Microbiology Chapters 21 & 22 power point notes

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Microbiology
Chapters 21, 22
Micro 205 Fall 2012
updated 9 years ago by jenkarmata
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College: Second year
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1

Perspiration & sebum contain

nutrients

2

Salt inhibits

microbes- NOT FUNGI, FUNGI LOVES SALT

3

Lysozyme

hydrolyzes peptidoglycan

4

Fatty acids inibit

some pathogens

5

Antimicrobial peptides:

Defensins

6

Defensins-

Small peptide antibiotics made by human cells.

7

Normal Microbiota of the Skin

Gram-positive, salt-tolerant bacteria
*Staphylococci
*Micrococci
*Diphtheroids

8

Exanthem:

Skin rash arising from another focus of the infection.

9

Enanthem:

mucous membrane rash arising from another focus of the infection.

10

SKIN RASH arising from another focus point of the infection is

Exanthem

11

MUCOUS MEMBRANE RASH arising from another focus of the infection.

Enanthem

12

Staphylococcal skin infections:

Staphylococcus aureus-

Gram-positive cocci, COAGULASE-POSITIVE (causes clumping)

13

Staphylococcus aureus (bad news):

Is-

antibiotic resistant

14

Staphylococcus aureus

Leukocidin

15

Staphylococcus aureus resists

opsoniztion

16

Staphylococcus aureus survives in

phagolysosome

17

Staphylococcus aureus is

lysozyme resistant

18

Staphylococcus aureus is an

exfoliative toxin

19

Staphylococcus aureus is a

superantigen

20

Staphylococcal skin infections can cause:

* Folliculitis
* Sty
* Furuncle
* Carbuncle
* Impetigo

21

Folliculitis:

Infection of the hair follicles

22

Sty:

folliculitis of an eyelash

23

Furuncle:

abscess; pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

24

Carbuncle:

Inflammation of tissue under the skin

25

Impetigo:

crusting (nonbullous) sores, spread by autoinoculation.

26

Scalded Skin Syndrome:
can also cause-

* Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
- Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1

* Scalded skin syndrome
- Bullous impetigo
- Impetigo of the newborn

27

Streptococcal skin infections:

can produce/cause-

* Streptococcus pyogenes
* Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci
* Hemolysins
* Hyaluronidase
* Streptolysins
* M proteins
- Exotoxin A

28

Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome:

* M proteins
* Complex w/fibrinogen
* Binds to neutorphils
* Activates neutrophils
* Release of damaging enzymes
* Shock & organ damage

29

Infections by Pseudomonads:

* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Gram-negative, aerobic rod
- Pyocyanin produces a blue-green pus
* Pseudomonas dermatitis (cause)
- Otitis externa (swimmers ear)
- Post-burn infections
* (is) Opportunistic

30

Buruli Ulcer is caused by

Mycobacterium ulcerans

31

Buruli Ulcer is

deep, damaging ulcers

32

Buruli Ulcer

exceeds incidence of leprosy

33

Classifications of Acne:

* Comedonal (mild) acne
* Inflammatory (moderate) acne
* Nodular cystic (severe) acne

34

Comedonal is _________ acne.

mild

35

Inflammatory acne is _________ acne.

moderate

36

Nodular cystic acne is _________ acne.

severe

37

Treatment for nodular cystic acne

Isotretinoin

38

Viral diseases of the skin:

* Warts
* Small pox
* Monkeypox
* Chickenpox
* Shingles
* Cold sores
* Measles
* Rubella
* Fifth disease
* Roseola

39

Warts

Papillomaviruse

40

Warts:

Treatment-

* Removal
* Cryotherapy
* Electrodesiccation
* Salicylic acid
* Imiquimod (stimulates interferon production)
* Bleomycin

41

Poxviruses:

* Smallpox (variola)
* Monkeypox

42

Smallpox (variola)

* Smallpox virus (orthopoxvirus)
- Variola major
-Variola minor
* Eradicated by vaccination

43

Monkeypox

prevention by smallpox vaccination

44

Chickenpox

Varicella-zoster virus (human herpesvirus 3)

45

Chickenpox:

transmitted by

respiratory route

46

Chickenpox:

causes

pus-filled vesicles

47

Chickenpox virus may remain laten in

dorsal root ganglia (spinal nerve)

48

Chickenpox prevention:

live attenuated vaccine

49

Shingles is the

reactivation of latent HHV-3, releases viruses that move along peripheral nerves to skin.

