AP Gov Test 2

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1

The transferring of responsibility for policies from the federal government to the states is

a) intergovernmental relations.

b) pluralism.

c) devolution.

d) evolution.

e) fiscal federalism.

c) devolution.

2

Fiscal federalism is

a) the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.

b) the distinct separation of national government spending versus state and local government spending.

c) the federal income tax.

d) a sharing of local and national resources practiced in other countries but not the United States.

e) the federal government's regulation of the money supply and interest rates.

a) the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.

3

In the Constitution, the powers to coin money, to enter into treaties, and to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the states were given to

a) the Senate only.

b) neither the individual states nor the national government.

c) the national government.

d) both the individual states and the national government.

e) the individual states.

c) the national government.

4

Grants that are given more or less automatically to states or communities, which have discretion in deciding how to spend the money, are called

a) project grants.

b) discretionary grants.

c) categorical grants.

d) formula grants.

e) block grants.

e) block grants.

5

Funding for the interstate highway system is an example of

a) cooperative federalism.

b) a unitary system of government.

c) dual federalism.

d) national federalism.

e) tripartite federalism.

a) cooperative federalism.

6

Which of the following helps explain the failed government response to Hurricane Katrina?

a) The governor was reluctant to "federalize" the Louisiana National Guard because she feared losing authority over it and lacked confidence in the national government.

b) State and local officials assumed Washington would provide rapid and substantial aid, but leaders in Louisiana and New Orleans were not always sure what they needed.

c) Fractured division of responsibility meant that no one person or agency was in charge.

d) Open-ended pleas for help from state and local officials were hard for federal officials to interpret.

e) All of these help explain the failed government response to Hurricane Katrina.

e) All of these help explain the failed government response to Hurricane Katrina.

7

Federal support for public education is an example of

a) separation of powers.

b) dual federalism.

c) layer cake federalism.

d) cooperative federalism.

e) pragmatic federalism.

d) cooperative federalism.

8

Cooperative federalism refers to a system in which

a) the state governments reign supreme over the national government.

b) the national government and the state governments have clearly defined, distinct powers and policy assignments.

c) the national government reigns supreme over the state governments.

d) the national government and the state governments share powers and policy assignments.

e) None of the above is true.

d) the national government and the state governments share powers and policy assignments.

9

Which of the following is a way that federalism contributes to democracy.

a) By ensuring that all states provide the same levels of services to their citizens, federalism ensures equality in democracy.

b) By decentralizing the political system, federalism creates more opportunities for political participation.

c) By decreasing the number of units of government, federalism reduces citizen access to government and public policy.

d) By centralizing the political system, federalism protects the political system from the whims of the masses.

e) None of these is a way that federalism contributes to democracy.

b) By decentralizing the political system, federalism creates more opportunities for political participation.

10

A marriage license issued in one state is valid and honored in all states under the constitutional provision of

a) separation of powers.

b) national supremacy.

c) privileges and immunities.

d) national licensure.

e) full faith and credit.

e) full faith and credit.

11

Standard operating procedures in cooperative federalism include each of the following EXCEPT

a) federal funding with no strings attached.

b) categorical block grants.

c) shared costs.

d) federal guidelines.

e) shared administration.

a) federal funding with no strings attached.

12

Which of the following events contributed to the accumulation of national over state power?

a) The elaboration of the doctrine of implied powers

b) The struggle for civil rights and racial equality

c) The definition of the commerce clause

d) The Civil War

e) All of these contributed to the accumulation of national over state power.

e) All of these contributed to the accumulation of national over state power.

13

The main instrument the national government uses to influence state governments is

a) grant-in-aid.

b) judicial review.

c) the Tenth Amendment.

d) presidential decrees.

e) mandates.

a) grant-in-aid.

14

The national government has exclusive control over foreign and military policy, the postal system, and monetary policy, while the states have exclusive control over other specific areas. This division of responsibilities reflects

a) tripartite federalism.

b) divided government.

c) dual federalism.

d) fiscal federalism.

e) cooperative federalism.

c) dual federalism.

15

Federalism is a way of organizing a nation so that

a) there is no federal government, and all regional governments are administrative subunits of it.

b) both national and state levels of government have some authority over the same land and people.

c) there are three branches of government and a system of checks and balances.

d) power is centralized in state and local government.

e) power is centralized in the national government.

b) both national and state levels of government have some authority over the same land and people.

