1) Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as
A) the digestive system's opening.
B) suspension-feeding devices.
C) components of the jaw.
D) gill slits for respiration.
E) portions of the inner ear.
2) Which of the following statements would be least acceptable to
A) The extant lancelets are contemporaries, not ancestors, of vertebrates.
B) The first fossils resembling lancelets appeared in the fossil record around 530 million years ago.
C) Recent work in molecular systematics supports the hypothesis that lancelets are the most recent common ancestor of all vertebrates.
D) The extant lancelets are the immediate ancestors of the fishes.
E) Lancelets display the same method of swimming as do fishes.
3) Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the
earliest chordates in appearance?
B) adult tunicates
4) A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely
resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics:
external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a
suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will
probably have which of the following characteristics?
B) no jaws
C) an amniotic egg
5) How many of the following statements about craniates is (are)
1. Craniates are more highly cephalized than are noncraniates.
2. Craniates' genomic evolution includes duplication of clusters of genes that code for transcription factors.
3. The craniate clade is synonymous with the vertebrate clade.
4. Pharyngeal slits that play important roles in gas exchange originated in craniates.
5. The two-chambered heart originated with the early craniates.
A) one of these
B) two of these
C) three of these
D) four of these
E) five of these
6) What do all craniates have that earlier chordates did not have?
C) cartilaginous pipe surrounding notochord
D) partial or complete skull
7) Lampreys differ from hagfishes in
A) lacking jaws.
B) having a cranium.
C) having pharyngeal clefts that develop into pharyngeal slits.
D) having a notochord throughout life.
E) having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage.
8) The feeding mode of the extinct conodonts was
B) suspension feeding.
D) filter feeding.
E) absorptive feeding.
9) The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are
associated with which function?
<p>10) A team of researchers has developed a poison that has proven effective against lamprey larvae in freshwater cultures. The poison is ingested and causes paralysis by detaching segmental muscles from the skeletal elements. The team wants to test the poison's effectiveness in streams feeding Lake Michigan, but one critic worries about potential effects on lancelets, which are similar to lampreys in many ways. Why is this concern misplaced? <br>A) A chemical poisonous to lampreys could not also be toxic to organisms as ancestral as lancelets. <br>B) Lamprey larvae and lancelets have very different feeding mechanisms. <br>C) Lancelets do not have segmental muscles. <br>D) Lancelets live only in saltwater environments. <br>E) Lancelets and lamprey larvae eat different kinds of food.</p> <p>10) A team of researchers has developed a poison that has proven effective against lamprey larvae in freshwater cultures. The poison is ingested and causes paralysis by detaching segmental muscles from the skeletal elements. The team wants to test the poison's effectiveness in streams feeding Lake Michigan, but one critic worries about potential effects on lancelets, which are similar to lampreys in many ways. Why is this concern misplaced? <br>A) A chemical poisonous to lampreys could not also be toxic to organisms as ancestral as lancelets. <br>B) Lamprey larvae and lancelets have very different feeding mechanisms. <br>C) Lancelets do not have segmental muscles. <br>D) Lancelets live only in saltwater environments. <br>E) Lancelets and lamprey larvae eat different kinds of food.</p>
11) The lamprey species whose larvae live in freshwater streams,
but whose adults live most of their lives in seawater, are similar
in this respect to certain species of
12) Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?
C) ray-finned fishes
13) Which of these might have been observed in the common ancestor
of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans?
A) a mineralized, bony skeleton
C) bony fin rays
D) a spiral valve intestine
E) a swim bladder
14) To which of the following are the scales of chondrichthyans
most closely related in a structural sense?
A) osteichthyan scales
B) reptilian scales
C) mammalian scales
D) bird scales
E) chondrichthyan teeth
15) Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity
between sharks and ray-finned fishes?
A) The skin is typically covered by flattened bony scales.
B) They are equally able to exchange gases with the environment while stationary.
C) They are highly maneuverable due to their flexibility.
D) They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.
E) A swim bladder helps control buoyancy.
16) Which group's members have had both lungs and gills during
their adult lives?
A) sharks, skates, and rays
E) ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs
17) There is evidence that ray-finned fishes evolved
A) in response to a crisis that wiped out the chondrichthyans.
B) directly from lampreys and hagfish.
C) early in the Cambrian period.
D) directly from lancelets.
E) the swim bladder from a lung.
18) The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes
A) was probably modified from simple lungs of chondrichthyans.
B) developed into lungs in saltwater fishes.
C) first appeared in sharks.
D) provides for regulation of buoyancy.
E) Two of the options listed are correct.
19) Which of the following belongs to the lobe-fin clade?
B) ray-finned fishes
20) Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most
general) to least inclusive (most specific).
A) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
B) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1
C) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1
D) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2
E) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2
21) A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest
A) the appearance of jaws.
B) the appearance of bony vertebrae.
C) feet with digits.
D) the mineralization of the endoskeleton.
E) the amniotic egg.
22) What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?
A) They should show evidence of internal fertilization.
B) They should show evidence of having produced shelled eggs.
C) They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.
D) They should be transitional forms with the fossils of chondrichthyans that lived at the same time.
E) They should feature the earliest indications of the appearance of jaws.
23) Which of these are amniotes?
C) egg-laying mammals
D) placental mammals
E) More than one of these is correct.
24) Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary
A) It has a shell that increases gas exchange.
B) It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
C) It prolongs embryonic development.
D) It provides insulation to conserve heat.
E) It permits internal fertilization to be replaced by external fertilization.
25) Which era is known as the "age of reptiles"?
26) Which of these characteristics added most