Exam 2 Flashcards


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1

The autonomic nervous system carries out many somatic reflexes that are crucial to homeostasis

false

2

Under normal circumstances, both divisions of the autonomic nervous system are active simultaneously

true

3

The autonomic nervous system is composed of ganglia in the central nervous system and ganglia in the periphery

false

4

Most autonomic efferent pathways involve one neuron

false

5

the parasympathetic division stimulates digestion

true

6

most preganglionic fibers synaps with postganglionic fibers in the dorsal root ganglia

false

7

all preganglionic fibers of the ANS pass through the sympathetic chain of ganglia, synapsing at least once there

false

8

the adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglia

true

9

fibers of the vagus nerve end very near or within their target organs

true

10

the autonomic effect on a target cell depends only on the neurotransmitter reaching that target cell

false

11

all sympathetic postganglionic adrenergic fibers secrete adrenaline

false

12

acrtylcholing (ACh) binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors

true

13

acetylcholine (ACh) always has an excitatory effect

false

14

binding of norepinephrine (NE) to an alpha-adrenergic receptor is usually excitatory, and binding to a beta-adrenergic receptor is usually inhibitory

true

15

all autonomic output originates in the central nervous system

true

16

The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the __________.

skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis

17

Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except __________.

maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck

18

Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?

Sensory receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → gland

19

Which of the following statements is true regarding parasympathetic tone?

It holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate.

20

Sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving __________.

digestion

21

The background rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is called ___________.

autonomic tone

22

The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is(are) __________.

acetylcholine (ACh)

23

The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is _________. The effect of somatic fibers on target cells is __________.

excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory

24

Which of the following is true regarding the autonomic nervous system?

Its denervation would cause hypersensitivity.

25

In response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called __________ in the walls of arteries carrying blood to the head, will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to __________ its beats per minute.

baroreceptors; decrease

26

The motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system usually involves __________ neurons.

two

27

Preganglionic fibers run from the _________ to the __________.

gray matter; autonomic ganglia

28

Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are _________ and secrete __________.

myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)

29

Which of the following is not a reason that somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes?

The effector organs in the somatic reflex are closer to the spinal cord.

30

Most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in the __________.

vagus

31

Sympathetic fibers arise only from the __________ region(s) of the

thoracic and lumbar

32

The sympathetic chain of ganglia is found at the __________ levels of the spinal cord.

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal

33

Which of the following is not a feature of the sympathetic division of the ANS?

It has long preganglionic fibers.

34

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?

It has short preganglionic fibers.

35

Which of the following structures releases neurotransmitter molecules in a paravertebral ganglion?

Preganglionic sympathetic fiber

36

Which of the following structures is not associated with the autonomic nervous system?

All of these are associated with the autonomic nervous system.

37

Most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with __________.

10-20 postganglionic neurons

38

The solar plexus is used as a name for the __________.

the celiac and mesenteric ganglia

39

The adrenal medulla secretes mostly ___________.

epinephrine (adrenaline)

40

The parasympathetic division arises from the __________ regions of the spinal cord.

brain and sacral

41

Damage to the __________ may affect near vision accommodation.

oculomotor nerve (CN III)

42

White rami carry _________ neurons, while gray rami carry _________ neurons.

myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated postganglionic

43

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the enteric nervous system?

Its reflex arcs are associated with the spinal cord.

44

If a cell has α1 adrenergic receptors, it is sensitive to __________.

norepinephrine (NE)

45

Which of the following is not under dual control of the ANS?

Adrenal medulla activity

46

Propranolol, a beta-blocker, is typically used to __________.

decrease heart rate

47

Which of the following is more effective in producing bronchodilation?

Norepinephrine

48

Muscarinic receptors bind __________.

acetylcholine

49

The binding of __________ to a nicotinic receptor of a muscle fiber will __________ it.

acetylcholine; excite

50

Atropine is sometimes used to dilate the pupil for an eye examination. Which receptor would atropine block?

