Chapter 4,5,6,7. Children Flashcards


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1

The birth process occurs in stages

3

2

The stage of the birth process is the longest one

first

3

Which of the following is a feature of the first stage of birth?

Contractions causing the cervix to stretch and dilate to about 4 inches

4

At which stage of the birth process is the amniotic sac most likely to rupture?

Stage one

5

The second stage of birth begins when the:

baby’s head starts to move through the cervix and the birth canal

6

The___________birth stage terminates when baby completely emerges from the mother’s

second

7

The major activity of the third birth stage is the:

expulsion of the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes

8

Which of the following statements is true about the third stage of birth?

It lasts only 10 min

9

Compared with physicians, certified nurse-midwives generally:

provide more emotional support

10

are drugs that are used to relieve pain

Analgesics

11

Katy, who is expecting her first baby, is in the 42nd week of her pregnancy. Her doctor has recommended that she be given _______to induce

oxitocics

12

Katy, who is expecting her first baby, is in the 42nd week of her pregnancy. Her doctor has recommended that she be given to induce

oxytocics

13

Which of the following is true with regard to anesthesia?

General anesthesia can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta.

14

Keesha is very keen on staying alert and conscious throughout the delivery process but she is experiencing a lot of pain during her labor. Her doctor suggests that the best option for her would be to receive a(n) to relieve her pain and retain awareness throughout the

analgesic

15

Oxytocin is a synthetic hormone that

stimulates contractions

16

Which of the following is a current trend seen in the use of medication for childbirth in the United States?

  1. There is a widespread used of general anesthesia as it is medically
  2. There is moderate use of medication combined with techniques of natural or prepared

17

Which of the following is a current trend seen in the use of medication for childbirth in the United States?

There is moderate use of medication combined with techniques of natural or prepared

18

Natural childbirth is a method that was developed in 1914 by

Grantly Dick-Read

19

Natural childbirth aims to reduce the mother’s pain by:

reducing her fears and increasing her ability to relax

20

The prepared childbirth method, which involves a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor, was developed by:

Ferdinand Lamaze

21

Natural childbirth and prepared childbirth are different from each other in that:

prepared childbirth focuses more on anatomy and physiology

22

Which of the following factors is not emphasized by prepared childbirth methods?

Medication

(Virtually all of the prepared childbirth methods emphasize education, relaxation and breathing exercises, and support)

23

Carlotta has just been told that her baby is in a breech position. This means that:

the baby’s potential respiratory problems need to be considered

24

The obstetrician has suggested that Whitney opt for a cesarean section to deliver her baby. Which of the following would be a good reason for Whitney’s doctor to recommend a cesarean section?

Whitney was experiencing severe vaginal bleeding

25

If the delivery takes too long, the baby can develop .

anoxia

26

During the birth process, the baby’s body secretes large quantities of to help the baby withstand the stress of birth.

adrenaline and noradrenaline

27

When babies are born, they are covered with a protective skin grease called:

vernix caseosa

28

Which of the following is thought to help protect the baby’s skin against heat loss before and during birth?

vernix caseosa

29

The Apgar Scale rates infants’ responses in the areas of heart rate, respiratory effort,__________

muscle tone, reflex irritability, and body color

30

Which of the following is used to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth?

The Apgar Scale

31

The Apgar Scale involves newborns receiving a score of 0, 1, or 2 on five health signs, with a score of at least required to assume that the newborn’s condition is good

7

32

A total Apgar score of indicates there may be developmental difficulties.

4-6

33

A total Apgar score of signals an emergency and indicates that the baby might not survive.

0-3

34

Which of the following measures of neonatal health and responsiveness is typically performed within 24 to 36 hours after birth?

Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (NBAS) is used as a sensitive index of neurological competence up to one month after birth for typical infants and in many studies as a measure of infant development.

35

The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale is primarily used to determine a newborn’s:

neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people

36

The Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale is typically performed:

within 24 to 36 hours after birth.

