chapter 3 Flashcards


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1

The names of most enzymes end with the suffix

ase

2

Which word describes all the decomposition reaction in the body?

catabolism

3

Match the names of the parts of the pictured chemical equation

AB --> A+B

Reactant [A B] because this is the starting chemical, it is the reactant.

Product [A,B] because this chemical is formed at the end of the product. It is produced by the reaction.

4

Which terms can be applied to most synthesis reaction in the body?

  • Anabolic
  • Endergonic
5

ATP formation is an reaction because energy must be supplied for the reaction to occur

Endergonic

6

ATP splitting is an reaction because energy is released

Exergonic

7

A ball rolling across a table exhibits kinetic energy

Mechanical

8

The reaction pictured is a reaction

Co2 + H20 <--> H2Co2

Reversible

9

The combination of all catabolic and anabolic chemical reactions is referred to as

Metabolism

10

The type of potential energy that is stored in a molecule's chemical band is called energy.

Chemical

11

The reaction pictured is an example of an reaction.

Sucrose --> Glucose + Fructose

  • Catabolic
  • Hydrolysis
  • Decompositon
12

The reaction picture is a reaction

amino acids H20 Dipeptide

  • Synthesis
  • Dehydration
  • Anabolic
13

A reaction in which electrons are transferred from one chemical structure to another is referred to as an

Oxidation reduction reaction

14

Light that can be detected by the retina is referred as a

Visible

15

In an reaction, the products have more energy than the reactants.

Enderganic

16

A is a method of writing a summary of the changes that occur in a chemical reaction.

Chemical equation

17

Which terms can be used to classify reactions based on the relative amounts of energy in reactants and products?

  • Endergonic
  • Exergonic
18

If the optimal temp. for an enzyme is significantly exceeded, the enzyme may

Denature

19

Which of the following determine reaction rate in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?

  • The activation energy
  • The energy required to break existing bonds
20

The temporary structure formed when an enzyme binds to subtracted is known as an complex.

enzyme- substrate

21

If an electron and a hydrogen ion are removed from a structure during a chemical reaction, the structure is said to have been

Oxicized

22

Which of the following terms can be applied to most decomposition reactions in the body?

  • Catabolic
  • Exergonic
23

reactions still occur, but at a much slower rate

Uncatalyzed

24

Enzymes are biological cataylists

  • They bring the reactants together
  • They remain unchanged by the reaction
25

significantly speed up chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy. They do this by binding to the reactants and bringing them together, or splitting them apart. At the end, the catalysts is unchanged and can do the same work again.

Catalysts

26

chemical reactions: Classification basic on chemical structure:

Synthesis

  • Two glucose molecules are combined to form maltose
  • Anabolism
  • ADP & P1. combine to form ATP
27

chemical reactions: Classification basic on chemical structure:

Decomposition

  • A polypeptide is hydrolyzed into the amino acids
  • Catabolism
28

chemical reactions: Classification basic on chemical structure:

Exchange

  • oxidation-reduction
  • Movenment of electrons from one chemical structure to another
29

In an reaction, energy is released. There, the reactants have more energy then the products.

Exergonic

30

Many synthesis in the body are dehydration reactions but decomposition reactions are not.

Dehydration

31

reactions absorb energy and yield products rich in potential energy

Endergonic

32

speed up the reaction

Catalyst

33

reactions release energy and yield products that contain less potential energy than their reactants

Exergonic

34

Inhibitors interfere with enzymes

  • A competitive inhibitor takes the place of a substrate in the active site
  • A noncompetitive inhibitor alters an enzyme's function by changing its shape
35

is composed of numerous enzymes to convert a specific substrate to the final product. The product of one enzyme is the substrate for the next enzyme in the pathway. Can be regulated by negative feedback that involves a product that serves as an allosteric inhibitor binding to an enzyme early in the patthway

Metabolic pathway

36

The energy required to break existing chemical bonds for the chemical reaction to proceed is called

Activation energy, or Ea

37

An enzyme

  • Its a catalyst
  • it increases reaction rate
  • it decreases activation energy
38

A molecule or ion that aids an enzyme to ensure a reaction occurs is known as an

Cofactor

39

is the collective term for all the synthesis reactions in the body

Anabolism

40

The law of thermodynamies states that a quantity of energy can't be completely transferred from one form into another

Second

41

Which type of reaction involves both synthesis and decomposition?