Muscarinic receptor

51

Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the control of __________.

gastrointestinal motility

52

__________ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.

Orgasm

53

Sympathetic fibers do not release __________.

nitric oxide (NO)

54

Sympathetic effects tend to last __________ than parasympathetic effects. One reason is that __________.

longer; norepinephrine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down

55

The enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine (NE) is called __________.

monoamine oxidase (MAO)

56

A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ___________ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ___________.

preganglionic; acetylcholine (ACh)

57

Drugs that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors would most likely __________.

decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant

58

A possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulator in the brain called __________, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic neurons.

adenosine

59

Which one of the following is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?

Postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division

60

The __________ is an especially important center of autonomic control.

hypothalamus

61

Autonomic function receives input from all these except __________.

spinal cord

62

__________ nerve(s) pass(es) throughout sympathetic ganglia without synapsing.

Splanchnic

63

Which of the following is associated with the "flight-or-fight" reaction?

Reduced urinary output

64

The enteric nervous system controls the digestive system with no extrinsic control necessary.

false

65

Vasomotor tone is controlled by using the sympathetic division for vasodilation and the parasympathetic division for vasoconstriction.

false

66

Transduction begins with an action potential in a sensory receptor.

false

67

Sensory receptors sense only stimuli external to the body, such as light, sound waves, olfaction, and touch.

false

68

Most somesthetic signals in the right side of the body reach the cerebral cortex in the contralateral primary somesthetic area.

true

69

Fast pain is a localized response mediated by myelinated nerve fibers

true

70

Divergent sensory pathways explain the phenomenon of referred pain

false

71

Olfaction results from the stimulation of chemoreceptors.

true

72

Gustatory signals travel from the tongue through the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves.

true

73

The ossicles belong to the middle ear.

true

74

The macula sacculi is nearly horizontal and the macula utriculi is nearly vertical.

false

75

The vestibule contains organs of hearing and equilibrium.

false

76

The middle ear consists of a fluid-filled chamber.

false

77

The middle ear consists of a fluid-filled chamber.

true

78

Light falling on the retina is absorbed by rhodopsin and photopsin in the pigment epithelium.

false

79

Rods secrete glutamate from the base of the cell when exposed to light.

false

80

Vitamin A is necessary for the synthesis of rhodopsin.

true

81

The output energy of all receptors is a type of __________ energy.

electrical

82

The initial effect of a stimulus on a sensory receptor is a local electrical change specifically called a(an) __________.

receptor potential

83

What is a sensation?

A subjective awareness of a stimulus

84

Changes in cerebrospinal fluid pH are detected by __________.

chemoreceptors

85

Changes in blood pressure are detected by __________ in certain arteries.

mechanoreceptors

86

You can smell the fragrance of your deodorant when you just put it on, but after a little while the smell fades. What explains this phenomenon?

the phasic nature of olfaction

87

Which organ does not have nociceptors?

brain

88

Pain, heat, and cold are detected by __________.

free nerve endings

89

Which of the following is not an analgesic (pain reliever) found naturally in the central nervous system?

Bradykinin

90

Where do most second-order somesthetic neurons synapse with third-order neurons?

thalamus

91

Which of the following is not involved with spinal gating of pain signals?

lower motor neurons

92

In a taste bud, which cell produces a receptor potential?

Gustatory cells

93

Which of the following structures is visible to the naked eye?

Lingual papilla

94

Which taste sensation is produced by amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid?

Umami

95

What do pheromones stimulate?

olfactory cells

96

Where is the primary olfactory cortex located?

Temporal lobe

97

What is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first through the thalamus?

Olfaction

98

The human ear can detect what frequency of vibrations?

20 to 20,000 Hz

99

Which of the following structures belong to the inner ear?

Semicircular duct

100

Which of the following structures houses the spiral organ?

Cochlea

101

The incus articulates with which bone(s)?

Malleus and stapes

102

Which structure acts as a transducer in the spiral organ?

Inner hair cell

103

The spiral organ is housed within which of the following structures?

Cochlear duct

104

Which structure allows upper respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the tympanic cavity?

Auditory (eustachian) tube

105

Stimuli produced by sound waves reach the brain following which pathway?