37

By the time Taylor reached the hospital toward the end of the 38th week of conception, her baby had already moved down the birth canal and a cesarean section could not be conducted. Taylor had an extremely difficult and prolonged labor as her baby was in breech position. After doctors had successfully delivered her baby, they had to wait a bit before the baby cried. The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was conducted the next day and her baby obtained a very low score. Which of the following is true with regard to Taylor’s baby?

Taylor’s baby is highly likely to have experienced anoxia and related brain damage.

38

Which of the following instruments provides the most comprehensive analysis of the newborn’s behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities?

The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale

(NNNS) provides a more comprehensive analysis of the newborn’s behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities. Whereas the NBAS was developed to assess normal, healthy, full-term infants, the NNNS was developed by T. Berry Brazelton, along with Barry Lester and Edward Tronick, to assess the “at- risk” infant

39

Which of the following differentiates between the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)?

The NBAS was developed to assess normal, healthy, full-term infants, while the NNNS was developed to assess the “at-risk” infant.

40

A low birth weight infant weighs less than pounds at birth.

5.5

41

A very low birth weight infant weighs less than pounds at birth

3.5

42

An extremely low birth weight infant weighs less than pounds at birth

2.0

43

Kyle was born 34 weeks after conception and weighed about six pounds. He was a:

preterm baby

(Preterm infants are those born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached its full term—in other words, before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation (the time between fertilization and birth). Since Kyle was born 34 weeks after conception, he will be classified as a preterm infant.)

44

Babies are considered preterm if they are born:

before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation

45

In the developing world, low birth weight stems mainly from:

the mother’s poor health and nutrition

46

In developed countries, low birth weight stems mainly from:

cigarette smoking during pregnancy

47

Very preterm infants are those born:

between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation

48

Which of the following statements is true?

Low birth weight and preterm birth are associated with higher levels of brain injury

49

Two increasingly used interventions to nurture preterm babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are:

kangaroo care and massage therapy

50

Which of the following is true with regard to the postpartum period?

Primary caregiver experiences can result in a major loss of sleep in this period

51

Hyeree had a baby girl over a month ago. Hank, her husband has noticed that Hyeree cries and worries a lot nowadays. He has also noted that she is unable to sleep well and has been eating lesser than she normally does. She has been making many mistakes, forgetting routine tasks, and is having trouble coping with her daily tasks. Which of the following is true with regard to Hyeree’s current condition?

Hyeree should seek professional counseling as her depressive symptoms are strong and prolonged.

52

Emotional fluctuations in the first few weeks after childbirth most often:

abate on their own as they are common

53

When is postpartum depression most likely to occur?

About four weeks after delivery

54

Which of the following is true about postpartum depression?

Without treatment, postpartum depression may last for many months

55

Which of the following is an example of postpartum depression?

Dora told her doctor that she has been feeling extremely low and helpless ever since she had her baby two months back and often feels incapable of nurturing her baby well

56

Which of the following statements about bonding is accurate?

Drugs given to mothers during childbirth can negatively affect the bonding experience right after birth.

57

Brenda is very tired after the birth of her baby and wants the baby to stay in the nursery to allow her to recover from the birth. If the baby does spend this time away from Brenda, then:

Brenda will still be able to bond with her baby

58

The sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth and differentiation of features gradually working their way down from top to bottom is known as the pattern

cephalocaudal

59

The sensory and motor developments in infants generally proceed according to the principle

cephalocaudal

60

During pregnancy, the size of the head is half the size of the total body length when the fetus is:

two-months old

61

In a new born baby, the size of the head is approximately the proportion of the total body length.

1/4

62

Proximodistal pattern of growth refers to:

the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the

63

Which of the following is an example of proximodistal pattern of growth?

Polly learning to grab the objects with her whole hands before learning to pick them up with her fingers

64

Which of the following is a syndrome that affects large number of babies in the United States, causes severe brain damage, and includes symptoms such as brain swelling and hemorrhaging?

Shaken baby syndrome

65

Which of the following brain imaging techniques has been successfully used by researchers to learn about the brain’s development in infancy?

Electroencephalogram

66

he newborn’s brain is about 25 percent of its adult weight by birth; by the second birthday, the brain is about percent of its adult weight.

