Chapter 6 MICRO
Adapted to high salt concentrations, which are required for growth.
The general term used for organisms capable of growth at 0 degrees C.
Capable of growth at high temperatures; optimum 50-60 degrees C.
Used in media to neutralize acids
A phenomenon that occurs when bacteria are placed in high salt concentration.
Term used in text for organisms that grow well at refrigerator temperatures; optimum growth is at temperature 20-30 degrees C.
Microbes that grow better at high CO2 concentrations
Members of the archaea with an optimum growth temperature at 80 degrees C or higher.
The matrix that makes up biofilm
An Enzyme acting upon hydrogen peroxide
Rhizobium bacteria do this in symbiosis with leguminous plants
Requires atmospheric oxygen to grow
Requires atmospheric oxygen, but in lower than normal concentrations.
Does not use oxygen, but grows readily in its presence.
Does not use oxygen and usually finds it toxic
Important source of energy, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur requirements in complex media
Breaks down hydrogen peroxide without generation of oxygen.
Formed in cytoplasm by ionizing radiation
An enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water
The toxic form of oxygen neutralized by superoxide dismutase.
A component added to some culture media that makes the Petri plate into a self-contained anaerobic chamber.
Synonym for superoxide anions
Isolation method for getting pure cultures; uses an inoculating loop to trace pattern of inoculum on a solid medium.
Colonies grow on agar surface for identification
Used to increase the numbers of a small minority of microorganisms in a mixed culture to arrive at detectable level of microorganisms
Preservation method that uses quick-freezing and a high vacuum
Accumulations of microbes large enough to see without a microscope
Microbes added to initiate growth
Agar is a(n) _______ derived from a marine alga.
A few bacteria and the photosynthesizing ________ are able to use gaseous nitrogen directly from the atmosphere.
_________ are the most common microbes; their optimum temperatures bare 25-40 degrees C.
Osmotic effects are roughly related to the _________ of molecules in a given volume of a solution.
A complex medium in liquid form is called nutrient _______.
For preservation by ________, a pure culture of microbes is placed in a suspending liquid and quick frozen at -50 to -95 degrees C.
Bacteria usually reproduced by ________ fission.
Turbidity is recorded in a spectrophotometer as _________
absorbance (also optical density)
The growth of filamentous organisms such as fungi is often best recorded by means of ___________.
dry weight measurement
_________ grow more efficiently aerobically than they do aerobically than they do anaerobically
__________ do not require high salt concentrations, but they are able to grow at salt concentrations that may inhibit the growth of many other bacteria.
Examples of buffers are ________ salts; peptones and __________ found in complex media are also buffers.
phosphate; amino acids
Any nutrient material prepared for the growth of bacteria in a laboratory is called _________.
Agar melts at about the boiling point of water, but remains liquid until the temperature drops to about _______.
40 degrees C
Dilutions of a bacterial mixture are poured into a Petri dish and mixed with melted agar. This plate-counting method is called _________.
pour plate method
Partially digested protein products used in complex media are called _______.
To grow obligate intracellular parasites such as rickettsias and chlamydias, it is usually necessary to provide _________.
living host cedlls
The general term for tests that estimate microbial growth by the time required for them ti deplete oxygen in the medium is ______ tests.
The _______ growth temperature is that at which the organism grows best.
When a single colony arises from a clump of bacteria, it is recorded was a(n)
Used to grow obligate anaerobes.
Designed to suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria and to encourage growth of desired microbes
Generally contain ingredients such as sodium thioglycolate that chemically combine with dissolved oxygen.
Nutrients are digests or extracts; exact chemical composition varies slightly from batch to batch.
New cell numbers balanced by death of cells
No cell division, but intense metabolic activity.
A logarithmic plot of the population produces an ascending straight line.
Usual laboratory designation for safe handling of tuberculosis bacteria.
Laboratory designation for the most dangerous microorganisms; personnel wear "space suits".
A routine microbiology teaching laboratory would be designated as this.