1) The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
2) Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?
D) conversion to a nucleic acid
3) Dietary fats are important because they ________.
B) help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins
4) Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________.
A) is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
5) Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
6) The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy
7) The term metabolic rate reflects the ________.
A) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
8) When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________.
9) It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
10) Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by which of the following enzymes?
A) dehydrogenases and oxidases
11) Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
A) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
12) Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
13) Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
14) The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.
D) break down food molecules and generate ATP
15) The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.
16) Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?
A) oxidative phosphorylation
17) Lipogenesis occurs when ________.
D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
18) Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.
19) Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________
C) transferred to a keto acid
20) Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.
B) absorptive state
21) Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?
A) release of epinephrine
22) Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.
B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
23) Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.
B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
24) What is the outcome of ketosis?
B) metabolic acidosis
25) Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?
A) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.
26) In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________.
A) production of energy
27) The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.
28) Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed ________.
29) Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?
30) Prostaglandins play a role in ________.
D) control of blood pressure
31) Which of the following is the most important function of the liver?
D) protein metabolism
32) As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.
33) In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.
34) In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state.
35) Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production?
36) Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________.
D) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels
37) The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.
38) When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.
B) fatty acids
39) Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?
C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body
40) The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.
A) muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
41) Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?
42) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
A) The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino acids in the body's proteins.
43) Which of the following molecules are considered key molecules at metabolic crossroads?
A) glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA
44) Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?
45) Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?
46) Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?
C) It involves the anabolism of fats.
47) Select the correct statement about proteins.
C) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
48) Oxidation reduction reactions ________.
B) may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons
49) What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?
50) Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?
C) absorption of glucose from the GI tract
51) Which of the following is correct?
B) Oxidation of FADH2 eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
52) Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?
D) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
53) Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________.
C) excessive amounts of protein in the diet
54) When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may ________.
55) Glucose can be obtained from ________.
56) Which of the following is not a function of LDLs?
A) transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
57) Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?
A) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.