75

(However, the brain’s areas do not mature uniformly.)

67

Which of the following areas of the brain is farthest from the spinal cord and includes cerebral cortex?

The cerebral cortex covers the forebrain like a wrinkled cap.

  1. Hindbrain
  2. Midbrain
  3. Forebrain

4. Hypothalamus

68

The tissue that covers the forebrain like a wrinkled cap and includes two halves or hemispheres is called the .

cerebral cortex

69

The parietal lobes play an important role in:

registering spatial location, maintaining attention, and administering motor control

70
  1. The specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other is called

.

lateralization

71

Which of the following functions is lateralized to the left hemisphere of the cortex in most human brains?

Speech and grammar

72

Which of the following functions is an outcome of communication between both hemispheres of the brain in normal people?

Performing music

73

The________lobes of the cerebral cortex are involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, emotion, memory, sustained attention, and intentionality or

frontal

74

Which of the following is a dramatic change in the brain in infants in the first two years of life?

Dendritic connectivity

(increases the connections between neurons. Whereas myelination speeds up neural transmissions, the expansion of dendritic connections facilitates the spreading of neural pathways in infant development. The adult density of synapses is not achieved until middle to late adolescence)

75

The_______lobes of the cerebral cortex are involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, emotion, memory, sustained attention, and intentionality or

frontal

76

The unused synaptic connections will be replaced by other pathways or they disappear. In the language of neuroscience, these connections are said to be .

pruned

77

Myelination for visual pathways:

is completed in the first six months after

(Auditory myelination is not completed until 4 or 5 years of age)

78

In infants, in which of the following areas of brain, the peak of synaptic overproduction occurs at about the fourth postnatal month?

visual cortex

79

The region of the frontal lobe has the most prolonged development of any brain region, with changes detectable at least into emerging adulthood

predrontal

80

Infants of 0 to 2 years of age sleep an average of hours a day.

12.8

81

Based on the studies conducted on infant sleep-related problems, which of the following factors will be linked to fewer infant sleep problems?

  1. Infant TV viewing
  2. Non-involvement of fathers in infant care
  3. Mother’s emotional availability

Early introduction of solid foods to infants

82
  1. In adulthood, individuals spend about of their night in REM

1/5

83
  1. Which of the following statements regarding the REM sleep is true?

In adults, REM sleep usually appears after non-REM

Adults spend about one-fifth of their night in REM sleep, and REM sleep usually appears about one hour after non-REM sleep. Infants often begin their sleep cycle with REM sleep rather than non-REM sleep. By the time infants reach 3 months of age, REM sleep no longer begins their sleep cycle. A much greater amount of time is taken up by REM sleep in infancy than at any other point in the life span

84

Which of the following is a high-risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?

Prone sleeping (lying flat, especially face downward)

85

Who among the following infants is more likely to suffer from SIDS?

Noah, who uses a pacifier when she goes to sleep

Ethan, who is suffering from sleep apnea

86

The nutrient need for infants recommended by nutritionists is approximately calories per day for each pound they

50

87

Which of the following conclusions is true based on the research conducted on benefits of breast feeding for the child?

It reduces gastrointestinal infections in infants

88

is a condition caused by severe protein-calorie deficiency and results in wasting away of body tissues in the infant’s first year

  1. Marasmus

2. Kwashiorkor

89

Which of the following conditions resulting from malnutrition can cause a child’s vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body of them?

  1. Marasmus

2. Kwashiorkor

Kwashiorkor, which occurs due to severe protein deficiency, causes a child’s vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body of them. The child’s hair becomes thin, brittle, and colorless, and the child’s behavior often becomes listless.

90

Ana, a two-year old baby girl appears to be well-fed but is deficient of certain important proteins. Her hair is thin, colorless, and brittle. Based on these symptoms, the doctor examining Ana, is likely to relate her condition to the disorder of .

Kwashiorkor

91

Which of the following vaccinations is given to infants at birth?