16

The Defense of Marriage Act

a) permits states to disregard same-sex marriages or civil unions of same-sex partners issued in other states.

b) prohibits states from issuing same-sex marriages or civil unions to same-sex partners.

c) requires states to issue same-sex marriages and civil unions to same-sex partners.

d) requires states to provide the same rights to same-sex couples that they provide to heterosexual couples.

e) requires states to recognize same-sex marriage or civil unions issued in other states for same-sex partners.

a) permits states to disregard same-sex marriages or civil unions of same-sex partners issued in other states.

17

The principal type of federal aid for states and localities is

a) categorical grants.

b) revenue sharing.

c) disaster loans.

d) urban renewal grants.

e) block grants.

a) categorical grants.

18

The Constitution states that Congress has the power to establish post offices. This is an example of

a) enumerated powers.

b) reserved powers.

c) delegated powers.

d) implied powers.

e) shared powers.

a) enumerated powers.

19

The Constitution's supremacy clause

a) makes the president supreme in any constitutional conflicts with the other two branches.

b) is vague about which level of government should prevail in a dispute involving federalism.

c) made the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and the national government's treaties the supreme law of the land.

d) does not apply to state and local matters.

e) gives the states superiority over the national government's Constitution and laws.

c) made the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and the national government's treaties the supreme law of the land.

20

Which of the following is true of changes in the scope of government under federalism?

a) The national government has taken about one-half of the functions of state government.

b) State governments carry out virtually all of the functions they always have, while the national government has taken on new functions.

c) There has been a sharp decline in the proportion of gross national product spent by states and localities.

d) The national government has taken away nearly all of the functions of the states.

e) State policy functions have been fully assumed by the national government.

b) State governments carry out virtually all of the functions they always have, while the national government has taken on new functions.

21

When Congress passes a law creating financial obligations for the states but provides no funds for states to meet obligations is called a(n)

a) block grant.

b) unfunded mandate.

c) categorical grant.

d) crossover sanction.

e) crosscutting requirement.

b) unfunded mandate.

22

The Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

a) established the supremacy of state governments.

b) established Baltimore as the capital of Maryland.

c) established the principle of judicial review.

d) stated that the Constitution gave Congress implied powers.

e) recognized that Congress was limited to its enumerated powers.

d) stated that the Constitution gave Congress implied powers.

23

The fact that the legal drinking age is 21 across the 50 United States is a good example of

a) the influence the national government can wield over state governments through the withholding of federal funds, despite state police powers.

b) centralized public policymaking.

c) the weakness of the states compared to the federal government.

d) the tendency for the federal government to ignore state police powers.

e) the ability of the federal government to get around limitations on its power as set forth in the Tenth Amendment.

a) the influence the national government can wield over state governments through the withholding of federal funds, despite state police powers.

24

The Tenth Amendment

a) establishes the Constitution, laws of the national government, and treaties as the supreme law of the land.

b) declares that the national government is superior to the states in every concern.

c) establishes the Supreme Court as the final arbiter in all civil and criminal disputes.

d) establishes the number of electoral votes each state can cast in the Electoral College.

e) states that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by the states, are reserved for the states.

e) states that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by the states, are reserved for the states.

25

Federal policies to regulate food and drugs, build interstate highways, protect consumers, try to clean up dirty air and water, and do many other things are all justified as _______ of Congress.

a) implied powers

b) categorical grants

c) reserved powers

d) enumerated powers

e) constitutionally specified powers

a) implied powers

26

Only the national government is allowed to

a) make and enforce laws.

b) levy taxes.

c) regulate commerce with foreign nations.

d) take private property for public purposes.

e) Only the national government is allowed to do all of these.

c) regulate commerce with foreign nations.

27

The Constitution grants the power to directly regulate such things as drinking ages, marriage and divorce, and sexual behavior to

a) both the state and national governments.

b) state governments.

c) the national government.

d) the president.

e) all governments by the Bill of Rights.

b) state governments.

28

According to the _______ of Article IV of the U.S. Constitution, the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and treaties constitute the supreme law of the land.

a) elastic clause

b) necessary and proper clause

c) supremacy clause

d) implied powers clause

e) Tenth Amendment

c) supremacy clause

29

The enumerated powers of Congress and the national government are those

a) set out in the first ten amendments

b) specifically spelled out in the Constitution.

c) requiring ratification by the states.

d) not specifically spelled out in the Constitution, but nonetheless acknowledged.

e) involving taxes, spending, and fiscal policy.

b) specifically spelled out in the Constitution.

30

Almost every policy the national government has adopted has originated with

a) the states.

b) the president.

c) the House of Representatives.

d) the Supreme Court.

e) the Senate.

a) the states.