Auditory canal → tympanic membrane → ossicles → oval window → cochlear duct → spiral organ → fibers of cochlear nerve

106

Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?

Cochlear hair cells

107

Each upward movement of the basilar membrane causes the stereocilia of the inner hair cells to bend, opening __________ gates.

K+

108

A 100 dB sound (loud) of 150 Hz (low pitch) would cause which of the following to occur?

The basilar membrane to vibrate vigorously near its distal end

109

When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this movement by means of your __________.

semicircular ducts

110

When you travel in an elevator, what senses when the elevator is moving?

The hair cells of the otolithic membrane of the macula sacculi

111

The hair cells of the otolithic membrane of the macula sacculi

Dynamic equilibrium in angular acceleration

112

Which of the following does not contribute to the sense of equilibrium?

Vallate papillae

113

What is the correct order of cells in the retina from back to front?

Photoreceptor - bipolar - ganglion

114

Human vision is limited to wavelengths ranging from __________ nm.

400 to 700

115

Which of the following is not considered an accessory structure of the eye?

Cornea

116

Which of the following is not considered an optic component of the eye?

Retina

117

Glaucoma is a state of elevated pressure within the eye that occurs when the __________ is obstructed so the aqueous humor is not reabsorbed as fast as it is secreted.

scleral venous sinus

118

Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the __________ and exit the eye by way of the optic nerve.

optic disc

119

When you view objects close to the eye, the eye makes an adjustment called __________.

accommodation

120

An eye with which of the following conditions does not need a corrective lens to focus the image?

Emmetropia

121

Which cells are responsible for photopic (day) vision as well as trichromatic (color) vision?

cones

122

What event causes rhodopsin to go from violet to clear in color?

Cis-retinal straightens to become trans-retinal

123

Why do cones exhibit less neuronal convergence than rods?

Photopic vision has higher resolution than scotopic vision.

124

What are the only retinal cells that produce action potentials?

ganglion cells

125

Which of the following describes the duplicity theory of vision?

A single type of receptor system cannot produce both high sensitivity and high resolution.

126

What are the first-order neurons in the visual pathway?

bipolar cells

127

Half of the fibers of each optic nerve decussate at the __________.

optic chiasm

128

Adjustment to close-range vision involves all of the following except __________.

light adaptation

129

Which of the following are unencapsulated endings?

free nerve endings

130

Which of the following correctly describes the vestibular projection pathway to the brain?

Vestibular nerve - vestibulocochlear nerve - vestibular nuclei - thalamus - cerebral cortex

131

The three types of cones in the retina are differentiated from one another by what feature?

The absorption peak of their photopsin

132

Hormones are normally secreted via ducts into the bloodstream.

false

133

Hormones serve as intracellular messengers.

false

134

Testosterone is a gonadotropin

false

135

Many effects of growth hormone are mediated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) secreted by the pancreas.

false

136

Both the thymus and the pineal gland shrink after childhood.

true

137

Thyroid hormone has a calorigenic effect.

true

138

Epinephrine is said to have a glucose-sparing effect.

true

139

Cholesterol is essential for the synthesis of steroid hormones.

true

140

Peptide hormones are synthesized by cytoplasmic ribosomes as active enzymes.

false

141

Regardless of the cause of stress, the body reacts in a fairly consistent way to different stressors.

true

142

The exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) sets in only if protein reserves are depleted.

false

143

Eicosanoids are derived from steroids

false

144

Prostaglandins are considered paracrines.

true

145

Myxedema is characterized by low metabolic rate, sluggishness, and sleepiness

true

146

Addison disease is a consequence of a tumor of the adrenal medulla.

false

147

The nervous system reacts to stimuli __________ compared to the endocrine system, adapts __________ compared to the endocrine system, and has __________ effects compared to the endocrine system.

quickly; quickly; specific

148

Which of the following is true regarding endocrine glands?

They release their secretions into the blood.

149

_________ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology.

Paracrines

150

The ___________ can be found as part of the epithalamus, near the superior colliculi of the midbrain.

pineal gland

151

The _________ secretes growth hormone, which is also known as somatotropin.

anterior pituitary

152

The __________ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function.

kidney

153

Which of the following is the correct abbreviation for the hormone that stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH?