воспаление печени

Hepatitis B

92

The first dose of vaccination for influenza is given to infants at the age of

грипп

2 months

93

The immunization for polio is given till the age of:

полиомиелит - детский паралич

4 to 6 years

94

The “dynamic systems theory” was proposed by .

Esther Thelen

The dynamic systems view on motor development

95

According to the “ theory,” to develop motor skills, infants must perceive something in the environment that motivates them to act and use their perceptions to fine-tune their

dynamic systems

96

John, a two-month old baby boy, turns his head toward the side, when his cheek is stroked in an effort to find something to suck. The type of reflex exhibited by John is known as the

rooting

97

Which of the following reflexes has a survival value for newborns as it enables them to get nourishment before they have associated a nipple with food?

  1. Sucking reflex

it also serves as a self-soothing or self-regulating mechanism.

98

When an infant is placed on back, it forms fists with both hands and usually turns head to the right. This reflex is known as the

tonic neck

99

Which of the following motor skills is achieved in the second year of life in infants?

  1. Climbing the steps
  2. Walking alone easily

100

Nathan, who is 10 months old, picks up small blocks using his thumb and forefinger. The type of grasp used by Nathan is called the

pincer

101

Which of the following is an example of a fine motor skill in infants?

grasping

Fine motor skills involve finely tuned movements. Grasping a toy, using a spoon, buttoning a shirt, or accomplishing anything that requires finger dexterity demonstrates fine motor skills.

102

The perceptual system used by infants to coordinate grasping varies with age. Four-month old infants rely greatly on to determine how they will grip an

touch

103

The rays of light focused on the eyes are converted into electrical impulses by the

retina

104

Which of the following views states that perception brings us into contact with the environment in order to interact with and adapt to it?

The ecological view

According to the Gibsons’ ecological view, we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us. Perception brings us into contact with the environment in order to interact with and adapt to it.

105

The method used to determine whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli is known as the method.

  1. visual preference (example happy faces)

106

Which of the following methods uses a sound generating system to assess an infant’s attention to sound?

High-amplitude sucking method

107

Alex was being a shown a sequence of objects which were of the same size and they all resembled a square. After sometime Alex lost interest in those objects. When they showed him a triangular object it suddenly caught his attention and he started looking at those objects again. This change in response in Alex is referred to as

dishabituation

108
  1. The recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation is known as_____________

dishabituation

109
  1. is a tendency in which sensory stimulation is changing but perception of the physical world remains

Perceptual constancy

110
  1. Donna would perceive the chair as a different object, each time when the distance or the orientation of the chair was changed. This shows that Donna has not developed:
  1. perception of occluded
  2. perceptual constancy
  3. orienting

4. generalized response.

111
  1. Which of the following tendencies, when developed by infants helps them recognize that an object remains the same even when the retinal image of the object changes when they move toward or away from the object?
  1. Shape constancy
  2. Orientation response
  3. Distance perception

4. Size constancy

112

Ethan was able to recognize the ice-cream cone to be cone shaped even when the orientation of the cone was changed a number of times. This shows that Ethan has achieved .

shape constancy

113
  1. is the perception of the frequency of a
  1. Loudness
  2. Pitch
  3. Rhythm

Localization

114

Which of the following perceptions involves integrating information from two or more senses like vision and hearing?

  1. Auditory perception
  2. Visual perception
  3. Depth perception

Intermodal perception

115

In the field of perceptual development people who emphasize on learning and experience are called .

empiricists

empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

116
  1. According to the nativist view on perceptual development:
  1. the ability to perceive the world in a competent, organized way is inborn or innate

117
  1. Ogden, a child psychologist, has an empiricist approach toward perceptual development. Ogden would agree with which of the following statements?

The ability of perception in infants is not innate but develops with learning and experience.

118
  1. Which of the following views states that perceptual development in infants is dependent on the development of a sequence of cognitive stages to construct more complex perceptual tasks?
  1. The ecological view
  2. The nativist view
  3. The constructivist view

4. The dynamic systems view

The Piaget’s constructivist view, which reflects an empiricist approach, states that much of the perceptual development in infancy must await the development of a sequence of cognitive stages in infants to construct more complex perceptual tasks.

