Campbell Biology Chapter 27

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1) Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell walls. On the basis of this structural feature, which statement
concerning mycoplasmas should be true?
A) They are gram-negative.
B) They are subject to lysis in hypotonic conditions.
C) They lack a cell membrane as well.
D) They should contain less cellulose than do bacteria that possess cell walls.
E) They possess typical prokaryotic flagella.



2) Though plants, fungi, and prokaryotes all have cell walls, we place them in different taxa. Which of
these observations comes closest to explaining the basis for placing these organisms in different taxa,
well before relevant data from molecular systematics became available?
A) Some closely resemble animals, which lack cell walls.
B) Their cell walls are composed of very different biochemicals.
C) Some have cell walls only for support.
D) Some have cell walls only for protection from herbivores.
E) Some have cell walls only to control osmotic balance.



3) Which statement about bacterial cell walls is false?

A) Bacterial cell walls differ in molecular composition from plant cell walls.

B) Cell walls prevent cells from bursting in hypotonic environments.

C) Cell walls prevent cells from dying in hypertonic conditions.

D) Bacterial cell walls are similar in function to the cell walls of many protists, fungi, and plants.

E) Cell walls provide the cell with a degree of physical protection from the environment.



4) The predatory bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus, drills into a prey bacterium and, once inside, digests it. In an attack upon a gram-negative bacterium that has a slimy cell covering, what is the correct sequence of structures penetrated by B. bacteriophorus on its way to the prey's cytoplasm?

  1. membrane composed mostly of lipopolysaccharide
  2. membrane composed mostly of phospholipids
  3. peptidoglycan
  4. capsule
  5. A) 2, 4, 3, 1
  6. B) 1, 3, 4, 2
  7. C) 1, 4, 3, 2
  8. D) 4, 1, 3, 2
  9. E) 4, 3, 1, 2



5) Jams, jellies, preserves, honey, and other foodstuffs with high sugar content hardly ever become contaminated by bacteria, even when the food containers are left open at room temperature. This is because bacteria that encounter such an environment

A) undergo death by plasmolysis.

B) are unable to metabolize the glucose or fructose, and thus starve to death.

C) experience lysis.

D) are obligate anaerobes.

E) are unable to swim through these thick and viscous materials.



6) In a bacterium that possesses antibiotic resistance and the potential to persist through very adverse conditions, such as freezing, drying, or high temperatures, DNA should be located within, or be part of, which structures?

  1. nucleoid region
  2. endospore
  3. fimbriae
  4. plasmids
  5. A) 1 only
  6. B) 1 and 2 only
  7. C) 1 and 4 only
  8. D) 2 and 4 only
  9. E) 1, 2, and 4



7) Which two structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other, or to other surfaces?

  1. capsules
  2. endospores
  3. fimbriae
  4. plasmids
  5. flagella
  6. A) 1 and 2
  7. B) 1 and 3
  8. C) 2 and 3
  9. D) 3 and 4
  10. E) 3 and 5



8) The typical prokaryotic flagellum features

A) an internal 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules.

B) an external covering provided by the plasma membrane.

C) a complex "motor" embedded in the cell wall and plasma membrane.

D) a basal body that is similar in structure to the cell's centrioles.

E) a membrane-enclosed organelle with motor proteins.



9) Prokaryotic ribosomes differ from those present in eukaryotic cytosol. Because of this, which of the following is correct?

A) Some antibiotics can block protein synthesis in bacteria without effects in the eukaryotic host.

B) Eukaryotes did not evolve from prokaryotes.

C) Translation can occur at the same time as transcription in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes.

D) Some antibiotics can block the synthesis of peptidoglycan in the walls of bacteria.

E) Prokaryotes are able to use a much greater variety of molecules as food sources than can eukaryotes.



10) Which statement about the genomes of prokaryotes is correct?

A) Prokaryotic genomes are diploid throughout most of the cell cycle.

B) Prokaryotic chromosomes are sometimes called plasmids.

C) Prokaryotic cells have multiple chromosomes, "packed" with a relatively large amount of protein.

D) The prokaryotic chromosome is not contained within a nucleus but, rather, is found at the nucleolus.

E) Prokaryotic genomes are composed of circular DNA.