CRH

154

What makes a cell responsive to a particular hormone?

The presence of a receptor for that particular hormone

155

The posterior pituitary secretes _________.

oxytocin (OT)

156

The anterior pituitary is __________ than the posterior pituitary and has __________ connection to the hypothalamus.

larger; no nervous

157

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the __________.

anterior pituitary

158

The hypophyseal portal system connects the _________ with the _________.

anterior pituitary; hypothalamus

159

Which of the following is not a hypothalamic hormone?

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

160

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the __________.

kidneys

161

Of the following hormones, which has more target cells in the body than the others?

Growth hormone (GH)

162

Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via _________.

negative feedback inhibition

163

The infundibulum is a ___________.

projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs

164

__________ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas __________ secretion is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.

Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

165

Negative feedback inhibition occurs when __________.

thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary

166

Which hormone stimulates glucocorticoid secretion?

ACTH

167

Which of these hormones does not stimulate the release of another hormone by its target cells?

PRL

168

The hormone called _________ plays an important role in synchronizing physiological function with the cycle of daylight and darkness.

melatonin

169

The __________ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).

thymus

170

The __________ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness, quickens reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system.

thyroid gland

171

The __________ secrete(s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia.

parathyroid glands

172

The __________ secrete(s) __________, which promotes Na+ and water retention.

adrenal cortex; aldosterone

173

The zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes ___________.

cortisol

174

The zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes ___________.

glucagon; raises

175

Which of the following is not secreted by the pancreas?

Somatotropin (growth hormone)

176

Which of the following organs has both endocrine and exocrine functions?

the ovary

177

Which of the following is not a steroid hormone?

insulin

178

Which of the following is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

glucagon

179

The absence of iodine in the diet leads to __________.

hypothyroidism

180

T4 and T3 are __________ hormones that are mainly transported __________ in the blood.

monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)

181

Which of the following enters a target cell's nucleus and acts directly on the genes.

Estrogen

182

Which of the following is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger?

Enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases

183

Which of the following makes it possible for even a small quantity of hormone to have a strong effect on its target cell?

Enzyme amplification

184

Which of the following is an increase in the number of receptors making a target cell more sensitive to a hormone?

Up-regulation

185

Circulating hormones are mostly taken up and degraded by the _________ and the __________.

liver; kidneys

186

Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This is an example of which principle regarding hormones?

The synergistic effect

187

Glucagon increases blood glucose concentration and insulin decreases it. This is an example of _____.

the antagonistic effect

188

The resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) is dominated by __________.

cortisol

189

Any situation that upsets homeostasis and threatens one’s physical or emotional well-being is called __________.

stress

190

During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response), stress overwhelms homeostasis. One characteristic of this stage is that __________.

energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism

191

Which of the following is true regarding cortisol?

It promotes breakdown of fat and protein.

192

The initial response to stress is called the _________ and is mediated mainly by __________.

alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine

193

Eicosanoids are derived from __________.

arachidonic acid

194

Which of the following is not a role of prostaglandins?

To stop fever and pain

195

Aspirin and ibuprofen block the __________.

action of cyclooxygenase

196

Diabetes insipidus is caused by __________.

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion

197

Which of the following effects on a gland can be caused by a tumor?

Hyposecretion and hypersecretion

198

Which of the following is not a cause of Cushing syndrome?

Hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla

199

Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause __________ when it begins in adulthood.

acromegaly

200

Which of the following is not a characteristic of diabetes mellitus?

Hypoglycemia

201

Which of the following statements about diabetes mellitus is false?

Both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin.

202

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events leading to the polyuria and dehydration associated with diabetes mellitus?

Hyperglycemia → glucose enters renal tubules → glucose transport maximum exceeded → glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid → osmotic diuresis

203

TEST and EST are abbreviations for testosterone and estrogen.

false

204

Hormones that bind to proteins while transported in the blood generally have a longer half-life.

true

205

Worrying about your upcoming exam in history class is a valid form of stress

true