31

According to Democracy in America, the rapid growth of the national government is largely due to the fact that

a) most problems and policies required the authority and resources of the national government.

b) the Constitution requires the most programs be administered by the national government.

c) states are constitutionally prohibited from maintaining independent defense forces and policies.

d) the diversity of interests within and among the states requires a national focus.

e) the states have failed to adequately represent their interests.

a) most problems and policies required the authority and resources of the national government.

32

Recent Census Bureau estimates report that there are approximately _______ American governments.

a) 90,000

b) 1,000

c) 5,000

d) 51

e) 15,000

a) 90,000

33

Devolution refers to

a) transferring responsibility for policies from the state governments to the national government.

b) a movement among liberal activist judges to expand Congress' interstate commerce power.

c) transferring responsibility for policies from the national government to state governments.

d) unwinding federalism and moving toward a unitary system.

e) returning to the politics of nineteenth-century federalism.

c) transferring responsibility for policies from the national government to state governments.

34

Which of the following is an example of a confederation?

a) Britain

b) France

c) OPEC

d) The United Nations

e) State governments in the United States

d) The United Nations

35

Grants for specific programs distributed according to the community demographic factors, such as population or income, are

a) block grants.

b) categorical grants.

c) formula grants.

d) project grants.

e) revenue-sharing grants.

c) formula grants

36

Which of the following is TRUE of the Constitution?

a) It guaranteed the continuation of each state by forbidding Congress to create new states by dividing existing states without the approval of the existing state.

b) It established states as vital components of the machinery of the government.

c) It created obligations of the national government toward the state, including the obligation to project states from invasion.

d) It guaranteed states equal representation in the Senate.

e) All of these are true of the Constitution.

e) All of these are true of the Constitution.

37

Which of the following is TRUE of intergovernmental relations in the United States over the past two centuries?

a) There has been a gradual shift from dual federalism to cooperative federalism.

b) Intergovernmental relations are increasingly characterized by fiscal federalism.

c) There is a greater sharing of powers between the national and state governments.

d) There has been an increase in federal grants-in-aid to the states and localities from the national government.

e) All of these are true of intergovernmental relations in the United States over the past two centuries.

e) All of these are true of intergovernmental relations in the United States over the past two centuries.

38

The McCulloch v. Maryland case dealt with what specific grievance?

a) A state coining its own money

b) Toll bridges on interstate roads

c) Import taxes on goods made in other states

d) The location of Maryland's capital city

e) A state taxing a national bank

e) A state taxing a national bank

39

Which of the following is often seen as a benefit of federalism?

a) It encourages hyperpluralism.

b) It allows states to function as laboratories of democracy, or policy innovators.

c) It creates conflict between national and state governments.

d) It creates more opportunities for interest groups to wield influence.

e) Both A and D are often seen as benefits of federalism.

b) It allows states to function as laboratories of democracy, or policy innovators.

40

The most common type of categorical grant is

a) block grant.

b) a project grant.

c) revenue sharing.

d) disaster relief.

e) a rescission fund.

b) a project grant.

41

Which of the following describes the dramatic changes in American federalism that occurred over the past two centuries?

a) The rise of fiscal federalism.

b) A gradual shift from dual federalism to cooperative federalism.

c) A gradual shift from cooperative federalism to dual federalism.

d) Both A and B are true.

e) Both A and C are true.

d) Both A and B are true.

42

The Tenth Amendment is sometimes referred to as the _______ amendment.

a) delegated powers

b) Prohibition

c) implied powers

d) states' rights

e) necessary and proper

d) states' rights

43

In determining the power of Congress the regulate commerce in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court

a) defined commerce very broadly, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.

b) listed the enumerated powers of Congress and the national government.

c) defined commerce very narrowly in considering the right of Congress to regulate it.

d) listed the implied powers of Congress and the national government.

e) prohibited Congress from regulated business activity on the grounds it violated private property rights.

a) defined commerce very broadly, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.

44

The Constitution's provision that Congress has the right to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" its powers is often referred to as the

a) elastic clause.

b) privileges and immunities.

c) enumerated powers.

d) Unwritten Amendment.

e) heart of fiscal federalism.

a) elastic clause.

45

The principle of the supremacy of federal law over state law was affirmed in

a) the Tenth Amendment.

b) McCulloch v. Maryland.

c) the presidential election of 1804.

d) Marbury v. Madison.

e) United States v. Darby.

b) McCulloch v. Maryland.