11) If a bacterium regenerates from an endospore that did not possess any of the plasmids that were contained in its original parent cell, the regenerated bacterium will probably also

A) lack antibiotic-resistant genes.

B) lack a cell wall.

C) lack a chromosome.

D) lack water in its cytoplasm.

E) be unable to survive in its normal environment.



12) Although not present in all bacteria, this cell covering often enables cells that possess it to resist the defenses of host organisms, especially their phagocytic cells.

A) endospore

B) sex pilus

C) cell wall

D) capsule



13) Prokaryotes' essential genetic information is located in the

A) nucleolus.

B) nucleoid.

C) nucleosome.

D) plasmids.

E) exospore.



14) Which of the following is an important source of endotoxin in gram-negative species?

A) endospore

B) sex pilus

C) flagellum

D) cell wall

E) capsule



15) Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that targets prokaryotic (70S) ribosomes, but not eukaryotic (80S) ribosomes. Which of these questions stems from this observation, plus an understanding of eukaryotic origins?

A) Can chloramphenicol also be used to control human diseases that are caused by archaeans?

B) Can chloramphenicol pass through the capsules possessed by many cyanobacteria?

C) If chloramphenicol inhibits prokaryotic ribosomes, should it not also inhibit mitochondrial ribosomes?

D) Why aren't prokaryotic ribosomes identical to eukaryotic ribosomes?

E) How is translation affected in ribosomes that are targeted by chloramphenicol?



16) In a hypothetical situation, the genes for sex pilus construction and for tetracycline resistance are located together on the same plasmid within a particular bacterium. If this bacterium readily performs conjugation involving a copy of this plasmid, then the result should be

A) a bacterium that has undergone transduction.

B) the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance to other bacteria in that habitat.

C) the subsequent loss of tetracycline resistance from this bacterium.

D) the production of endospores among the bacterium's progeny.

E) the temporary possession by this bacterium of a completely diploid genome.



17) Regarding prokaryotic genetics, which statement is correct?

A) Crossing over during prophase I introduces some genetic variation.

B) Prokaryotes feature the union of haploid gametes, as do eukaryotes.

C) Prokaryotes exchange some of their genes by conjugation, the union of haploid gametes, and transduction.

D) Mutation is a primary source of variation in prokaryote populations.

E) Prokaryotes skip sexual life cycles because their life cycle is too short.



18) Which of these statements about prokaryotes is correct?

A) Bacterial cells conjugate to mutually exchange genetic material.

B) Their genetic material is confined within vesicles known as plasmids.

C) They divide by binary fission, without mitosis or meiosis.

D) The persistence of bacteria throughout evolutionary time is due to their genetic homogeneity (in other words, sameness).

E) Genetic variation in bacteria is not known to occur, because of their asexual mode of reproduction.



19) Which of the following is least associated with the others?

A) horizontal gene transfer

B) genetic recombination

C) conjugation

D) transformation

E) binary fission



20) In Fred Griffith's experiments, harmless R strain pneumococcus became lethal S strain pneumococcus as the result of which of the following?

  1. horizontal gene transfer
  2. transduction
  3. conjugation
  4. transformation
  5. genetic recombination
  6. A) 2 only
  7. B) 4 only
  8. C) 2 and 5
  9. D) 1, 3, and 5
  10. E) 1, 4, and 5



21) Hershey and Chase performed an elegant experiment that convinced most biologists that DNA, rather than protein, was the genetic material. This experiment subjected bacteria to the same gene transfer mechanism as occurs in

A) transduction.

B) transformation.

C) conjugation.

D) binary fission.

E) endosymbiosis.



22) Match the numbered terms to the description that follows. Choose all appropriate terms.

  1. autotroph
  2. heterotroph
  3. phototroph
  4. chemotroph

a prokaryote that obtains both energy and carbon as it decomposes dead organisms

  1. A) 1 only
  2. B) 4 only
  3. C) 1 and 3
  4. D) 2 and 4
  5. E) 1, 3, and 4



23) Match the numbered terms to the description that follows. Choose all appropriate terms.

  1. autotroph
  2. heterotroph
  3. phototroph
  4. chemotroph

an organism that obtains both carbon and energy by ingesting prey

  1. A) 1 only
  2. B) 4 only
  3. C) 1 and 3
  4. D) 2 and 4
  5. E) 1, 3, and 4



24) Match the numbered terms to the description that follows. Choose all appropriate terms.