119

What are the cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns? Give examples for each.

  1. Cephalocaudal pattern: The sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth and feature differentiation gradually working from top to

Example: Infants see objects before they can control their torso, and they can use their hands long before they can crawl or walk.

  1. Proximodistal pattern: The sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the

Example: Infants control the muscles of their trunk and arms before they control their hands and fingers, and they use their whole hands before they can control several fingers.

120

Describe any two diseases that can occur in infants due to malnutrition

Marasmus: Marasmus is caused by a severe protein-calorie deficiency and results in a wasting away of body tissues in the infant’s first year. The infant becomes grossly underweight and his or her muscles atrophy.

Kwashiorkor: Kwashiorkor, caused by severe protein deficiency, usually appears between 1 and 3 years of age. Children with kwashiorkor sometimes appear to be well fed even though they are not because the disease can cause the child’s abdomen and feet to swell with water. Kwashiorkor causes a child’s vital organs to collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body of them. The child’s hair becomes thin, brittle, and colorless, and the child’s behavior often becomes listless.

121

Which of the following is true with regard to Piaget’s theory of infant development?

Piaget’s theory is a general, unifying story of how biology and experience sculpt cognitive development.

122

Piaget stressed that:

Piaget stressed that children actively construct their own cognitive worlds; information is not just poured into their minds from the environment.

123
  1. In Piaget’s theory, mental schemes first develop in .
  1. childhood

124
  1. Assimilation occurs when children:

use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences

125
  1. In Piaget’s theory, is defined as the tendency of children to adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into
  1. accommodation

126
  1. In trying to understand the world, the child is constantly faced with inconsistencies and counterexamples to his or her existing schemes. This phenomenon is defined as .
  1. disequilibrium

127
  1. For Piaget, an internal search for equilibrium is most likely to result in:

the child experiencing renewed motivation to change and adapt

128
  1. A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next is known as .

equilibration

129
  1. Richard is a five-month old baby. His parents frequently sit by his side to cuddle him or to speak to him in loud and affectionate tones. Richard seems to enjoy this attention very much and makes cooing sounds in response to his parents’ warm interactions with him. Richard’s act of cooing to obtain parental attention is a function of the substage given by

secondary circular reactions

130
  1. On Dora’s first birthday, one her aunts brought a set of lego basic bricks that she absolutely loves. Dora spends hours building, breaking, and rebuilding towers from the blocks and smiles widely whenever she discovers something new she can do with them. Dora’s preoccupation with manipulating the building blocks in different ways reflects a function of the sensorimotor substage of .
  1. tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

131
  1. Which of the following mistakes is common in infants who are in the coordination of secondary circular reactions substage?
  1. A-not-B error

132
  1. Which of the following is an example of an A-not-B error?
  1. Daniel always looks below the bed when he cannot find his toy because that was the first place where his father had hidden his

133
  1. Research by Renée Baillargeon found that infants as young as 3 to 4 months expect objects to be

.

  1. substantial

134
  1. Which of the following states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems?

The core knowledge approach

135
  1. Which of the following is a critique of the core knowledge approach?
  1. Infants come into the world with "soft biases to perceive and attend to different aspects of the environment, and to learn about the world in particular ”

136

The focusing of mental resources on select information that improves cognitive processing on many tasks is defined as .

attention

137
  1. allows infants to learn about and remember characteristics of a stimulus as it becomes familiar.

Sustained attention (устойчивое, длительное, непрерывное)

138

is defined as the increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation.

Dishabituation

139

_nfants’ attention to objects is strongly governed by the ______ and habituation.

novelty of the object

140
  1. occurs when individuals focus on the same object or event and are able to track each other’s behavior; one individual directs another’s attention, and reciprocal interaction is
  1. Joint attention

141
  1. Which of the following is a prerequisite condition for joint attention to occur?
  1. Reciprocal interaction

Explanation: Joint attention requires (1) an ability to track another’s behavior, such as following someone’s gaze; (2) one person directing another’s attention; and

(3) reciprocal interaction.

