Chapter 6 MICRO

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Microbiology
Chapter 6
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1

Adapted to high salt concentrations, which are required for growth.

Extreme halophile

2

The general term used for organisms capable of growth at 0 degrees C.

Psychrophile

3

Capable of growth at high temperatures; optimum 50-60 degrees C.

Psychrotroph

4

Used in media to neutralize acids

Buffer

5

A phenomenon that occurs when bacteria are placed in high salt concentration.

Plasmolysis

6

Term used in text for organisms that grow well at refrigerator temperatures; optimum growth is at temperature 20-30 degrees C.

Psychrotroph

7

Microbes that grow better at high CO2 concentrations

Capnophile

8

Members of the archaea with an optimum growth temperature at 80 degrees C or higher.

Hyperthermophile

9

The matrix that makes up biofilm

Hydrogel

10

An Enzyme acting upon hydrogen peroxide

Catalase

11

Rhizobium bacteria do this in symbiosis with leguminous plants

Nitrogen fixation

12

Requires atmospheric oxygen to grow

Obligate anaerobe

13

Requires atmospheric oxygen, but in lower than normal concentrations.

Microaerophile

14

Does not use oxygen, but grows readily in its presence.

Aerotolerant anaerobe

15

Does not use oxygen and usually finds it toxic

Obligate anaerobe

16

Important source of energy, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur requirements in complex media

Peptones

17

Breaks down hydrogen peroxide without generation of oxygen.

Peroxidase

18

Formed in cytoplasm by ionizing radiation

Hydroxyl Radical

19

An enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water

Catalase

20

The toxic form of oxygen neutralized by superoxide dismutase.

Superoxide radicals

21

A component added to some culture media that makes the Petri plate into a self-contained anaerobic chamber.

Oxyrase

22

Synonym for superoxide anions

Superoxide radicals

23

Isolation method for getting pure cultures; uses an inoculating loop to trace pattern of inoculum on a solid medium.

Streak Plate

24

Colonies grow on agar surface for identification

Spread plate

25

Used to increase the numbers of a small minority of microorganisms in a mixed culture to arrive at detectable level of microorganisms

Enrichment culture

26

Preservation method that uses quick-freezing and a high vacuum

Lyopholization

27

Accumulations of microbes large enough to see without a microscope

Colonies

28

Microbes added to initiate growth

Inoculum

29

Agar is a(n) _______ derived from a marine alga.

polysaccharide

30

A few bacteria and the photosynthesizing ________ are able to use gaseous nitrogen directly from the atmosphere.

cyanobacteria

31

_________ are the most common microbes; their optimum temperatures bare 25-40 degrees C.

mesophiles

32

Osmotic effects are roughly related to the _________ of molecules in a given volume of a solution.

number

33

A complex medium in liquid form is called nutrient _______.

broth

34

For preservation by ________, a pure culture of microbes is placed in a suspending liquid and quick frozen at -50 to -95 degrees C.

deep-freezing

35

Bacteria usually reproduced by ________ fission.

binary

36

Turbidity is recorded in a spectrophotometer as _________

absorbance (also optical density)

37

The growth of filamentous organisms such as fungi is often best recorded by means of ___________.

dry weight measurement

38

_________ grow more efficiently aerobically than they do aerobically than they do anaerobically

facultative anaerobes

39

__________ do not require high salt concentrations, but they are able to grow at salt concentrations that may inhibit the growth of many other bacteria.

facultative halophiles

40

Examples of buffers are ________ salts; peptones and __________ found in complex media are also buffers.

phosphate; amino acids

41

Any nutrient material prepared for the growth of bacteria in a laboratory is called _________.

culture medium

42

Agar melts at about the boiling point of water, but remains liquid until the temperature drops to about _______.

40 degrees C

43

Dilutions of a bacterial mixture are poured into a Petri dish and mixed with melted agar. This plate-counting method is called _________.

pour plate method

44

Partially digested protein products used in complex media are called _______.

peptones

45

To grow obligate intracellular parasites such as rickettsias and chlamydias, it is usually necessary to provide _________.

living host cedlls

46

The general term for tests that estimate microbial growth by the time required for them ti deplete oxygen in the medium is ______ tests.

reduction

47

The _______ growth temperature is that at which the organism grows best.

optimum

48

When a single colony arises from a clump of bacteria, it is recorded was a(n)

colony-forming units

49

Used to grow obligate anaerobes.

Reducing media

50

Designed to suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria and to encourage growth of desired microbes

Selective media

51

Generally contain ingredients such as sodium thioglycolate that chemically combine with dissolved oxygen.

Reducing media

52

Nutrients are digests or extracts; exact chemical composition varies slightly from batch to batch.

Complex media

53

New cell numbers balanced by death of cells

Stationary phase

54

No cell division, but intense metabolic activity.

Differential media

55

A logarithmic plot of the population produces an ascending straight line.

Log phase

56

Usual laboratory designation for safe handling of tuberculosis bacteria.

BSL-3

57

Laboratory designation for the most dangerous microorganisms; personnel wear "space suits".

BSL-4

58

A routine microbiology teaching laboratory would be designated as this.

BSL-1