chapter 4 Flashcards


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1

Is the cell division that takes place in somatic cell

Mitosis

2

Cells include all the cells of the body except sex cells

Somatic

3

When a cell is dividing, the DNA is tightly coiled

Chromosome

4

The two phases of the cell cycle are interphase and

Mitotic phase

5

In cell division, one cell divides to produce two identical cells called

Daughter cells

6

Is a means by which cells release substances to the outside. This process requires the cell to expand energy in the form of . Typically the secretion is packaged into vesicle which fuse with the plasma membrane prior to release

  • Exocytosis
  • ATP

7

The is the "control center" of cellular activities in a cell

Nucleus

8

Which statements correctly describe the nuclear envelope?

  • It controls the entry of substances into and out of the nucleus
  • It contains phospholipids
  • It is continuous with the ER
  • It is a double membrane

9

Are protein- digesting organelles in the nucleus and cytosol of cells

Proteasomes

10

The primary structure for the processing and packaging of proteins for transport out of the cell is the

Golgi apparatus

11

Which statements characterize organells

  • They are generally located within cells
  • They play roles in growth, repair, and cellular maintenance
  • Each type of organelle has a specific function

12

Place the steps of transcription in order

  1. DNA is unwound and RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter of the gene
  2. RNA polymerase forms a copy of the gene
  3. The RNA strand is released from the DNA strand

13

Which are required for translation?

  • mRNA
  • Ribosomes
  • Amino acids
  • tRNA

14

Rapid digestion of a cell by its own lysosome is called

Autolysis

15

The organelle in which transcription takes place is the

Nucleus

16

All material that enter or leaves the cell must pass across the

Plasma membrane

17

Match the tonicity to its definition

Isotonic- The cytosol and solution outside the cell have the same concentration of solutes.

Hypotonic- The solution outside the cell has a lower concentration of solutes then the cytosol.

Hypertonic- The solution outside the cell has a higher concentration of solutes then the cytosol.

18

Which statements describe chromosome?

  • They contain DNA and protein
  • They are more condensed then chromatin

19

Ion movement though small proteins in the membrane is an example of

Channel-mediated

20

junctions are found between adjacent epithelial cells and prevent substances from leaking between them

Tight

21

One of the main factors that influences membrane permeability is

Molecular size

22

Forms of passive transport across cell membranes includes

  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis

23

During translation, the site is where the new amino acids join the ribosome, the site is where the new polypeptide is forming and the site is from where the tRNA exits

  • Aminoacyl
  • Peptidyl
  • E

24

A is required for osmosis to occur

Selectively Permeable

25

Is the tendency of molecules to move from area of high concentration to low concentration

Diffision

26

Match the stage of translation with the events that occur with it

  • Initiation- mRNA binds to ribosome subunits and a tRNA carrying methionine
  • Elongation- Amino acids are added to form a protein
  • Termination- Ribosome subunits separate and the protein is released

27

Cell membrane contains

  • Cholesterol
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • several different types of lipids

28

Which of the following are classified as plasma membrane protein

  • Receptor
  • Identity markers
  • Transport protein
  • Enzymes

29

Types of cell membrane junction

  • Desmosome
  • Tight junction
  • Gap junction

30

A three nucleotide unit of mRNA is known as

Codon

31

Is a passive form of transport

Simple diffusion

32

Which are function of smooth ER

  • Transport of lipids
  • Detoxification of alcohol
  • Synthesis of lipids
  • metabolism of carbohydrates

33

Put the steps of translation into the proper order

  1. Ribosome subunits bind the mRNA and a tRNA
  2. Protein synthesis begins with the amino acid methionine
  3. Anticodons and codon are paired; amino acids are joined
  4. A stop codon is read
  5. Ribosomal subunits separate releasing the protein

34

Which statement characterizes metaphase

  • Chromosome line up alone the equatorial plate of the cell
  • It directly follows prophase

35

Old or worn out organelles in a cell are removed by what organelle

Lysosome

36

In passive transport processes, materials flow from a region of concentration of the material to a region of concentration of the same material

  • high
  • low

37

Match the nucleotide pairs of DNA

  • Adenine- pair with Thymine
  • Guanine- pair with Cytosine
  • Cytosine- pair with Guanine
  • Thymine- pair with Adenine

38

Desmosome membrane junctions are reinforced by

Intermediate filaments

39

Which statement characterize anaphase?