50

Shingles prevention:

live attenuated vaccine

51

Shingles- treatment

Acyclovir may lesson symptoms

52

Herpes Simplex

Human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2)

53

Herpes Simplex causes

Cold sores and/or fever blisters (vesicles on lips)

54

HSV-1-

can remain latent in trigeminal nerve ganglia

55

Herpes Simplex- treatment

Acyclovir

56

Measles (Rubeola) is a

measles virus

57

Measles is transmitted by

respiratory route

58

Measles causes

macular rash & Koplik's spots

59

Measles is prevented due to

vaccinations

60

Rubella (German Measles)

Rubella virus

61

Rubella causes

Macular rash and fever & CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME which causes severe fetal damage

62

How to prevent Rubella

vaccination

63

Fifth Disease

also known as Erythemia infectiosum
- Human parvovirus B19 produces mild flulike symptoms & facial rash

64

Cutaneous Mycoses

* DERMATOMYCOSES
- Also known as tineas or ringworm
- Metabolize keratin

** Common in southwest where it is hot & dusty**

65

Cutaneous Mycoses:

Genera of fungi involved-

* Trichophyton: infects hair, skin & nails
* Epidermophyton: infects skin & nails
* Microsporum: infects hair & skin

66

Genera of fungi that infects the Hair & skin-

* Trichophyton & Microsporum

67

Genera of fungi that infects the skin & nails-

* Trichophyton & Epidermophyton

68

Microsporum infects

hair & skin

69

Trichophyton infects

hair, skin & nails

70

Epidermophyton infects

skin and nails

71

Cutaneous Mycoses:

Treatment

* Topical miconazole
* Topical allylamine

72

Subcutaneous Mycoses

is more serious than cutaneous mycoses

73

Subcutaneous Mycoses

* Sporotrichosis
- Sporothrix schenkii= enters punture wound
- Treated with potassium iodid (KI)

74

Candidiasis

* Candida albicans (yeast)

75

Candidiasis may result when

antibiotics suppress competing bacteria.
- Occurs in skin & mucous membranes of genitourinary tract & mouth.
- Thrush: an infection of mucous membranes of mouth

76

Candidiasis:

Treatment

fluconazole

77

Scabies:

Sarcoptes scabies burrows in the skin to lay eggs

78

Scabies treatment

Topical insecticides

79

Pediculosis (lice)

* Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse)
* P.h. corporis (body louse)
- Feed on blood
- Lay eggs (nits) on hair
- Treatment: topical insecticides

80

Bacterial Diseases of the Eye

* Conjunctivitis

81

Bacterial Diseases of the Eye

Conjunctivitis:

* inflammation of the conjunctiva
* also called pinkeye or red eye
* commonly caused by Haemophilus influenzae
* associated w/unsanitary contact lenses

82

Bacterial Diseases of the Eye

Ophthalmia neonatorum:

* Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
* Transmitted to a newborn's eyes during labor
* Prevented by treating a newborn's eyes
with antibiotics

83

Bacterial Diseases of the Eye

Chlamydia trachomatis

84

Chlamydia trachomatis causes

inclusion conjunctivitis, or chlamydial conjunctivitis.

85

Chlamydia is transmitted to newborn's eyes during

passage through the birth canal

86

Chlamydia trachomatis is spread through

swimming pool water

87

Chalmydia is treated with

tetracycline

88

Chlamydia trachomatis causes

trachoma

89

Trachoma is the leading cause of

blindness worldwide

90

Chlamydia trachomatis infection causes permanent

scarring; scars abrade the cornea, leading to blindness

91

Other infectious diseases of the eye

Keratitis:

* Inflammation of the cornea
* Fusariuim & Aspergillus (Africa & Asia)

92

Other infectious diseases of the eye

Herpetic keratitis:

* caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)
* infects cornea & MAY CAUSE BLINDNESS

93

Other infectious diseases of the eye

Acanthamoeba keratitis

* transmitted via water
* Associated w/unsanitary contact lenses

94

Acanthamoeba keratitis is transmitted via

water

95

Acanthamoeba keratitis is associated with

unsanitary contact lenses