Which of these does not represent the Native American experience during World War II?
- A) They served as code talkers, relaying secret messages for the U.S. military in a complex language that the Japanese couldn't understand.
- B) Many Native Americans left reservations for good-paying jobs in West Coast defense industries.
- C) Anti-Indian discrimination forced many Native Americans back onto reservations.
- D) Many Native American reservations saw their budgets nearly triple, thanks to money sent back by Indian defense workers.
- E) Native Americans once again faced the risk of their land being taken, and organized the National Congress of American Indians to fight this trend.
Which statement best represents the United States' response to reports of the German persecution of Jews?
- A) The United States expressed sympathy for the plight of the Jews and liberalized its restrictive immigration laws.
- B) The United States refused to liberalize its restrictive immigration laws or seriously consider rescue schemes.
- C) Americans overwhelmingly supported legislation to admit twenty thousand German refugee children.
- D) The President and Congress were unaware of the reports.
- E) The United States sponsored the ship St. Louis to rescue 900 Jews for resettlement in America.
In an effort to bolster American security and help England during the Battle of Britain, President Roosevelt concluded an agreement with Prime Minister Churchill that
- A) sold American tanks and cruisers to Great Britain on a deferred payment schedule.
- B) allowed Britain to use American air bases in exchange for a guarantee of safe Atlantic passage for American merchant vessels.
- C) transferred fifty vintage American destroyers to Britain in exchange for leases on British air and naval bases in the Western Hemisphere.
- D) drew up a timetable for eventual American participation in the war against Hitler.
- E) provided $5.2 billion in direct military assistance.
In 1940 and 1941 President Roosevelt wished to prolong negotiations with the Japanese rather than go to war. Why?
- A) The negotiations had been making substantial progress and most of the points of disagreement were being resolved.
- B) Roosevelt knew that he did not have a large enough navy to fight both Japan and Germany.
- C) The American people were virulently anti-Japanese and therefore the anti-interventionist sentiment regarding Asian affairs was very strong.
- D) The Japanese had ended their expansion and were looking forward to a century of co prosperity.
- E) All he was concerned about was war in Europe; the situation in the Pacific was unimportant to him.
The various federal agencies created during World War II to coordinate the war effort did all the following except
- A) limit or stop the production of civilian goods.
- B) impose strict ceilings on corporate profits.
- C) mediate disputes between management and labor.
- D) impose strict price controls.
- E) allocate materials.
What impact did the wartime economy have on the distribution of American incomes?
- A) The proportion of wealth controlled by the richest 5 percent of the population soared to nearly one-third.
- B) The proportion of wealth controlled by the poorest 20 percent of the population dropped to about 10 percent.
- C) The earnings of the middle class doubled.
- D) The middle class stagnated as it found itself caught between wage freezes and soaring inflation.
- E) The poor sank deeper into poverty because the focus was on foreign affairs rather than their plight.
The Smith-Connally Labor Disputes Act
- A) empowered the president to take over any facility where strikes interrupted war production.
- B) guaranteed labor the right of union membership.
- C) prohibited government employees from joining unions or engaging in political activity.
- D) mandated wage increases at twice the cost of living, so that war production would not be interrupted by strikes.
- E) eliminated all federal restrictions on the right to strike.
What role did the American scientific community have in World War II?
- A) The government insisted that scientific inquiry should not be interrupted by the war.
- B) Most of the nation's scientists opposed the war and refused to have anything to do with it.
- C) Scientists participated actively in developing new weapons, chemicals, medicines, and medical techniques that would advance the fight against the Axis powers.
- D) There was a constant conflict between scientists and the military because the military refused to allow scientists a role in the weapons race.
- E) Scientists left the government for better-paying jobs in private industry.
The U.S. quest for an atomic bomb dubbed the "Manhattan Project" was started because
- A) The U.S. wanted a weapon that would end the war quickly.
- B) Albert Einstein warned Roosevelt that Nazi scientists were already working on developing an atomic weapon.
- C) Word of a successful nuclear chain reaction experiment reached Roosevelt, and he wanted to make sure the U.S. developed the bomb first.
- D) Several universities agreed to underwrite the research and supply their best scientists for the project.
- E) Wealthy Americans agreed to secretly provide the $2 billion necessary to develop the ultimate weapon.
Which of the following is not true regarding the government's management of public opinion during World War II?
- A) Publishers and broadcasters were allowed to report whatever they thought would be in the best interest of the public and the war effort.
- B) Government propaganda played up the barbarism of the Axis nations.