142
  1. Most adults can remember little if anything from the first three years of their life. This reflects the operation of .
  1. infantile amnesia

143
  1. Carol was about a year and a half old when her father, who was babysitting her for the day, noticed that she was brushing her hair with a rattle just the way his wife brushed her hair before she left about three hours back. Carol’s father was sure this was something new she had learnt. This is an example of .
  1. deferred imitation (to put off)

Deferred imitation is imitation that occurs after a delay of hours or days. Carol is displaying deferred imitation here.

144
  1. are defined as cognitive groupings of similar objects, events, people, or

Concepts

145
  1. In the context of testing and assessment of infant development, the most important early contributor was .

Arnold Gesell

146
  1. An overall score that combines the subscores in the four domains of Gesell assessment of infants is known as the .
  1. developmental quotient

147
  1. When compared to intelligence tests of older children, tests for infants are characterized by:

greater emphasis on social interaction in infants

148
  1. The ______ is correlated with measures of intelligence in older
  1. Fagan test

149
  1. Which of the following is the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a fixed set of words and rules?

Infinite generativity

150
  1. In English, the sound represented by the letter p, as in the words pot and spot, is a .

phoneme

151
  1. The appropriate use of language in different contexts is known as .
  1. pragmatics

152
  1. The strings of consonant (созвучный)-vowel combinations produced by babies in the middle of the first year is called .

babbling

153
  1. The gurgling sound made in the back of the throat by babies usually to express pleasure during interaction with the caregiver is known as .
  1. cooing

154

Receptive vocabulary comprises of:

the words that the child understands but cannot speak

155
  1. Rachel looks at their neighbour walking their dog and exclaims “not monkey” in a loud and urgent tone. This is an example of:

two-word utterances (высказывание)

156

is an area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in producing words.

  1. Broca’s area

157
  1. When an individual experiences brain damage affecting his Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area, it leads to specific language deficiencies that are collectively referred to as .
  1. aphasia

158
  1. Lily was five when a car accident damaged a crucial portion of her brain that controlled language functioning. Following the accident, Lily was unable to speak though she could understand the meaning of the words being spoken to her. From the information provided in the scenario, we can infer that the brain damage Lily suffered affected her .

Broca's area

159
  1. Which of the following statements reflects the views of Noam Chomsky on language?
  1. Children are born with an innate device to learn

160
  1. is a term devised by Noam Chomsky that describes a biological endowment that enables the child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and
  1. Language acquisition device

161
  1. Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal, with simple words and sentences to communicate meaningfully and clearly is known as .

child-directed speech

162

An interactionist view emphasizes that both and experience contribute to language development.

biology

163
  1. Which of the following actions is desirable for parents to encourage language development in children?

Parents should understand that different children acquire language at different speeds.

164
  1. is defined as feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or

emotion

165

The aspect is at the forefront of emotion in infancy

  1. communication

166
  1. The emotions that appear in the first six months of the human infant’s development are known as the

primary

167
  1. Which of these is a primary emotion according to Michael Lewis?
  1. Pride
  2. Empathy
  3. Surprise

4. Guilt

168
  1. When the cry of a baby is following a rhythmic pattern consisting of a cry, followed by a briefer silence, then a shorter inspiratory whistle that is somewhat higher in pitch than the main cry, then another brief rest before the next cry, then it is called the

basic

169
  1. A basic cry in which excess air is forced through the vocal cords is knows as

anger

170

The cry is triggered by a high-intensity stimulus

pain

171
  1. Which of the following conditions is most likely to incite a basic cry?

hunger

172
  1. is critical as a means of developing a new social skill and is a key social

smiling

173
  1. Which of the following is the most frequent expression of an infant’s fear?
  1. Separation protest
  2. Transition apprehension
  3. Stranger anxiety

Social consciousness

174
  1. Kagan’s unihibited children fall into which of the following dimensions of temperament according to Rothbart and Bates classification?
  1. Extraversion/surgency

175
  1. Children included under which dimension of Rothbart and Bates’ classification are easily distressed?
  1. Negative affectivity

Negative affectivity includes “fear, frustration, sadness, and discomfort.” These children are easily distressed; they may fret and cry often.

