Chapter 8 MICRO

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Microbiology
Chapter 8
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1

Where the RNA polymerase and the newly formed mRNA are released.

Terminator site

2

Enzymes that assemble the nucleotides of DNA into chains.

DNA polymerase

3

Formation of protein from the genetic information contained in mRNA

Translation

4

Formation of mRNA from the genetic information contained in DNA

Transcription

5

Enzymes that bind short strands of DNA together into longer strands.

DNA ligases

6

Where transcription begins on mRNA.

Promoter site

7

ii A sequence of three bases coding for the position of an amino acid in the assembly of a protein chain.

Codon

8

A cluster of related genes together with a operator and promoter sites on mRNA.

Operon

9

A sequence of three bases on tRNA that locates the codon on the mRNA at the ribosome.

Anticodon

10

A sequence of bases that does not code for an amino acid, but that terminates the protein or polypeptide chain.

Stop codon

11

DNA region of eukaryotic cell that is expressed.

Exon

12

iii. The actual template upon which the protein or polypeptide chain is assembled.

mRNA

13

The product of transcription.

mRNA

14

One of these is specific for each of the 20 amino acids.

tRNA

15

The original genetic information in a bacteria cell.

DNA

16

Relaxes supercoiling ahead of the replication fork.

DNA gyrase

17

Unwinds double-stranded DNA.

Helicase

18

Stops protein synthesis after transcription has occurred.

miRNA

19

iv. The probability of a gene mutation each time a cell divides.

Mutation rate

20

Usually a result of the deletion or addition of a base pair.

Frameshift mutation

21

A mutation caused by a chemical that is structurally similar to nucleotide components such as adenine or thymine.

Nucleotide-analog type of mutagen

22

A mutagen that would, for example, make the base adenine pair with cytosine instead of thymine.

Base pair type of mutagen

23

v. DNA transferred between cells in solution in the suspending medium.

Transformation in bacteria

24

Requires contact between living cells of opposite bacteria mating types.

Conjugation in bacteria

25

Requires a sex pilus

Conjugation in bacteria

26

Hfr cells

Conjugation in bacteria

27

The method by which plasmids such as F factors are transferred between cells.

Conjugation in bacteria

28

Turns genes off by methylating certain nucleotides.

Epigenic control

29

vi. Contain genes coding for enzymes that catabolize unusual sugars for hydrocarbons, for example.

Dissimilation plasmids

30

Contain genes for synthesis of toxic proteins lethal for other bacteria.

Bacteriocinogenic plasmids

31

v ii. Ultraviolet light

Nonionizing radiation

32

In the operon model, the place on the mRNA at which the repressor binds to prevent transcription of structural genes into a protein.

Operator

33

In the operon model, the regulator gene codes for a protein of this name.

Repressor

34

X ray

Ionizing radiation

35

viii. In replicating a strand of DNA, where adenine is on the original strand, there will be this on the new strand.

Thymine

36

When a strand of mRNA is made from DNA, this is found where adenine is located on the original DNA.

Transposons

37

A nutritional mutant.

Auxotroph

38

In the Ames test, the Salmonella bacterium has lost the ability to synthesize this.

Histidine

39

Small segments of DNA that can move from one region of the chromosome to another.

Transposons

40

Colonies growing on a master plate containing a complete medium can be transferred simultaneously to minimal medium by the _________ technique.

Replica Plating

41

A segment of DNA that codes for functional product is a(n) _______.

Gene

42

The site at which the replicating DNA strands separate is called the __________.

Replication fork

43

The organisms entire genetic potential is the _________.

Genotype

44

A cell with a cell wall permeable to a soluble DNA is ___________.

Competent

45

Bacteria that have the F factor integrated into their chromosome and that tend to transfer F factor and chromes together are called _________ cells.

Hfr

46

Enzymes that are always present in the cytoplasm are called ___________ enzymes.

Constitutive

47

Some R factors have a set of genes called the r-determinant that codes for resistance, and another set of genes called the ___________ that codes for replication and conjugation.

Resistance transfer

48

A bacterial virus is known, for short, as a(n) ____________.

Phage