- C) The Office of Censorship attempted to suppress information that might hinder the war effort.
- D) The government initially restricted pictures of dead soldiers on battlefields.
- E) Hollywood released films designed to highlight the heroism and unity of the American forces, while inciting hatred of the enemy.
Which of the following was not one of the changes in the American "social topography" that occurred during World War II?
- A) Millions of Americans moved to the West Coast states.
- B) Many Americans moved far from their hometowns.
- C) Some Americans who moved left their traditional values for new attitudes.
- D) The family unit was strengthened, and divorce rates dropped, as Americans united in the effort to defend the nation.
- E) Some 6 million Americans left farms and moved to cities.
How did World War II affect millions of American women?
- A) The federal government adopted a policy of gender equality in all federal hiring and in all companies doing business with the government.
- B) The proportion of women in the labor force rose from one-quarter to more than one-third, as 19 million women were employed.
- C) Because of the importance of their war work, women for the first time achieved equal pay for equal work.
- D) The public attitude toward women's employment underwent a transformation, as the majority of Americans began to admit that they approved of married women working outside the home.
- E) In order to show the strength of traditional American values, women stayed at home to nurture their children.
- Philip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to
- A) an executive order permitting the military to evacuate and intern Japanese living on the West Coast.
- B) an executive order prohibiting employment discrimination and creating a Fair Employment Practices Committee.
- C) passage of the Smith-Connally Act restricting union strikes and protests.
- D) prosecution of the sailors involved in the "zoot suit" riot against the Chicanos.
- E) integration of the armed forces.
The condition of African-Americans improved during World War II through all the following means except
- A) jobs were more plentiful because of war production needs.
- B) a federal executive order prohibited discriminatory employment practices.
- C) they were recruited by colleges and job training programs.
- D) the average wage for African-Americans increased dramatically.
- E) the military ended exclusionary policies that kept them from the marines and coast guard or limited them to noncombat units.
The United States government interned over 100,000 Japanese-Americans during World War II for all the following reasons except
- A) longstanding racial prejudice and economic rivalry.
- B) some politicians and farmers hoped to be able to take over Japanese-American landholdings.
- C) after Pearl Harbor, white Californians were worked up into a frenzy about possible Japanese sabotage.
- D) FBI and military intelligence had uncovered a Japanese-American espionage network in California.
- E) some patriotic organizations and media outlets called for it.
Although Japan's sea and air power was totally shattered by the end of 1944, why didn't the imperial government surrender to the United States?
- A) President Roosevelt refused to allow a surrender until a full-scale invasion of Japan could be accomplished.
- B) Japanese military leaders insisted on fighting until the bitter end.
- C) The tripartite pact required that Japan continue fighting until Germany had been victorious in Europe.
- D) Every Japanese election demonstrated that the Japanese people wanted to continue the war.
- E) The Emperor had developed Alzheimer's disease and did not understand what was happening.
After what event did the Japanese government finally begin to discuss acceptance of surrender terms?
- A) the Battle of Iwo Jima
- B) the dropping of unconditional surrender as a prerequisite
- C) the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
- D) the threatened invasion of Japan by the China
- E) the collapse of Fascist Italy
How did Germany's persecution of Jews during the 1930s benefit the allies during World War II?
- A) It did not really help at all.
- B) It strengthened the allies' militaries by providing more soldiers.
- C) It helped the Americans and British learn how to deal more effectively with minority groups.
- D) It angered Americans and gave them more motivation to fight.
- E) Many leading European scientists and intellectuals fled German control and aided the allies during the war.
What was Roosevelt referring to when he called on the United States to become the "Arsenal of Democracy"?
- A) The nation had produced 300,000 airplanes, 2.6 million machine guns, 6 million tons of bombs, and numerous other materials needed by allies to conduct the war.
- B) The U.S. symbolized how democratic nations should fight a war.
- C) The U.S. should manufacture 1,000 ships, 500,000 rifles, and 10,000 airplanes during the war to aid European allies.
- D) He wanted the U.S. to provide all the war materials that the allies needed.
- E) He urged the U.S. to support supplying the allies with all necessary natural resources.
Which of the following leaders is not matched correctly with the right country?
- A) Benito Mussolini, Italy
- B) Winston Churchill, France
- C) Joseph Stalin, Soviet Union
- D) Franklin Roosevelt, United States
- E) Hideki Tojo, Japan
How many American men and women ultimately served in the armed forces?
- A) Approximately 1 million
- B) Approximately 5 million
- C) Approximately 10 million
- D) Approximately 15 million
- E) Approximately 25 million
Which country suffered the greatest number of casualties in World War II?