Exchange

42

If multiple enzymes in a metabolic pathway are physically attached to each other, they form a

multienzyme complex

43

If a hydrogen ion and an eletron is added to a structure during a chemical reaction, the structure is said to have been

Reduced

44

Most enzymes are proteins that range is size from 60 to 2500 amino acids

Globular

45

If further increase in substrate concentration do not result in further increases in reaction rate, than an enzyme is likely

Saturation

46

In the mnemonic "LEO" says "GER". The acronym "LEO" stands for

Loses Electrons is Oxidized

47

The movement of ions across a membrane is an example of

Electrical

48

The vibrating string on a violin imparts kinetic energy to the air around it.

Sound

49

Which conditions will increase the rate of a chemical reaction?

  • Increased reactant concentration
  • Addition of a catalyst
  • Increased temperature
50

Most enzymes are capable of catalyzing type of reaction .

one

51

An binds to a site apart from the active site to prevent an enzyme from catalyzing a reaction.

Allosteric inhibitor

52

The is the location on an enzyme where the substrate binds

Active site

53

Which of the following statements correctly describes energy?

  • Energy is the capacity to do work
54

Enzyme binds to an enzyme to turn it off, thus preventing it from catalyzing a reaction

inhibitors

55

If a cofactor is an organic molecule it is also sometimes called an

Coenzymes

56

The study of energy transformation is called

Thermodynamics

57

The activation energy of a catalyzed reaction is that of an uncatalyzed reaction

lower then

58

The site a noncompetitive inhibitor binds to is called an site

Allosteric

59

Which terms can be used to classify reactions based on the relative amounts of energy in reaction and products?

  • Exergonic
  • Endergonic
60

If the rate of a reaction leads to a net loss of reactants, than the reaction is considered

irreversible

61

How are metabolic pathways usually regulated?

negative feedback

62

The type of chemical reaction that occurs when two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form a larger chemical structure is called reaction

Synthesis

63

are present prior to the start of a chemical reaction

Reactants

64

Activation energy is only required in endergonic reaction

false

65

The process of removing a phosphate is

dephosphorylation

66

A binds to the active site of an enzyme to stop the enzyme from catalyzing a reaction.

Competitive inhibitor

67

When terms can be applied to most synthesis reactions in the body?

  • Anabolic
  • Endergonic
68

The reaction pictured is an reaction

A + B --> AB

irreversible

69

Place the steps in enzyme action in proper order:

  1. Substrate bind to active site
  2. Change in enzyme structure leads to induced fit
  3. The change in enzyme structure stresses bonds in the substrate
  4. Substrates bonds are broken
  5. New bonds are formed
  6. The product is released from the enzyme
70

Which is the optimal pH range for most human enzyme?

6 to 8

71

Mechanical and electrical energy are both forms of energy

Kinetic

72

Which is used to measure the heat energy of a substance?

Temperature

73

are formed during a chemical reaction

Product

74

Which are forms of radiant energy?

  • Radio waves
  • ultraviolet light
  • visible light
75

The law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

First

76

Which are involved in a chemical reaction?

  • Formation of chemical bonds
  • Breaking of chemical bonds
77
  • The energy associated with random motion of ions and not available to do work is kinetic energy

heat

78

A biologically active catalyst is known as

Enzymes

79

At equilibrium, a reversible reaction proceeds in direction.

Both

80

Match the class of enzyme with description of its basic function

  • Oxidoreductase-Transfer electrons from one substance to another
  • Transferase- Transfers a functional group
  • Hydrolase- splits a chemical bond using water
  • Isomerase- converts one isomer to another
  • Ligase- Bonds two molecules together
  • Lyase-splits a chemical bond in the absence of water
81

Which of the following are criteria are for chemical reactions?

  • Changes in chemical energy
  • Changes in chemical structure
  • Reversibility or irreversibility
82

Which type of reaction results when a large molecule break down into smaller molecules?

Decomposition

83

Kinetic energy in the form of electromagnetic waves is known as energy

radiant

84

Which is a significant factor affecting enzymes reaction rate?

Temperature

85

Which functions primarily as energy storage in the human body?

  • ATP (is potential energy. It stores energy in its phosphate bonds)
  • Glycogen
  • Triglycerides
86

A pile of gun power can represent chemical energy, while a flying bullet can represent mechanical energy.

  • Potential
  • Kinetic