  1. autotroph
  2. heterotroph
  3. phototroph
  4. chemotroph

an organism that relies on photons to excite electrons within its membranes

  1. A) 1 only
  2. B) 3 only
  3. C) 1 and 3
  4. D) 2 and 4
  5. E) 1, 3, and 4



25) Which of the following obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substancesenergy that is used, in part, to fix CO2?

  1. A) photoautotrophs
  2. B) photoheterotrophs
  3. C) chemoautotrophs
  4. D) chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition
  5. E) parasitic chemoheterotrophs



26) Mitochondria are thought to be the descendants of certain alpha proteobacteria. They are, however, no longer able to lead independent lives because most genes originally present on their chromosome have moved to the nuclear genome. Which phenomenon accounts for the movement of these genes?

A) plasmolysis

B) conjugation

C) translation

D) endocytosis

E) horizontal gene transfer



27) Carl Woese and collaborators identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?

A) microscopic examination of staining characteristics of the cell wall

B) metabolic characteristics such as the production of methane gas

C) metabolic characteristics such as chemoautotrophy and photosynthesis

D) genetic characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences

E) ecological characteristics such as the ability to survive in extreme environments



28) Which statement about the domain Archaea is true?

  1. A) Genetic prospecting has recently revealed the existence of many previously unknown archaean species.
  2. B) No archaeans can reduce CO2to methane.
  3. C) The genomes of archaeans are unique, containing no genes that originated within bacteria.
  4. D) No archaeans can inhabit solutions that are nearly 30% salt.
  5. E) No archaeans are adapted to waters with temperatures above the boiling point.



29) If archaeans are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria, then which of the following is a reasonable prediction?

A) Archaean DNA should have no introns.

B) Archaean chromosomes should have no protein bonded to them.

C) Archaean DNA should be single-stranded.

D) Archaean ribosomes should be larger than typical prokaryotic ribosomes.

E) Archaeans should lack cell walls.



30) Which of the following traits do archaeans and bacteria share?

  1. composition of the cell wall
  2. presence of plasma membrane
  3. lack of a nuclear envelope
  4. identical rRNA sequences
  5. A) 1 only
  6. B) 3 only
  7. C) 1 and 3
  8. D) 2 and 3
  9. E) 2 and 4



31) Assuming that each of these possesses a cell wall, which prokaryotes should be expected to be most strongly resistant to plasmolysis in hypertonic environments?

A) extreme halophiles

B) extreme thermophiles

C) methanogens

D) cyanobacteria

E) nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules



32) The thermoacidophile, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, lacks peptidoglycan, but still possesses a cell wall. What is likely to be true of this species?

  1. It is a bacterium.
  2. It is an archaean.
  3. The optimal pH of its enzymes will lie above pH 7.
  4. The optimal pH of its enzymes will lie below pH 7.
  5. It could inhabit certain hydrothermal springs.
  6. It could inhabit alkaline hot springs.
  7. A) 1, 3, and 6
  8. B) 2, 4, and 6
  9. C) 2, 4, and 5
  10. D) 1, 3, and 5
  11. E) 1, 4, and 5



33) A fish that has been salt-cured subsequently develops a reddish color. You suspect that the fish has been contaminated by the extreme halophile, Halobacterium. Which of these features of cells removed from the surface of the fish, if confirmed, would support your suspicion?

  1. the presence of the same photosynthetic pigments found in cyanobacteria
  2. cell walls that lack peptidoglycan
  3. cells that are isotonic to conditions on the surface of the fish
  4. cells containing bacteriorhodopsin
  5. the presence of very large numbers of ion pumps in its plasma membrane
  6. A) 2 and 5
  7. B) 3 and 4
  8. C) 1, 4, and 5
  9. D) 3, 4, and 5
  10. E) 2, 3, 4, and 5



34) The termite gut protist, Mixotricha paradoxa, has at least two kinds of bacteria attached to its outer surface. One kind is a spirochete that propels its host through the termite gut. A second type of bacteria synthesizes ATP, some of which is used by the spirochetes. The locomotion provided by the spirochetes introduces the ATP-producing bacteria to new food sources. Which term(s) is (are) applicable to the relationship between the two kinds of bacteria?