- A) United States
- B) France
- C) Poland
- D) Great Britain
- E) Soviet Union
Congress created the Office of Price Administration to
- A) control inflation during the war.
- B) preserve uranium production.
- C) raise money to pay for the war.
- D) lower prices to help American families survive the economic hardships of the war.
- E) decrease the national debt.
What did the "Double V" campaign represent?
- A) the American campaign to defeat both Germany and Japan.
- B) the Allied campaign to defeat Germany on land as well as at sea.
- C) the Allied campaign to defeat Nazism and Fascism.
- D) the African-Americans' campaign to defeat racism at home and enemies abroad.
- E) the Mexican-American campaign of to defeat the Axis powers and to loosen immigration restrictions at home.
Which of these statements does not describe women's experience as workers in defense plants?
- A) They were nicknamed "Rosie the Riveter."
- B) Women were told by the government that it was their "patriotic duty" to work in war industries.
- C) Most of the war workers were single and under age thirty.
- D) Their jobs included traditional men's work of tending blast furnaces, operating cranes, welding and shipbuilding.
- E) Many women were forced into women-only jobs, and those in manufacturing earned 65% of what men earned.
The World War II War Production Board was created to
- A) regulate production of military equipment.
- B) insure that the military branches were producing military equipment efficiently.
- C) regulate the railroad system and airplane industries.
- D) ration vital materials like rubber and gasoline.
- E) allocate materials, limit the production of civilian goods, and distribute contracts among workers.
Which 1942 battle was a decisive victory for the United States in the Pacific theatre of World War II?
- A) Battle of Tarawa
- B) Battle of Midway
- C) Battle of the Philippines
- D) Battle of New Guinea
- E) Battle of Iwo Jima
Which of the following statements best describes warfare between the Japanese soldiers and American Marines?
- A) They respected each other's dead, wounded, and prisoners.
- B) They utterly hated each other and committed numerous atrocities.
- C) They both fought desperately, but surrendered when it was clear that they could not prevail.
- D) all of these choices.
- E) none of these choices.
Which of the following factors was not a reason why President Harry Truman decided to use the atomic bomb in 1945?
- A) He was concerned about the high potential casualty figures from an American invasion of the Japanese home islands.
- B) He wanted to prove to the world that the United States hated the Japanese and wanted them to suffer because of their attack on Pearl Harbor.
- C) The Japanese had suffered terrible destruction from American bombing attacks but were still not willing to surrender.
- D) Japanese soldiers and sailors almost always refused to surrender even when it was clear that their cause was lost
- E) He hoped to intimidate the Soviet Union.
Approximately how many Jews were killed in the Holocaust?
- A) 6,000
- B) 60,000
- C) 600,000
- D) 6 million
- E) 60 million
Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
- A) It decided upon a preemptive strike to force the U.S. to yield to its demands.
- B) It wanted to use Pearl Harbor as a base for attacks against the United States.
- C) It believed that the United States was planning an attack on Japan from Pearl Harbor.
- D) To protect its eastern flank, Japan wanted to seize the Hawaiian Islands.
- E) It thought the United States was developing the atomic bomb there.
In response to the 1948 Soviet blockade of West Berlin, the United States
- A) used an airlift to re-supply West Berlin.
- B) threatened to launch a preemptive nuclear war.
- C) allowed West Berlin to become part of East Germany.
- D) permitted the Soviet Union to participate in the government of West Berlin.
- E) exchanged the right to West Berlin for access to Prague.
The America First Committee argued that
- A) the United States was endangered by internal subversion, not possible German invasion.
- B) the United States had to defend itself by launching a preemptive war against Germany.
- C) the United States would assist the British but stay out of the war.
- D) the United States had the strength to stand alone and did not need to form relationships or pacts with any European country.
- E) the United States had to defend itself by going to war against Japan before Japan attacked the United States.
At the Yalta Conference, Stalin agreed on all the following except
- A) entry into the war against Japan.
- B) recognition of Mao Zedong as the ruler of China.
- C) establishment of "broadly representative" governments in Eastern Europe.
- D) created a postwar commission to address reparations.
- E) a founding conference for the new United Nations.
The experiences of E.B. Sledge illustrate
- A) the importance of the secretary of war.
- B) the complexity of naval operations in the Pacific theatre.
- C) the extreme hardships of fighting in the Pacific theatre
- D) why U.S. technological superiority was so important.
- E) the horrors of fighting in Europe.