  • It directly follows metaphase
  • Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids apart

40

Proteins that assist the movement of a substance across the cell membrane are called

Transmembrane proteins

41

Cell membrane can regulate the transport of materials into and out of the cell. Thus, cell membranes are said to be

Selectively permeable

42

During transcription builds an RNA copy of a DNA gene

RNA polymerase

43

True or False: The steeper the concentration gradient of a solute, the lower the osmotic pressure

False

44

Match the events of mitosis with each phase

  • Anaphase- centromeres, that hold sister chromatid pairs, separate
  • Metaphase- microtubules from mitotic spindle attach to centromeres
  • Prophase- nucleolus disappears
  • Telephase- chromosome arrive at poles

45

Which statement characterize microvilli

  • They function to increase the surface area of the plasma membrane
  • They are microscopic projections of the plasma membrane
  • They are smaller then cilia

46

The process that occurs on ribosome by which a mRNA transcript is read and a new protein produced is called

Translation

47

Match the DNA structures

  • Chromatin- finely filament mass of DNA and protein
  • Chromosome- become visible only when the cell is dividing
  • Nucleosome- DNA double helix wound around a cluster of histones

48

The two major categories of membrane transport are transport that requires no energy expenditure and transport

  • Passive
  • Active

49

Flagellum means

whip like

50

Chromation is composed of

  • DNA
  • Proteins

51

The process in which a mRNA copy of a gene is read by ribosomes in the cytoplasm to produce a protein is called

Translation

52

The bulk of the plasma membrane consists of a

Phospholipid

53

Which organelles are the "powerhouse" of the cell because they perform aerobic respiration?

Mitochondria

54

In the cell cycle, division of the nucleus is called

Mitosis

55

Which statements characterize rough ER

  • The amount of rough ER is greater in cells that produce a large amount of proteins for secretion
  • Ribosomes are attached to rough ER

56

The Na+ K+ exchange pump is a special type of ion pump called an pump because it moves one type of ion into a cell its concentration gradient and another type of ion out of the cell its concentration gradient

  • Exchange
  • against
  • against

57

junctions allow small solute to travel between adjacent cells

Gap

58

Transport (shuttle) vesicles are produced within a cell by

Rough ER

59

Which of the following statements correctly describe enzymes

  • They may be attached to the internal or external surface of a cell
  • They are catalyst
  • They are protein

60

The primary cellular sites for the production of proteins are the

Ribosome

61

A type of steroid called is scattered with in the hydrophobic regions of the phospholipid bilayer, where it strengthens the membrane and stabilizes it at extreme temperature

Cholesterol

62

Which statements characterize prophase?

  • The nuclear envelope disappears
  • Its is the first stage of mitosis
  • Chromation condenses into chromosome

63

Internally, cilia and flagella contain cytoplasm and . They are enclosed by the plasma membrane

Microtubule

64

Select all that are found in the cell membrane

  • Phospholipids
  • Cholesterol
  • Glygolipid

65

The centrosome contains two that lie perpendicular to one another

Centrioles

66

The cis- face of the Golgi apparatus is also called the region

Receiving

67

Because of the structure of the phospholipid of bilayer, some water molecules slip through the phospholipid bilayer in limited amounts but large amounts of water must pass through

Aquaporins

68

Which statement characterize the S phase of interphase?

  • DNA replicates during this phase
  • It directly follows the G1 phase

69

The last part of interphase is the phase

G2