half old when her father, who was babysitting her for the day, noticed that she was brushing her hair with a rattle just the way his wife brushed her hair before she left about three hours back. Carol’s father was sure this was something new she had learnt. This is an example of .
- deferred imitation (to put off)
Deferred imitation is imitation that occurs after a delay of hours or days. Carol is displaying deferred imitation here.
- are defined as cognitive groupings of similar objects, events, people, or
- In the context of testing and assessment of infant development, the most important early contributor was .
- An overall score that combines the subscores in the four domains of Gesell assessment of infants is known as the .
- developmental quotient
- When compared to intelligence tests of older children, tests for infants are characterized by:
greater emphasis on social interaction in infants
- The ______ is correlated with measures of intelligence in older
- Fagan test
- Which of the following is the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a fixed set of words and rules?
- In English, the sound represented by the letter p, as in the words pot and spot, is a .
- The appropriate use of language in different contexts is known as .
- The strings of consonant (созвучный)-vowel combinations produced by babies in the middle of the first year is called .
- The gurgling sound made in the back of the throat by babies usually to express pleasure during interaction with the caregiver is known as .
Receptive vocabulary comprises of:
the words that the child understands but cannot speak
- Rachel looks at their neighbour walking their dog and exclaims “not monkey” in a loud and urgent tone. This is an example of:
two-word utterances (высказывание)
is an area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in producing words.
- Broca’s area
- When an individual experiences brain damage affecting his Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area, it leads to specific language deficiencies that are collectively referred to as .
- Lily was five when a car accident damaged a crucial portion of her brain that controlled language functioning. Following the accident, Lily was unable to speak though she could understand the meaning of the words being spoken to her. From the information provided in the scenario, we can infer that the brain damage Lily suffered affected her .
- Which of the following statements reflects the views of Noam Chomsky on language?
- Children are born with an innate device to learn
- is a term devised by Noam Chomsky that describes a biological endowment that enables the child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and
- Language acquisition device
- Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal, with simple words and sentences to communicate meaningfully and clearly is known as .
An interactionist view emphasizes that both and experience contribute to language development.
- Which of the following actions is desirable for parents to encourage language development in children?
Parents should understand that different children acquire language at different speeds.
- is defined as feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or
The aspect is at the forefront of emotion in infancy
- The emotions that appear in the first six months of the human infant’s development are known as the
- Which of these is a primary emotion according to Michael Lewis?
- When the cry of a baby is following a rhythmic pattern consisting of a cry, followed by a briefer silence, then a shorter inspiratory whistle that is somewhat higher in pitch than the main cry, then another brief rest before the next cry, then it is called the
- A basic cry in which excess air is forced through the vocal cords is knows as
The cry is triggered by a high-intensity stimulus
- Which of the following conditions is most likely to incite a basic cry?
- is critical as a means of developing a new social skill and is a key social
- Which of the following is the most frequent expression of an infant’s fear?
- Separation protest
- Transition apprehension
- Stranger anxiety
- Kagan’s unihibited children fall into which of the following dimensions of temperament according to Rothbart and Bates classification?
- Children included under which dimension of Rothbart and Bates’ classification are easily distressed?
- Negative affectivity
Negative affectivity includes “fear, frustration, sadness, and discomfort.” These children are easily distressed; they may fret and cry often.
- According to Rothbart and Bates’ classification of temperament, the category of temperament includes positive anticipation, impulsivity, activity level, and sensation seeking tendencies.
- Which of the following is one of the categories of temperament included in Rothbart and Bates’ classification of temperament?
- According to Rothbart and Bates’ classification of temperament, which of the following dimensions includes attentional focusing and shifting, inhibitory control, perceptual sensitivity, and low-intensity pleasure capabilities?
- Physiological characteristics have been linked with different
In particular a(n) temperament is associated with a unique physiological pattern that includes high and stable heart rate, high level of the hormone cortisol, and high activity in the right frontal lobe of the brain.
- Twenty five-month-old Allen is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Allen will most likely:
- touch his nose to wipe off the
- Who among the following psychiatrists argued that the child goes through a separation and then an individuation process in their theory on personality development?
- Margaret Mahler
- By______months of age infants respond to people differently from the way they do to objects, showing more positive emotion toward people than inanimate objects such as
- Which of the following helps infants to understand the intentions and goal-oriented behavior of others?
- Joint attention
According to Harry Harlow, infants’ attachment depends on:
- John Bowlby, on the basis of ethological evidence suggested that:
- both infants and their primary caregivers are biologically predisposed to form
- the critical element in attachment process of infants is constant care and contact
- infant’s sense of trust developed due to sensitive care is the foundation for
- According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, in the phase 1 of development:
- infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures.
- According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, in the phase 2 of development:
attachment becomes focused on one figure, usually the primary caregiver
- According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, when babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father, they are said to be in .
- According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, in the phase 4 of development:
infants are aware of others’ feelings and begin to take it into account in forming their actions.
- With reference to the “Strange Situation,” babies that use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment will be classified as
- securely attached
- In the Strange Situation, the babies who engage in no interaction with the caregiver are described as
- insecure avoidant
- securely attached
- insecure resistant
- With reference to the “Strange Situation,” babies often cling to the caregiver and then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or pushing
- insecure resistant
- With reference to the “Strange Situation,” babies that show strong patterns of avoidance and resistance, or display behaviors like extreme fearfulness around the caregiver will be classified as
- When put on the floor to play, Lillian cries as if she wants to be held. When her mother picks her up, Lillian pushes her away with both arms and turns her head away. Mary Ainsworth would say that Lillian is a(n)
- insecure resistant
- The Strange Situation developed by Mary Ainsworth is an observational measure of .
- infant attachment
Caregivers of insecure disorganized babies
often neglect or physically abuse them.
- Which of the following factors is most likely to be linked to secure attachment in infants?
- Maternal sensitivity
Which of the following statements is true regarding the attachment theory?
- It ignores the diversity of socializing agents and contexts that exists in an infant’s
- In which of the following cultures grandmothers and siblings provide a significant care to infants?
- Hausa culture
- Which of the following neuropeptide hormones has an important role in the formation of maternal infant bond?
- Research on the role of hormones and neurotransmitters in attachment has emphasized the importance of two neuropeptide hormones—oxytocin and —in the formation of the maternal- infant bond.
- Which of the following terms refers to the collection of neurons in the forebrain that are involved in pleasure?
- Nucleus accumbens
- Reciprocal socialization occurs when:
- children and parents socialize each
- Which of the following terms refers to adjusting the level of guidance to fit the child’s performance?
- Caregiver-infant games like peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake exemplify .