176
  1. According to Rothbart and Bates’ classification of temperament, the category of temperament includes positive anticipation, impulsivity, activity level, and sensation seeking tendencies.
  1. extraversion/surgency

177
  1. Which of the following is one of the categories of temperament included in Rothbart and Bates’ classification of temperament?

Effortful control

178
  1. According to Rothbart and Bates’ classification of temperament, which of the following dimensions includes attentional focusing and shifting, inhibitory control, perceptual sensitivity, and low-intensity pleasure capabilities?

Effortful control

179
  1. Physiological characteristics have been linked with different

In particular a(n) temperament is associated with a unique physiological pattern that includes high and stable heart rate, high level of the hormone cortisol, and high activity in the right frontal lobe of the brain.

inhibited

180
  1. Twenty five-month-old Allen is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Allen will most likely:
  1. touch his nose to wipe off the

181
  1. Who among the following psychiatrists argued that the child goes through a separation and then an individuation process in their theory on personality development?
  1. Margaret Mahler

182
  1. By______months of age infants respond to people differently from the way they do to objects, showing more positive emotion toward people than inanimate objects such as

2-3 months

183
  1. Which of the following helps infants to understand the intentions and goal-oriented behavior of others?
  1. Joint attention

184

According to Harry Harlow, infants’ attachment depends on:

contact comfort

185
  1. John Bowlby, on the basis of ethological evidence suggested that:
  1. both infants and their primary caregivers are biologically predisposed to form
  2. the critical element in attachment process of infants is constant care and contact
  3. infant’s sense of trust developed due to sensitive care is the foundation for

186
  1. According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, in the phase 1 of development:
  1. infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures.

187
  1. According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, in the phase 2 of development:

attachment becomes focused on one figure, usually the primary caregiver

188
  1. According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, when babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father, they are said to be in .

phase 3

189
  1. According to Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment, in the phase 4 of development:

infants are aware of others’ feelings and begin to take it into account in forming their actions.

190
  1. With reference to the “Strange Situation,” babies that use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment will be classified as
  1. securely attached

191
  1. In the Strange Situation, the babies who engage in no interaction with the caregiver are described as
  1. insecure avoidant
  2. securely attached
  3. insecure resistant

insecure disorganized

192
  1. With reference to the “Strange Situation,” babies often cling to the caregiver and then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or pushing
  1. insecure resistant

193
  1. With reference to the “Strange Situation,” babies that show strong patterns of avoidance and resistance, or display behaviors like extreme fearfulness around the caregiver will be classified as

babies.

insecure disorganized

194
  1. When put on the floor to play, Lillian cries as if she wants to be held. When her mother picks her up, Lillian pushes her away with both arms and turns her head away. Mary Ainsworth would say that Lillian is a(n)
  1. insecure resistant

195
  1. The Strange Situation developed by Mary Ainsworth is an observational measure of .
  1. infant attachment

196

Caregivers of insecure disorganized babies

often neglect or physically abuse them.

197
  1. Which of the following factors is most likely to be linked to secure attachment in infants?
  1. Maternal sensitivity

198

Which of the following statements is true regarding the attachment theory?

  1. It ignores the diversity of socializing agents and contexts that exists in an infant’s

199
  1. In which of the following cultures grandmothers and siblings provide a significant care to infants?
  1. Hausa culture

200
  1. Which of the following neuropeptide hormones has an important role in the formation of maternal infant bond?

Oxytocin

201
  1. Research on the role of hormones and neurotransmitters in attachment has emphasized the importance of two neuropeptide hormones—oxytocin and —in the formation of the maternal- infant bond.

vsopressin

202
  1. Which of the following terms refers to the collection of neurons in the forebrain that are involved in pleasure?
  1. Nucleus accumbens

203
  1. Reciprocal socialization occurs when:
  1. children and parents socialize each

204
  1. Which of the following terms refers to adjusting the level of guidance to fit the child’s performance?

Scaffolding

205
  1. Caregiver-infant games like peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake exemplify .
  1. scaffolding