  1. mutualism
  2. parasitism
  3. symbiosis
  4. metabolic cooperation
  5. A) 1 only
  6. B) 1 and 2
  7. C) 2 and 3
  8. D) 1, 3, and 4
  9. E) 2, 3, and 4



35) In general, what is the primary ecological role of prokaryotes?

A) parasitizing eukaryotes, thus causing diseases

B) breaking down organic matter

C) metabolizing materials in extreme environments

D) adding methane to the atmosphere

E) serving as primary producers in terrestrial environments



36) If all prokaryotes on Earth suddenly vanished, which of the following would be the most likely and most direct result?

  1. A) The number of organisms on Earth would decrease by 1020%.
  2. B) Human populations would thrive in the absence of disease.
  3. C) Bacteriophage numbers would dramatically increase.
  4. D) The recycling of nutrients would be greatly reduced, at least initially.
  5. E) There would be no more pathogens on Earth.



37) In a hypothetical situation, a bacterium lives on the surface of a leaf, where it obtains nutrition from the leaf's nonliving, waxy covering while inhibiting the growth of other microbes that are plant pathogens. If this bacterium gains access to the inside of a leaf, however, it causes a fatal disease in the plant. Once the plant dies, the bacterium and its offspring decompose the plant. What is the correct sequence of ecological roles played by the bacterium in the situation described here? Use only those that apply.

  1. nutrient recycler
  2. mutualist
  3. commensal
  4. parasite
  5. primary producer
  6. A) 1, 3, 4
  7. B) 2, 3, 4
  8. C) 2, 4, 1
  9. D) 1, 2, 5
  10. E) 1, 2, 3



38) Foods can be preserved in many ways by slowing or preventing bacterial growth. Which of these methods should be least effective at inhibiting bacterial growth?

  1. A) Refrigeration: slows bacterial metabolism and growth.
  2. B) Closing previously opened containers: prevents more bacteria from entering, and excludes O2.
  3. C) Pickling: creates a pH at which most bacterial enzymes cannot function.
  4. D) Canning in heavy sugar syrup: creates osmotic conditions that remove water from most bacterial cells.
  5. E) Irradiation: kills bacteria by mutating their DNA to such an extent that their DNA-repair enzymes are overwhelmed.



39) Broad-spectrum antibiotics inhibit the growth of most intestinal bacteria. Consequently, assuming that nothing is done to counter the reduction of intestinal bacteria, a hospital patient who is receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics is most likely to become

A) unable to fix carbon dioxide.

B) antibiotic resistant.

C) unable to fix nitrogen.

D) unable to synthesize peptidoglycan.

E) deficient in certain vitamins and nutrients.



73) Genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from

A) transduction.

B) transformation

C) conjugation

D) mutation.

E) meiosis.



74) Photoautotrophs use

  1. A) light as an energy source and CO2as a carbon source.
  2. B) light as an energy source and methane as a carbon source.
  3. C) N2as an energy source and CO2as a carbon source.
  4. D) CO2as both an energy source and a carbon source.
  5. E) H2S as an energy source and CO2as a carbon source.



75) Which of the following statements is not true?

  1. A) Archaea and bacteria have different membrane lipids.
  2. B) Both archaea and bacteria generally lack membrane-enclosed organelles.
  3. C) The cell walls of archaea lack peptidoglycan.
  4. D) Only bacteria have histones associated with DNA.
  5. E) Only some archaea use CO2to oxidize H2, releasing methane.



76) Which of the following involves metabolic cooperation among prokaryotic cells?

A) binary fission

B) endospore formation

C) endotoxin release

D) biofilms

E) photoautotrophy



77) Bacteria perform each of the following ecological roles. Which role typically does not involve a symbiosis?

A) skin commensalist

B) decomposer

C) aggregates with methane-consuming archaea

D) gut mutualist

E) pathogen



78) Plantlike photosynthesis that releases O2 occurs in

  1. A) cyanobacteria.
  2. B) chlamydias.
  3. C) archaea.
  4. D) actinomycetes.
  5. E) chemoautotrophic bacteria.